Annotated Bibliography Primary Sources



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Annotated Bibliography

Primary Sources

Adams, Ansel. Entrance to Manzanar War Relocation Center. 1943. Photograph. Entrance to Manzanar relocation center. n.p.

This primary source photo shows the conditions of the campsite to the Manzanar Relocation Center.

Ambrose, Stephen. "World War Two - Japanese Internment Camps in the USA." History on the Net. 25/2/2013. Web. 25/10/2013.

This primary source tells of someone who was taken from home after the attack on Pearl Harbor.

Anti-Japanese Campaign Poster, 1920. 1920. Photograph. Little Tokyo, 100 Years in Pictures. A More Perfect Union. Web. 20 Feb. 2014.

This primary source photograph shows the anti-Japanese campaign of Senator James D. Phelan, which can be found on the "Context" page.

Couple Being Evacuated by Army Truck from Bainbridge Island, Washington. 1942. California State University, Sacramento Library. Online Archive of California. Web. 28 Mar. 2014.

This primary source photo shows a married Japanese American couple abandoning their dog due to the relocation. Japanese Americans were not allowed to bring pets with them and were forced to abandon them.

Clark, Fred. Poston, Ariz.--Site #1--Typical Shower Facilities at This War Relocation Authority Center for Evacuees of Japanese Ancestry. 1942. Photograph. War Relocation Authority of Japanese-American Evacuation and Resettlement, Arizona. Online Archive of California. Web. 20 Feb. 2014.

This primary source shows the typical showering facility in the War Relocation Centers for Japanese evacuees.

Exclusion Order for San Jose Japanese Internment, 1942. 1942. Photograph. History San José Silicon Valley History Online Collection, San Jose. Calisphere. By Wartime Defense Command and Fourth Army Wartime Civil Control Administration. History San Jose. Web. 18 Feb. 2014.

This primary source is a photo of the Civilian Exclusion Order as a result of Executive Order 9066 and can be found on the "Executive Order 9066 and Relocation" page.

"Families and Friends of the Japs Who Departed by Train Line the Platform to Bid Them Good-by for the Duration of the War." 1942. Japanese American Relocation Photograph Collection, University of Southern California, Regional History Collection. Online Archive of California. Web. 4 Apr. 2014.

This primary source photograph shows a train leaving with Japanese Americans aboard. They were relocated to internment camps during the war.

Fischietto (Turin). "Political Cartoon, Statue of Liberty." Cartoon. A More Perfect Union. Web. 20 Feb. 2014. <http://amhistory.si.edu/perfectunion/>.
This primary source is a political cartoon regarding freedom for Japanese immigrants. This can be found on the "Context" page.

Fowler, Dave. "Dorothea Lange and the Relocation of the Japanese." The Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco. N.p., 10 May 1998. Web. 8 Nov. 2013. http://www.sfmuseum.org/

A short article about Dorothea Lange and her photography of life in Japanese internment camps, and her photography of the camps as well (primary sources).

"Gathered at the Annual Meeting of the Japanese Association. American Business Men Were Guests at the Meeting Held to Improve Relations between the Japanese and the White People." 1941. University of Southern California, Regional History Collection, n.p.

This primary source photograph shows an annual meeting held between local Japanese American businessmen and Caucasian businessmen. This annual meeting was held to hopefully improve relations between Japanese Americans and Caucasians.

Grigware, Edward. "Alaska- Death-trap for the Jap." Cartoon. The Library of Congress. Web. 18 Feb. 2014.

This propaganda poster characterizes Hirohito, Japan's emperor during World War II.

"Help Here" 1958. Japanese American Relocation Photograph Collection, University of Southern California, Regional History Collection. Online Archive of California. Web. 28 Mar. 2014.

This is a primary source photograph of young Japanese Americans playing in Long Beach.

Hewitt, Robert G. "Let's Put the Squeeze on the Japanese!: At Roebling We Can Help Uncle Sam-win the War-with Wire!!: The Navy Said We've Good! Let's Keep on Being Good!" Cartoon. Online Archive of California. Web. 18 Feb. 2014.

This primary source propaganda poster calls for public effort for U.S. involvement in World War II.

Hotchkiss. "Your Enemy the Jap." Cartoon. Online Archive of California. U.S. Government Printing Office. Web. 18 Feb. 2014.

This primary source propaganda poster characterizes the Japanese and encourages its viewers to help in the war effort.

Houston, Jeanne Wakatsuki., and James D. Houston. Farewell to Manzanar. Austin: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2000. Print.

This primary source book provided quotes and personal experiences of the authors in portraying life in a Japanese internment camp.

Iwasaki, Hikaru. Shown Here Are a Group of Wounded Nisei Veterans of the 100th Battalion and 442nd Infantry Combat Team, Being Hospitalized at Dibble General Hospital, Menlo Park, Palo Alto, California. 1945. Photograph. Palo Alto, California. Online Archive of California. Web. 21 Feb. 2014.

This primary source photograph shows wounded veterans of the 100th Infantry Battalion and 442 Regimental Combat Team, which can be found on the "442nd Regimental Combat Team" page.

Japanese-Americans Preparing to Be Released from the Santa Anita Internment Camp, California, United States, 1945. 1945. Photograph. United States Library of Congress, Santa Anita. World War II Database. Web. 26 Nov. 2013. http://ww2db.com/

This primary source is a photo of Japanese Americans about to be released from an internment camp in California.

Japanese American National Museum. 14 Feb. 2014. . 100 N. Central Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90012.

When visiting the museum, we viewed multiple exhibits. This includes information regarding Japanese Immigration in the late 19th century, the bombing of Pearl Harbor, and the internment of Japanese Americans after Pearl Harbor. We were also able to interview Mary Tsukanawa, a former internee during World War II, at the museum.

Japanese Picture Brides Arrive at the Angel Island Immigration Station. N.d. California State Parks. KCET. Web. 7 Apr. 2014. www.kcet.org

This is a primary source photograph of Japanese "picture brides" being processed to become an American citizen.

"Japanese Seized in Roundup" 1942. Japanese American Relocation Photograph Collection,, University of Southern California, Regional History Collection. Online Archive of California. Web. 28 Mar. 2014.

This primary source photograph shows Japanese American men being seized by the FBI for questioning. It shows the actions of the government immediately after the attack on Pearl Harbor.

Japanese Store, Honolulu. Photograph. The Library of Congress, Washington D.C. The Library of Congress. Web. 18 Feb. 2014.

This primary source shows a Japanese-owned store in Honolulu, Hawaii. It was taken when Japanese immigrants were increasingly migrating to Hawaii.

Lange, Dorothea. A Caucasian Friend Has Come to Say Goodbye to His Farmer Friends of Japanese Ancestry Prior to Their Evacuation to an Assembly Center. 1942. Photograph. War Relocation Authority Photographs of Japanese-American Evacuation and Resettlement, Centerville, California. Online Archive of California. Web. 15 Feb. 2014. <http://www.oac.cdlib.org/>.

This primary source photo shows a Caucasian man saying farewell to farmers of Japanese ancestry. It can be found on the "Home" page.

Lange, Dorothea. 1942. UC Berkeley. Web. 4 Oct. 2013. <http://content.cdlib.org/>.

A primary source image of an advertisement encouraging the purchase of war through Japanese relocation.

Lange, Dorothea. Japanese American Boarding up Store Front before Evacucation, San Fransisco. 1942. Photograph. The Library of Congress, San Fransisco. Web. 20 Feb. 2014.

This is a primary source photograph of a man boarding up his store before evacuating to a relocation center.

Lange, Dorothea. Japanese Owned Grocery Store, Oakland. 1942. Photograph. Oakland Museum of California, Oakland. Calisphere. Web. 20 Feb. 2014.

This primary source shows a Japanese-owned store with a sign saying "I Am An American." The store owner had paid for the sign after the bombing of Pearl Harbor.

Lange, Dorothea. Scene of Barrack Homes at This War Relocation Authority Center for Evacuees of Japanese Ancestry. A Hot Windstorm Brings Dust from the Surrounding Desert. 1942. Photograph. War Relocation Authority Photographs of Japanese-American Evacuation and Resettlement, Manzanar, California. Online Archive of California. Web. 21 Feb. 2014.

This primary source photograph shows a dust storm occurring along the barracks of an the internment camp in Manzanar.

Leffingwell, E.C. "San Fransisco's Mayor Wants Exclusion Act To Bar The Japs." Newspaper Enterprise Association [San Fransisco] 1 Apr. 1905: 1. Print.

This primary source newspaper article portrays the beliefs of San Fransisco's mayor in 1905, in which he desires for the Chinese Exclusion Act to extend to the Japanese.

"Letters: The Horrors of Internment Camps." Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times, 14 Apr. 2013. Web. 21 Nov. 2013.

This is a primary with a story of someone at Heart Mountain Camp.

Mackenzie. "Put Your Name on Some of These Jap Chaser." Cartoon. Online Archive of California. Web. 18 Feb. 2014.

This primary source poster was created during World War II, and it encourages the purchase of war bonds by showing its affect the Japanese.

Manzanar Relocation Center. Manzanar Reward Rd, CA. 31 Mar. 2014

At the end of March, we visited the Manzanar Relocation Center. We were able to look through the museum exhibits and drive around the camp to the barracks and other parts of the camp. This visit gave us a more personal experience as we were able to explore the camp itself and read about the hardships of camp life.

Official U.S. Navy Photograph. USS Arizona Burning at Pearl Harbor. 1941. Photograph. National Archives Collection. Naval History and Heritage Command. Web. 27 Nov. 2013. http://www.history.navy.mil/

A photograph of a U.S. ship burning during the bombing of Pearl Harbor.

Okubo, Miné. Citizen 13660. Seattle: University of Washington, 1983. Print.

This primary source was used all throughout the website. It provided quotes and images regarding the conditions of the camps and the author's personal experience in internment.

"Our Story: American History Stories and Activities You Can Do Together." OurStory : Activities : Life in a WWII Japanese-American Internment Camp : More Information. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2014.

This is a primary source of a quote stated by the president of united states saying that the Japanese Americans were loyal to the U.S.

Registered Nurse, Mrs. Edythe Sasser, Is Assisted by Yoshiko Konatsu, Nurse's Aid, and Tomiko Kitasaki, Nurse's Aid, in the Treatment of Infantile Paralysis. 1943. War Relocation Authority Photographs of Japanese-American Evacuation and Resettlement, UC Berkeley, Bancroft Library. Online Archive of California. Web. 4 Apr. 2014.

This primary source shows a pair of nurses treating an ill child in an internment camp.

Roosevelt, Franklin D. "Executive Order 9066: The President Authorizes Japanese Relocation." History Matters: The U.S. History Course On the Web. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Dec. 2013. <http://historymatters.gmu.edu/>.

A primary source. The exact text of Executive Order 9066 issued by President Franklin Roosevelt.

Russell, Lee. Residents of Japanese Ancestry Awaiting the Bus at the Wartime Civil Control Station. apr. 1942. Photograph. United States, San Francisco. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3a25601/

This is a primary source photograph of Japanese Americans preparing to relocate.

Stanley, Jerry. "I am an American." New York: Crown Publishers, Inc., A Random House Company, 1994. Print

Experience of a student during WWII into internment. Primary

"Stop and Get Your Free Fag Bag Careless Matches Aid the Axis." Cartoon. The Library of Congress. Web. 9 Feb. 2014.

This primary source is an American propaganda poster which characterizes the Japanese.

Takano, Mark. "Interview with Congressman Mark Takano." Personal interview. 13 Mar. 2014.

Congressman Mark Takano is a Sansei (3rd generation Japanese American). His parents are Nisei (2nd generation Japanese Americans) were sent to internment camps in the 1940s. We interviewed him to receive a more Congressional view on the internment and Supreme Court case Korematsu v. United States, as well as learn about how the internment of his parents possibly affected how they raised him.

Takashima, Shizuye. A Child In Prison Camp. Platsburg, New York: Tundra Books, 1971. Print.

Life for a Japanese after the bombing of Pearl Harbor and how it went downhill.

Tassel, Van. Young Children at Jerome Relocation Cente. 1944. Photograph. War Relocation Authority Photographs of Japanese-American Evacuation and Resettlement, Denson, Arkansas. Online Archive of California. Web. 20 Feb. 2014.

This primary source photograph shows a group of children at the Jerome Relocation Center. This was used on the "Life in the Camps" page.

"Teaching With Documents:Documents and Photographs Related to Japanese Relocation During World War II." Japanese Relocation During World War II. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2013.

Primary picture sources with the relocation of the Japanese.

"These Japanese Were Held at the Firestone Sheriff's Substation during the Blackout." 1942. Japanese American Relocation Photograph Collection, University of Southern California, Regional History Collection. Online Archive of California. Web. 28 Mar. 2014.

This primary source shows a group of Japanese men who were brought to the local sheriff's station during a blackout.

Three Generations of the Uchida Family at Manzanar War Relocation Center. 1942. California State University, Sacramento Library. Online Archive of California. Web. 28 Mar. 2014.

This primary source photography shows three generations of the Uchida family in an internment camp in Manzanar, CA.

Tsukanawa, Mary. "Interview with Mary Tsukanawa." Personal interview. 14 Feb. 2014.

Mary Tsukanawa (a 2nd generation Japanese American) had been relocated to a Japanese internment camp during World War II. She spoke with us about her life in the camps as well as the racism she faced after the war. We were able to interview her at the Japanese American National Museum. She requested that we not record the interview.

"Uncle Sam Is Taking No Chances upon Leaving Open Possible Meeting Places for Alien, or Even Americanized Japs as a Menace to National Defense. Hotels, Cafes Aand Other Public Spots Are Sealed under Treasury Orders. 1942. Japanese American Relocation Photograph Collection, University of Southern California, Regional History Collection. Online Archive of California. Web. 1 Apr. 2014.

This primary source photograph shows the measures taken by the U.S. government to prevent possibly espionage by closing public areas to Japanese Americans.

U.S. House. 100th Congress. H.R. 442, The Civil Liberties Act of 1988. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1988.

This primary source is the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 that was signed by President Reagan in 1988. This act officially apoligized to Japanese internee survivors for the internment during World War II, and provided $20,000 in compensation to all the surviving internees.

Weglyn, Michi. Years of Infamy: The Untold Story of America's Concentration Camps. New York: Morrow, 1976. Print.

This primary source provided quotes from the author herself as well as from congressmen and other authors in regards to the internment of Japanese Americans.

"WWII: The Japanese American Experience." American Veterans Center WWII The Japanese American Experience Comments. Web. 05 Nov. 2013.

This primary source has an interview with a Japanese soldier and why he wanted to be in the war.

Secondary Sources

"442nd REGIMENTAL COMBAT TEAM." 442nd Regimental Combat Team Historical Society. Web. 23 Feb. 2014.

A secondary source website with facts and photographs of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team.

"Korematsu v. United States." LII / Legal Information Institute. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2014.

This secondary source contains the entire script of the Korematsu case.

"U.S. Constitution." LII / Legal Information Institute. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Apr. 2014.

This secondary source provided the amendments we emphasized in our website. The amendments we quoted were rights violated by the U.S. government due to the relocation of Japanese Americans.


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