Animal encounters



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LINK TO THEME 6

"ANIMAL ENCOUNTERS"

Objectives:

HSS 5.1 Describe the major pre-Columbian settlements

HSS 5.3 Describe the cooperation and conflict that existed among the American Indians and between the Indian nations and the new settlers.

W2.4 Write persuasive letters or compositions

INTRODUCTION:
In this center, you will explore the many ways in which the coming of the horse influenced and changed the lives of the Plains Indians. You will decide which factor, in your opinion, changed their lives the most drastically and write a persuasive paragraph supporting your opinion.
MATERIALS:

Calloway article: Fact Sheet on Horses and Plains Indians.

Creative Rankings worksheet, pages 1 and 2

Scoring Rubric: Persuasive Paragraph


WHAT TO DO:
First, read the Fact Sheet on Horses and Plains Indians. As you read it, highlight or underline any information about the ways in which the lives of the Plains Indians were altered when they became owners of horses.
Next, look at the "Creative Rankings" worksheet. Some of the ways the lives of the Indians were changed have already been grouped together in categories on this page. Add anything else you would like to, and change or delete anything you don't agree with. (Please note: when doing this activity with students, you might have them come up with the categories themselves. We did this part for you in the interest of time.)
Follow the directions on the page to rank the categories, write a paragraph using the Writing Process (draft, revise, edit, publish), and discuss your ideas.
Have students self-assess using the rubric. Peers and teacher can also assess each paper. Teacher can then combine and average the rubric scores for a final score.

Creative Rankings: pg. 1

The Calloway article discusses some of the many ways in which horses changed the lives of the Plains Indians. Below are some of the statements in the article, grouped into larger categories:
CAMPS:


  • having horses limited the length of time they stayed in one place

  • they had to adjust the size of their encampments

  • horses were used for moving belongings from place to place

  • in winter they had to locate where food was available for the horses

  • they lived in new lands

  • no longer sedentary farmers; became mobile hunting groups

  • _________________________________________________________

  • ­­­­­­­_________________________________________________________

LABOR:


  • women had to gather enough food for the horses in the winter

  • they had to drive large herds of horses from place to place

  • they had to care for sick horses, pregnant mares, and newborn colts

  • herds were improved and increased by selective breeding

  • they had to protect the animals from the weather, animal predators, and from enemy raiders

  • provided a means of more efficient hunting

  • provided a more efficient means of trading, even with farming villages on the edge of the plains

  • they could transport more dried meat to sustain them through the winter

  • instead of sedentary farmers of corn, became nomadic hunters of buffalo

  • ____________________________________________________________

  • ­­­­­­­____________________________________________________________

SOCIAL STRUCTURE:



  • used as gift price for a bride

  • stealing horses elevated social status

  • told new stories about themselves

  • possession of horses indicated wealth and status

  • shifted the balance of power away from sedentary and semi sedentary farming communities to mobile hunting groups.

  • ____________________________________________________________

  • ­­­­­­­____________________________________________________________

MATERIAL CULTURE:



  • horses became the most important item of trade

  • horses became the principal form of property

  • With horses, they could hunt buffalo, which provided them with:

spoons, drinking vessels, tools, thread, bow-strings, glue, ropes, girths, clothing, ornaments, harnesses, lassos, shields, tents, blankets

  • horses required the acquisition of more items such as:

saddles, saddle bags and blankets, bridles, rawhide ropes, stirrups, quirts, parfleche bags, larger travois, and larger tipis.

  • _____________________________________________________________

  • ­­­_____________________________________________________________

WAR:


  • tribes formed new alliances

  • tribes competed for resources and land

  • used horses to fight wars

  • stole horses which caused wars

  • organizing for warfare brought more centralized political structures and patterns of leadership

  • ______________________________________________________________

Creative Rankings: pg. 2
Think about these five categories of ways in which horses changed the lives of the Plains Indians and decide which one of them, in your opinion, had the greatest impact on the tribes. Which changed their lives in the most significant way? Write it on #1 below. Then continue to rank the other four categories from the one that had the next most significant impact, (#2 below) to the one that had the least significant impact (#5 below). Remember, this is your opinion only; there are no right or wrong answers.


  • MOST SIGNIFICANT IMPACT 1._______________________________________

2.______________________________________


3.______________________________________

4.______________________________________


  • LEAST SIGNIFICANT IMPACT 5.__________________________________________

1. Now, on another paper, write a paragraph defending your opinion about the one factor that you believe had the greatest impact on the lives of the Plains Indians.

The guidelines for "Writing an Opinion Paragraph" in the 5th grade Anthology are:


  • State your opinion in the first sentence of the paragraph

  • In the body of the paragraph, give several reasons why you think and feel as you do. Include both facts and examples to support your opinions.

  • Sum up your paragraph with a concluding sentence that restates your opinion.

    2. After you are done writing, exchange papers with a partner. Read and discuss each other's papers. Does your partner agree with you? Why or why not?

    3. Debrief with your whole group. Each person should share his/her opinion. Discuss why you agree/disagree.

    4. The next writing activities in this theme are a compare/contrast essay, and an answer to an essay question. How could you continue this same History theme by assigning related topics in the upcoming writing pieces? Share your ideas with the group.



SCORING RUBRIC FOR PERSUASIVE PARAGRAPH

Opinion


Reasons

Support


Conclusion

Score: 1

Opinion is missing, is not in first sentence, and/or is not clearly stated

Reasons are lacking, or only one reason is stated, but it is weak, not clearly stated, or not related to opinion stated in first sentence

Facts/


examples to support reasons are lacking, do not support stated reasons, or are unclear

Concluding sentence is lacking, is not clearly stated, and/or does not restate the opinion in first sentence



Score: 2

Opinion is included in first sentence, but is not clearly stated

One or two reasons are stated; reasons are weak or not clearly stated

Facts/


examples to support reasons are included but are not clearly stated

Concluding sentence is included, but does not restate the opinion in first sentence, or is not clearly stated



Score: 3

Opinion is in first sentence and is clearly stated

At least two reasons are included and are clearly stated

At least two facts/

examples to support each reason are included and are clearly stated

Concluding sentence is included, restates the opinion, and is clearly stated


Score: 4

Opinion is stated in first sentence using clear, succinct, powerful language

Three or more reasons, stated in clear, succinct, powerful language

Three or more facts/

examples to support each reason are included and are clearly stated in succinct, powerful language

Concluding sentence is included, restates the opinion in the first sentence using different, interesting language, and is clearly stated






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