In my research I have found that there is very little written on the subject of America’s framing of Cuba (surprisingly). I spend many nights in the library searching on every search engine, keeping tabs on my key words and authors with the help of the librarian but I found only four or five core studies. Using key words and authors sited in these core works I found four more but they are very obscure. They are mostly disertations. The interesting part is that out of all of these sources only a few actually look at U.S framing at the time of the revolution. So what my goal is, is to look at all the information that has been writen on the subject, and eventually do my own analysis based on the U.S news articles at the time of the revolution. I think this gives me a unique opportunity to do an analysis that know one has really done before…from what I can tell. Anyways, here are the sources that I have collected.
Sources related directly to subject:
Nichols, John. (1988). A Word of Caution about TV Marti. Broadcasting, v115, p.24(1).
I chose this article because it consentrates on the powers that the U.S and Cuba possess over broadcasting capabilities. This article also looks at the affect of the radio, a media medium that is sometimes forgotten about. This article is a reactionary piece on the dangers of a broadcasting war with Cuba. He points out the vunerability of the U.S broadcasting system pointing out such cases as the man in Florida known only as, Captain Midnight. He “briefly wiped Home Box Office off U.s television screens using only basic transmitting equipment.”
T.V Marti was in reaction to the Cuban Missle Crisis where the U.S sent out a plane that broadcast propaganda into Cuba’s T.V programming. This was tested and but never really used on a regular basis. Regan wanted to reinstitute it. He was willing to spend 40 million dollars on it but retaliation from Cuba was feared. In 1988 it was approved by the Senate but Cuba turned up its largest radio transmitters as a warning and radio station in five different southern states experience interference.
Lenart, Silvo, Targ , Harry R. (1992). Framing the Enemy. Peace and Change, v17, p.341-362
The authors focus on the negative frame that the U.S news press has used to persuade the American public. It is understandable, Cuba’s whole existance as a socialist state is in spite of the U.S. Lenart and Targ point to the “initial seduction of the American press,” when Castro called himself a “democrat” and how it went downhill from there because Castro then aligned with the Soviets. They found also following the Bay of Pigs disaster, “critical” reporting of U.S policy was reserved for “liberal and gad-fly press,” and when the Cuban missle crisis happened it set in stone the cold war frame for stories about Cuba ever since.
The rest of the article talks about the frames used from 1982-1990. Refugee stories seemed to dominate the New York Times, along with stories about Cuba domestically. This is somewhat out of the range I wanted to concentrate on but still will help because there is little info on this subject. “Research focusing on the portrayal of the Cuban revolution in the U.S media is scarce” (Lenart and Targ, p.345).
McCaughan, Ed & Platt, Tony. (1988). Tropical Gulag: Media Images of Cuba. Social Justice, v15(2), p.72-101.
This article looks at the media stance on Cuba that “bad news is good news.” They show how in fact good news about Cuba was systematically ignored. They found a statistic that out of 331 stories about Cuba the press, in 1986, only 10% didn’t “disparage Cuba.” In 1986 there were a significant amount of stories that linked Cuba to the Soviets. This article mainly focuses on the news in 1986 so I can take some general themes from it.
Biancalana, Flora and O’Leary, Cecilia. (1988). Profile of U.S Press Coverage of Cuba. Social Justice, v15(2), p.63-71.
This article looks just at the numbers of the news stories of Cuba in the 80’s. They used data from “Tropical Gulag” and others to come up with three full pages of data and charts that convey the paticularities of the U.S news media.
Sources related directly to subject: On loan 1-2 weeks until arrival (disertations,papers):
Author: Solomon, William S Title: Shifting a News Frame: Covering Cuba Place: Dept Journalism Rutgers U, New Brunswick NJ 08903 [tel: Publisher: Dept Journalism Rutgers U, New Brunswick NJ 08903 [tel: Date: 1997 Edition: 1 Other Edition anyedition Microform Acceptable: no
Author: McLeod, Douglas Malcolm. >Title: When the shoe is on the other foot : >Place: University of Minnesota >Publisher: University of Minnesota >Date: 1986 >Edition: 1 >Other Edition anyedition >Microform Acceptable: yes
Author: Torres, Alicia Maria. >Title: U.S. network evening news coverage of Cuba : >Place: University of Texas at Austin >Publisher: University of Texas at Austin >Date: 1983 >Edition: 1 >Other Edition anyedition >Microform Acceptable: yes
Author: Elliston, Jon. Title: Psywar on Cuba : Place: Melbourne, Vic. ; New York Publisher: Ocean Press Date: 1999 Edition: 1 Other Edition anyedition Microform Acceptable: no
Sources on general topic:
Barber, Ben. (2000). Voices to the World. World and I, v15, p.76.
This sources talks about the power of the U.S news to be broadcast all over the world (through the Voice of America). This source says that over 20 million people tune in to American propaganda all over the world. What interested me most was that in the times of Cold War the VOA shifted its tageted audience to Eastern Europe and the developing nations of Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
Hess, Stephen. (1996). Media Mavens. Society, v33, p.70-79.
This is some more general source information. This mostly talks about the U.S media’s foreign policy. Hess argues that the media in-fact doesn’t cover foreign media as much as it should. Hess blames editors and media in general and gives lots and lots of statistics.
Sources from Cuban perspective (directly related to topic):
Blanco, Juan A., Benjamin, Medea. (1997). Cuba: Talking About the Revolution. Australia: Ocean Press.
This is one of the more interesting pieces I have because it is an interview with a former Cuban U.N diplomat. In this interview he talks about the U.S portrayal of Cuba from a different perspective altogether. He sees things from the otherside. It’s a very unique posistion and he has amazing things to say. And this provides mostly a comparison piece to the news articles in the U.S. I will be able to see contradictions and be able to understand the frame more thoroughly than most sociological studies done so far because this work is not availible in the U.S.
Tovar, Carlos M. (1993). Democracy in Cuba? Havana: Jose Marti Editorial
This another interesting piece for the same reasons above. It looks at the U.S media from a different perspective. This book is a little more bias than the one above, so I will have to be careful with it. But it does have very interesting information I can use as a comparison piece and also a general information piece.
Research Thesis: The medias portrayal of student protests during Vietnam. (1961-1970)
Gilbert, Marc Jason. The Vietnam War on Campus: Other Voices, More Distant Drums. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers, 20001.
This book discusses different attitudes by different journalists about student protests on college campuses. The contents include topics of pro-war and anti-draft beliefs and the building of the Student Libertarian Movement (1968-1972). Also this book contains articles on different movements such as the nonviolent anti- Vietnam War Protests at Iowa State University, Ball State University, and the Southern Opposition to the Vietnam War. Other topics discussed are student revolt movies of the Vietnam era, American schisms and after war affects and beliefs on American attitudes.
Kielbowicz, Richard Burket, Sherer, Clifford. The Role of The Press in the Dynamics Of Social Movements. Western Social Science Association, 1984.
This reference discusses concepts from sociology of news relating to the sociology of social movements. Also mentions hoe social movements are covered in different stages such as journalists’ preferences for coverage of concrete evidence, the need for centralized sources for reporters, coverage by general assignment or specialized reporters, and the amount of resources a news organization makes to a cover story. The model suggests how these factors can affect and help the growth of the movement and the movement’s success.
King, Randall E. “When Worlds Collide: Politics, religion and media at the 1970 East Tennessee Billy Graham Crusade.” Journal of Church and State, spring 1997 v39 P273-295.
The appearance of President Nixon on May 28, 1970 at the Eats Tennessee Billy Graham Crusade shows the conflicts that can occur by the use of politics, religion and media. The event occurred during widespread student protests over Nixon’s policy in Vietnam and a small group of students demonstrated against Nixon at the Billy Graham Crusade. This event brought conflicts of freedom of religion and freedom of expression. Also conflicts between political and evangelical attitudes and representation of the presidency and of protest are mentioned.
Ladd, Everett Carll. “American University Teachers and Opposition to the Vietnam War.” Minerva Oct. 1970: 542-556.
In 1969 a questionnaire study sent to 640 psychologists, economicalists, social scientists and anthropologists who had signed one of the series of large newspaper published petitions protesting US policies in Vietnam. They were asked a number of questions involving their opinions of the war and the protests students were participating around them. Despite the similarity views regarding the war, a large majority of the social scientists petitioners were critical of campus demonstrations and of student demonstrators.
Ostagaard, E. “Factors Influencing the Flow of News.” Journal of Peace Research 1(1965): 39-63.
This journal article introduces factors of decisions in government that directly influence the flow of news. Also multiple peace research and movements of protests are discussed to demonstrate the ability of such events to become a major part of news. Protests and social movements directly effect the distribution of news to the public helping form public opinion.
Spaeth, Joe L. “Public Reactions to College Student Protests.” Sociology of Education 42(1969): 199-206.
In this journal article, the public’s reactions of student protests are shown. The public generally was concerned, yet the majority believed in the degree of what these protests were representing. In general the public is concerned and at most outraged with US policy.
Welch, Michael. Flag Burning: Moral Panic and the Criminalization of Protest. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine De Gruyter, 2000.
This book makes reference to flag burning as a means of political protest. During Vietnam, the desecration of the flag became representative of a general protests against “the establishment,” made by students. These kinds of protests lead to moral panic to the general public. The importance of mass media is also discussed in the components of moral panic and the use of protecting the flag that caused public chaos.
Courtney L. Gremelsbacker
1. Adkin, Mark. Urgent Fury: The Battle for Grenada. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1989.
This book is a detailed and clear representation of what occurred in Grenada in 1983. It is from an American point of view that is very good at not favoring any particular side, but gives simply the logistics of the event. Adkin does a very good job of being clear and unopinionated. He writes with great knowledge of the event starting from the beginning of October, straight through until the U.S. pulled out in December.
2. Beck, Robert J. The Grenada Invasion: Politics, Law, and Foreign Policy Decisionmaking. Boulder:Westview Press, 1993.
In this book, Beck covers the more political view of the Grenada invasion. Unlike Adkins, this writing is a little more opinionated. It also covers the point of view of the government on the events in Grenada. He writes about how the law and politics effected what occurred, and how it had a hand in it from the beginning. He then goes into detail explaining how foreign policy plays into it, and gives the reader a clear explanation of foreign policy.
3. Burrowes, Reynold A. Revolution and Rescue in Grenada. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988.
Burrowes describes the very end of the Grenada invasion, and what it was like when the worst part of the invasion was over. He has a slightly negative perspective, but still explains very clearly to the reader what caused the event to come to an end, and how both sides handled it.
4. Combelles-Siegel, Pascal. "The Troubled Path to the Pentagon‚s Rules on Media access to the Battlefield." http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS12816
This website gives a very informational summary of what the Pentagon‚s rules are concerning the media and conflicts. In the past there has been many concerns with reporters and photographers being to close to conflict, and whose responsibility it was to keep them safe. There was great conflict over what should be done, and how they went about it. This article clearly explains how it was gone about and what conclusions were reached. The reason I am looking at this article is to give myself a better background on what it is like to be a journalist covering such conflicts, and why their article may turn out as they do.
5. Hoey, Michael. Textual Interaction: An Introduction to Written Discourse Analysis. New York: Routledge, 2001.
While this text does not touch on the Grenada Invasion it gives a good summary of textual analysis, and the proper way to go about reading an article that you are planning to analyze. It describes in detail discourse analysis, and how to go about it, what to look for, and how to present it. This is important to my paper considering this is exactly what I will be doing to the New York times articles, and the European Newspapers articles.
New York Times articles,
October 26, 1983-December 20, 1983.
European Newspaper Articles
October 26, 1983-July 4, 1984
At the Lexis Nexis website I found a number of articles written about the Grenada invasion in European newspapers, and in the New York Times. I am going to choose probably 5 articles from each, and do a textual analysis of them in order to compare and contrast how the invasion is presented in each.
Dupre, M. E. and Mackey, D. A. “Crime in the Public Mind: Letters to the Editor as a Measure of Crime Salience.” Journal of Criminal Justice and Popular Culture, 8(1) (2001) 1-24.
The authors collected letters to the editor of five New England newspapers (1,655 total) and, by comparing the concerns expressed in them with statistical data, analyze and develop hypothetical contrasts in crime salience.
Fox, R. L. and Van Sickel, R. W. Tabloid Justice: Criminal Justice in an Age of Media Frenzy. Lynne Rienner. Boulder, 2001.
The authors explore the changing methods of journalists’ coverage styles. They cite several high-profile cases (O.J., Menendez, Rodney King, Lewinsky) to develop their argument that Journalists are sensationalizing and spinning the facts to produce “tabloid justice.” They discuss how news has subsided from what is supposed to be information gathering into entertainment. I’ve barely perused this book but unfortunately it seems itself to be so devoid of useful analysis that it could be entertainment itself. But there are a couple chapters which explore the evolving relationship of public opinion and justice.
Scheer, R. In Search of an Enemy: Wen Ho Lee and the Revival of the Yellow Peril. Not Yet Published.
This book is not yet published.
Stober, D. and Hoffman, I. A Convenient Spy: Wen Ho Lee and the Politics of Nuclear Espionage. Simon and Schuster. New York, 2001.
The authors, Stober, a Pulitzer winner who writes for the San Jose Mercury-News, and Hoffman, from the Albuquerque Journal, attempt to draw conclusions and make judgements about the gaps in what is known about the case of Wen Ho Lee. They do this in an investigative manner, starting with a biography of Lee beginning in his childhood (in Taiwan) and continuing through his college years and up to his tumultuous engineering career in the U.S. The authors then explore the convoluted, abrasive relationships between politicians, government investigators and media organizations covering the case. This book tries admirably to develop and explore alternate hypotheses where information is scarce, and covers a lot of new ground in the process.
Surette, R. Justice and the Media: Issues and Research. Charles C Thomas Publisher. Springfield, 1984.