Simon Bolivar =
Jose de San Martin
Bolivar’s fight for independence!
Simon Bolivar’s native Venezuela declared independence from Spain in 1811, but the struggle for independence had only begun. A turning point came in August 1819, when Bolivar led 2,000 revolutionary soldiers on a daring march over the Andes mountains to what is now Colombia (see map for his route!) Coming from this direction, he took the Spanish army by surprise and won a decisive victory.
In 1821, Bolivar had won Venezuela’s independence! He then marched south to Ecuador, where he met Jose de San Martin…
San Martin & Bolivar join forces!
Jose de San Martin’s Argentina declared its independence in 1816. However, Spanish forces in Chile & Peru still posed a threat. In 1817, San Martin led an army on a grueling journey across the Andes mountains to Chile. There, he was joined by Bernardo O’Higgins, and together they freed Chile.
In 1821, San Martin and Bolivar joined forces to defeat the Spanish. In 1824, the two revolutionaries helped the rest of South America gain its independence. This included the countries of Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, and Ecuador, which were all united as one country, called: Gran Colombia.
Who led the revolution in Mexico?
In most Latin American countries, creoles led the revolutionary movements. But in Mexico, it was the natives and Mestizos that played leading roles.
Padre Miguel Hidalgo
In 1810, Padre Miguel Hidalgo was a priest in the small village of Dolores, Mexico. He was a poor, but well-educated man who firmly believed in Enlightenment ideals. On September 16, 1810, he rang the bells of his village church, signaling that the peasants should gather in the church. Here, he issued a call for rebellion against the Spanish. Today, his call for rebellion is known as el grito de Dolores (the cry of Dolores).
After el grito de Dolores, Hidalgo’s army of peasants grew to 80,000. After years of fighting, Mexico finally gained its independence from Spain in 1821.