Annotated Bibliography Allen, S. (1996). 12 steps to non-profit sponsorship success. Fund Raising Management, 27(3), 46-49. Sylvia Allen, president of Allen Consulting and Professor at New York University, presents a guideline for obtaining sponsorship from a corporation with an effective twelve-step plan. Allen addresses opportunities offered by sponsorships, selling of a sponsorship, and methods to find the right sponsorship best suited for an organization. This article makes clear that sponsorships are a crucial area for a source of revenue for a non-profit organization and is an important area for our research.
Bendapudi, N., Singh, S. N., & Bendapudi, V. (1996). Enhancing helping behavior: An integrative framework for promotion planning [Electronic Version]. Journal of Marketing, 60(3), 33. Marketing professors Neeli Bendapudi and Singh and doctoral candidate Venkat Bendapudi discuss the lack of research available for understanding why people help. The authors incorporate research from marketing, economics, sociology, and social psychology to advance this theoretical understanding. In addition, they propose specific promotional strategies which charitable organizations can research and employ to obtain help. This article relates the findings of many studies concerning how certain psychological and environmental factors affect donation frequency and amounts and also discusses methods charities can use to get the most value out of each donor. This piece is a key source for our research because it highlights the practice of relationship marketing and its focus on maintaining long-term relationships in order to sustain reliable donor bases.
Goldberg, B. (1997). Corporate philanthropy seeks returns [Electronic Version]. Colorado Business, 24(1), 4 Goldberg reports on research conducted by the National Center for Charitable Statistics on how certain companies in Colorado view corporate philanthropy. He explains that companies now see philanthropy as a marketing strategy and make donations to benefit themselves in addition to helping a non-profit organization. This article gives reliable statistics of corporations and their expenditures toward various non-profits. Also, it gives a good perspective of how corporations view philanthropy from an entrepreneurship point of view.
Graham, J. R. (1995). Corporate giving: Is it good for business? [Electronic Version] USA Today Magazine,123(2596), 60-61. Graham examines the benefits of corporate donations for both the donor and the public. He points out that charitable marketing is a way for corporations to attract narrow segments of consumers while reducing promotional and advertising expenses. This article is valuable to our research because it outlines the right way to use charity in marketing, which can benefit both the donor and the charity.
Is that gift really so generous? [Electronic Version] (2003, Sept. 30) The Times (UK), p. 4 The author discusses the growing trend of corporate in-kind donations of products and services to charity. The article addresses the need to identify what is needed and when in order to ensure that donations do not become burdens. This article is important for our research because it provides a five-step plan for non-profit organizations to ensure that these partnerships with corporate donors are mutually beneficial.
Millet, R. & Orosz, J. J. (2001). Understanding Giving Patterns in Communities of Color [Electronic Version]. Fund Raising Management, 32(6), 25. Ricardo Millett and Joel Orosz discuss a study of giving patterns among different communities of color. They talk about the findings of the study ‘Cultures of Caring: Philanthropy in Diverse American Communities’. The focus of the article is the donating of money to non-profit organizations. The study suggests that the communities of color are an enormous untapped resource for charities. This article is important to our research because it talks about the giving patterns of different minorities and what charities they are most likely to give to.
Newman, R. H. (1998). Transforming donors into strategic funders [Electronic Version]. Fund Raising Management, 29, 31-32.
Newman relays a thorough understanding of corporate criteria on giving. This understanding is important to our research because it provides the information necessary to transform donors into strategic funders. This ability will help to maximize the value of relationships with corporate donors.
Nucifora, A. (1998). Smart not-for-profits learn the marketing ropes [Electronic Version]. Business News New Jersey,11(18), 17. An Atlanta-based marketing consultant, Nucifora offers advice about staying competitive in the market for not-for-profit organizations. He points out the importance of identifying donor desire and need, suggests hiring a consulting firm, and strengthening the board of directors. This article is important to our research because it outlines strategies to develop “strategic philanthropy” in donors. It also discusses the significant value of charitable events that involve volunteers in a meaningful way and engage the corporate sponsor to such a degree that real revenues are generated.
Petroshius, S. M. & Crocker, K. E. (1993). Strategies for improving corporate philanthropy [Electronic Version]. Journal of Health Care Marketing, 13(4), 9. Both Associate Professors of Marketing at Bowling Green State University, Petroshius and Crocker report findings of a survey investigating corporate donation behavior relative to the health care industry. The results identify the company’s expected annual earnings as the single most identifiable factor influencing the availability of funds. This article is important to our research because the authors suggest criteria that influence companies’ donation decisions, and they also discuss the expected benefits and methods of recognizing donations and the preferred solicitation methods (and their marketing implications) for the health care industry.
Rosenbaum, R. E. (1994). On securing gifts, large and small. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness,88(6), 8-10.
President of the Carroll Center for the Blind in Newton, MA, Rosenbaum focuses on the importance of clearly communicating the goal of a fundraising campaign in order to successfully convince potential donors to comply with their requests. She also points out that corporations and foundations account for only 6-8 percent of total giving. This article is critical for our research because it sheds light on the importance of relationship marketing and also points out particular ways to maximize donor value through this approach. It also contains tips and guidelines for preparing and presenting proposals to corporations and foundations.
Sargeant, A. (2001). Using donor lifetime value to inform fundraising strategy [Electronic Version]. Nonprofit Management & Leadership, 12(1), 25-38. An author, editor and Professor of Marketing, Sargeant reviews the role that the concept of lifetime value (LTV) can play in fundraising. The author also offers the means to calculate this value. This article is important to our research because the successful valuation of a donor to an organization can be a vital tool in the development of ensuing fundraising strategy. The author provides information about the importance and implementation of relationship marketing tools.
Study shows gender differences in charitable giving [Electronic Version] (2001). Fund Raising Management, 32(4), 16. Harris Interactive surveyed men and women about giving to non-profit organizations. The results are very important to our research because it talks about which gender is more willing to give to causes. The focus of the article details percentages of men and women who give to non-profits every year. Reasons behind the giving of the genders are also revealed.
Walker, M. (2001a). Recognizing and building your organization’s major gift potential. Fund Raising Management, 32(9), 33-35. Walker, a certified fund raising executive, addresses the need for organizations to form personal relationships with donors in order to ensure an increase in their giving. The author focuses on management approach and promotes a monitoring and evaluation system for donors. This article is a key source because the author’s management approach utilizes relationship marketing techniques consistent with our other sources, but it also outlines systems to evaluate the progress and success of the fundraising strategy.
Walker, M. (2001b). Valuing the donor more than the donation. Fund Raising Management,32(4), 23-24. A certified fund raising executive, Walker explains the “valuing the donor more than the donation” approach and details the benefits of using it with an organization’s elder donor base. The author points out that in order for the long-term value of the partnership between the donor and the charity to be realized, there must first be an appreciation of the need for a carefully cultivated relationship. This article is critical to our research because the strategy it presents has several advantages; it meets the needs and interests of elder donors, maximizes a donor’s long-term value, and cuts back on the cost of unnecessary appeals that only frustrate donors.