Berg, Rick and John Carlos Rowe. The Vietnam War and American Culture: "The Vietnam War and Mass Media." Part 2. New York, Columbia University Press. 1991:
This text is a compilation of articles devoted to the history of conflict between the U.S. and Vietnam as well as how the American's choose to remember it. The second part of the text pays specific attention to the role of mass media, providing articles (and various view points) from three different authors (though only two prove appropriate). The first article, titled "Military Propaganda: Defense Department Films from World War II and Vietnam" by author Claudia Springer, discusses the American military's use of films to [mis] represent the war in an effort to gain recruits. These films served two purposes: To motivate and educate the troops and to rally civilian support (although most of these films were shown exclusively to the troops). These films are credited with the introduction of the term "propaganda." The second article, titled "Losing Vietnam: Covering the War in an Age of Technology" by author Rick Berg, talks about the exploitation of the Vietnam conflict by the "American culture industry." This author believes that the growing body of fiction on Vietnam is the result of America's unfortunate dependency upon the media. These individual articles will serve as evidence that the media contributed to the anti-war movement.
Berger, Gilda. Violence and the Media. “The Mass Media in America.” Chapter 2. New York, Franklin Watts. 1989:
This author wrote about the general role of media in society with emphasis on the influence of violence in entertainment. The article “Mass Media in America,” focuses on the relationship between media and people. Berger argues that media has a heavy influence on society. She gives an example of an interview with a Vietnam infantryman, demonstrating the absurdity of media coverage in the Vietnam War. The soldier compared his experience in the army to that of being an extra on a movie scene; photographers constantly surrounded them. The author investigates the reaction of the American people to the media coverage during wartime.
Columbia University Protests, 1968. Columbia University. 1953 – 1970. http://beatl.barnard.columbia.edu/columbia68/documents.htm.
One of the most complete chronicles of events surrounding the protests at Columbia University in the 1960’s, this interactive Internet source covers ALL pertaining documents, articles and online pictures. The site is split into three sections: “The Long Hall” (dating back to ’53 and including such documents as the abolishment of the University’s SGA and the beginning of the Free Speech Movement), “Spring 1968” (the section devoted to most of the protesting activity and largely centered around the SDS), and finally “The Long Road Back” (the aftermath of chaos in the U.S. as a result of the student protests). There are over 100 links within this site that offer more details about each event. Documents drawn out by SDS leader Mark Rudd emerge as the most valuable information available, due to its credibility as an absolute primary source.
Democracy Now, 30th Anniversary of the Columbia University Student Protests. Pacifica Radio, 1998. www.webactive.com/pacifica/demnow/dn980501.html.
This site is a radio recording of the report covering the 30th Anniversary of the Columbia University student protests. Narrator Amy Goodman and co-host Juan Gonzalez (leader of the 1968 Columbia protest), interview Bill Sales (leader of the Black students at Columbia in 1968), and Nancy Bieberman (another leader of the strikes held at Columbia in 1986). The group discusses the strike that took place exactly 30 years prior to this report, emphasizing influential events like the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King (which occurred exactly 2 weeks previous to the strike) and the assassination of Robert Kennedy. They converse about the major leaders of the protest and how those leaders gained support. This recording is deemed essential because three major figures of the protests in 1968 recollect their own experiences as student resisters and eventually leaders of the movement.
Gettleman, Marvin E, Jane Franklin, Marilyn Young and H. Brice Franklin, Eds. Vietnam and America: A Documented History. "The Movement Against The War." Part 6. New York, Grove Press, Inc. 1985:
Though the entirety of this text will serve as background information on the Vietnam War, the sixth part encompasses the articles dedicated to the anti-war government. The editor labels society's objection to U.S. government actions as "One of the most complex and controversial elements of the Vietnam War." Similar to author Justin J. Gustainis, the editor of this text credits the organization Students for a Democratic Society, as a leading party in the social movement. Within this portion of the text, ten different examples are provided of war resistance. Each example is independent of the next, showing readers the different types of protesting in which students and left wing believers participated, including: Organized refusal to comply with U.S. military and armed forces drafts, anti-war poems, public statements issued by organizations such as SDS, published articles in popular media, etc. These anti-war protests lend further evidence towards the controversial relationship between American citizens and the media.
Gitlin, Todd. The Whole World Is Watching: Mass Media in the Making and Unmaking of the New Left. California, University of California Press. 1980:
This text offers a detailed chronicle of events surrounding the human rights and anti-war protests of the 1960’s. Focusing on the institutional frames of the media, Gitlin uncovers the inaccuracy of media coverage surrounding these protests. The organization, Students for a Democratic Society, is portrayed as the center point of media coverage concerning the voice of the “New Left.” This text discusses the origin of the SDS and their role in assembling official public protests (via Columbia University and other college-based organizations) for international human rights.
Gustainis, Justin J. American Rhetoric and the Vietnam War: "Antiwar Rhetoric." Part 1 and 2. Connecticut, Praeger. 1993:
Author Justin Gustainis argues that the essence of politics is human interaction. Lending support to Ralph White's interpretation of the anti-war movement, Gustainis agrees with the "Domino Theory," as a metaphor for the pattern of social up rise. Though the author includes historical background on other U.S. rhetoric, the focus remains on the anti-war movement. Acknowledged within this discussion is the impact of the organization, Students for a Democratic Society, and their role as leaders in the human rights protest. Details are given about the Port Huron Statement, adopted by the SDS at their first national convention in Port Huron, Michigan. Agreeing with Kirpatrick Sale (author of the most comprehensive history of SDS), Gustainis believes that this specific statement was "one of the most important political writings of the decade." He incorporates the ideology of youth in the 1960's and how the Port Huron Statement metaphorically tipped the first domino.
Gustainis, Justin J. American Rhetoric and the Vietnam War: "The Rhetoric of the Media." Part 3. Connecticut, Praeger. 1993:
This section of Justin Gustainis' text gives a basic analysis of the media's role in the social movements of the 1960's. Three individual concepts are discussed surrounding the media's involvement: 1) B.D.'s comic, "Doonesbury," and it's depiction of the Vietnam War, 2) Various portrayals of the Vietnam War in films, specifically the changing roles and symbolism of the green beret, and 3) Controversy surrounding the film "Apocalypse Now," by Francis Ford Coppola, including an analysis of the filmmaker's numerous perspectives on the Vietnam War. The author sites multiple media-based references that indirectly affected the anti-war movement.
Kolko, Gabriel. Vietnam: Anatomy of Peace. New York, Routiledge. 1997:
Provides historical background on the Vietnam War, specifically the political standpoint in Vietnam. This is another source explaining the communist party crisis, which caused political and social unrest. The author devotes an entire chapter ("Winning the War and Losing the Peace") to the aftermath of the war and how it affected both the Americans and the Vietnamese. Also included in the epilogue are comments on protests and social up rise. This section, titled "The Necessity and Risk of Resisting Injustice," gives the reasons why citizens on both sides of the conflict objected, noting the trend of minorities against institutional reform.
Loung, Hy V. Revolution in the Village: Tradition and Transformation in North Vietnam. Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press. 1992:
This text presents the history of revolution on the "other" side of the Vietnam War. This author explores social movement from the other perspective: Northern Vietnam. Included in the chronicle of the Northern Vietnam revolution is the rise of Marxist power and the events surround the declaration of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. This text will be useful is comparing and contrasting the social movements between the U.S. and Vietnam, giving further support towards the American student protests for human rights.
Mullen Keenan, Barbara. Every Effort: A True Story. New York, St. Martin's Press. 1990:
This novel provides a first-hand account of the Anti-war moment from the perspective of a student protestor. Written in first-person perspective, the author gives a detailed story on her personal development as a human rights activist. The author was involved in multiple protests, including the march in front of the White House in October of 1971. This text also includes the author's personal reaction to The New York Times and a local Michigan new station as they attempt to summarize the U.S. political situation during the Vietnam War.
Norton Moore, John, Ed. The Vietnam Debate, A Fresh Look at the Arguments: "The Role of the Media in the Vietnam War." Pages 269-281. New York, University Press of America. 1990:
This article, by author Arnaud de Brochgrave, is one of a collection of articles interpreting the two sides of the Vietnam and American conflict. The author argues that media attention chose to focus completely on the Right wing perspective of the Vietnam War, while denying the existence of the Left wing voice. Various major media sources are referred to as examples of misreporting the political situation, including the Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, The Washington Post, the Washington Post Magazine, etc. De Brochgrave agrees with author Todd Gitlin, by partially blaming national media for stirring the social movement (through institutional frames).
Robbins, Mary Susannah, Ed. Against the Vietnam War, Writings by Activists. “Declaration of Independence from the War.” Pages 100-110. New York, Syracuse University Press. 1999:
This article, written by legendary civil rights activist Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., draws a connection between the fight for civil rights and the struggle for peace. Dr. King preaches that there is no true difference between the two causes of protest. He writes to an audience of Americans, rather than solely African Americans, about their responsibility as human beings to “end conflict.” One example used by Dr. King was the collapse of the Poverty Program in America as a result of conflict in Vietnam. He argues that the Poverty Program, one of the first community activities organized without discrimination, failed because people averted their attention to the conflict overseas rather than the community’s needs. This document conveys the importance of participation from all Americans in the fight for peace, although minority groups such as African Americans and college-aged students received most media coverage.
Robbins, Mary Susannah, Ed. Against the Vietnam War, Writings by Activists. “Why I Joined the Resistance.” Pages 111-119. New York, Syracuse University Press. 1999:
Author Michael Ferber writes this article as a member of the “Vietnam generation,” and as a former participant in the human rights movement. After hearing about the devastation of the Tonkin Bay Incident in 1965, Ferber and 20 thousand others joined the Students for a Democratic Society organization. The author admits that his story is much like that of many other activists’ of the time. He explains his reasons for joining the movement, including personal run-ins with national media. This exclusive anecdote of the social issues of the 1960’s will be very helpful in identifying the reasons why students began to speak up and what they did to make the media listen.
Robbins, Mary Susannah, Ed. Against the Vietnam War, Writings by Activists. “Chicago 1968: Street- Fightin’ Man.” Pages 127-139. New York, Syracuse University Press. 1999:
This article gives a first-hand account of the Chicago protests in 1968, including how they started and where they directed the anti-war movement. Author Carl Oglesby, another member of the Students for a Democratic Society organization, credits the death of RFK to the stirring of riots in Chicago. Oglesby also recalls Tom Hayden, SDS leader at the time, quoting that “violence was no longer avoidable.” The author writes about using the media spotlight to promote their cause, but expressed that violence attracted much more enthusiasts. Like Michael Ferber’s first-hand report, Oglesby’s article provides a further understanding of the protesters themselves and their motives for joining the anti-war movement. It also supplies another perspective of the relationship between protest participants and the media.
Stewart, Ian, Susan L. Carruthers. War, Culture and the Media: Representations of the Millitary in 20th Century Britain. New Jersey, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. 1996:
Although this text is based on the role of media in Britain, authors Ian Steward and Susan L. Carruthers do not exclude their thoughts on American media coverage. They analyze “uninhibited television coverage,” during the Vietnam War. Particularly, the affect that this uncensored coverage had on America’s patriotism. The authors discuss the consequences of the American’s reaction: The introduction of “media management” in covering the Falklands and Gulf Wars. This text gives the “outsider” perspective of media coverage in the Vietnam War.
Tegtmeier, John. Vietnam War Internet Project. 1996. http://www.vwip.org.
This site is based entirely on the Vietnam War and all associated aspects of the war. It includes the complete history of the Vietnam conflicts, as well as a collection of online publications and oral histories of “both those who served in and those who opposed those conflicts.” The site is split into 8 sections; the most resourceful section is titled “Resource Index.” This section contains all the articles and documents pertaining to the war, concentrating on personal accounts by Veterans and protesters of that generation. Due to the extensiveness of this web site, it will serve as both a personal narrative and historical reference.
A Weatherman Timeline (1960-September 1970). [Taken from] Harold Jacobs, Ed. http://www.claykeck.com/patty/articles/wu.htm.
This site is based on the rise of violent protests in the late 60’s as a result of media coverage. It consists of a chronicle of events surrounding the organization, Students for a Democratic Society, dating back to the founding of the organization in the spring of 1960. The site is a biography of the group and includes landmark events in the anti-war movement, like the “Weatherman Statement” made by SDS leader Mark Rudd in June of 1969. The site explains how Mark Rudd’s statement becomes a movement in itself, and Weathermen everywhere start to take part in violent protests. The chronology of events ends when the Weatherman movement goes underground, due to negative media exposure and trouble with the law. This is yet another example of the various types of protesting in which college-aged students took part.
White, Ralph K. The Journal of Social Issues: "The Conflict as Seen by Onlookers." Vol. 3. New York, The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. 1966:
The article from this Journal, written by Psychology Professor White from the George Washington University, talks about the importance of onlookers within a social movement. The author introduces the "Domino Theory," as a series of events leading to social up rise, creating a cause and effect chain. Also included within the text are the positive and negative approaches of U.S. foreign policy, and how they gave way to societal objection.
White, Raph K. The Journal of Social Issues: "The Conflict as Seen by Americans: The Militnats." Vol. 3. New York, The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. 1966:
This is another article written by Professor White, regarding the social movement on the American side by those fighting for human rights and resisting military action in Vietnam. The word "militant" is used to refer to the "reclaimers and escalators" or the anti-war movement. The author discusses how society developed aggression over time towards U.S. political decisions and policies. In addition, Professor White explores possible communication distortions (surrounding the political situation) between Americans and Vietnamese, and the U.S. media and American protestors. He provides a detailed analysis of these misperceptions, and highlights the "pressures toward conformity and patriotism in the American media... and among the American people themselves."