Ancient near east



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AP ART HISTORY EXAM

REVIEW

  1. ANCIENT NEAR EAST




    1. Mesopotamia

      1. Sumerian city-states

      2. Votive Figures

  • Devotional purpose, placed in temple as surrogate supplicants

  • Represent ordinary Sumerians

      1. Standard of Ur

  • REGISTERS – horizontal bands that help organize a narrative work of art

  • HIERARCHICAL SCALE

  • Peace side – Ur at peace, plenty of economic activity, royal banquet in upper register

  • War side – war chariots pulled by onagers (wild asses) ride over enemies while naked prisoners are marched before the leader of Ur

      1. Ziggurats – temple platforms

        • Mudbricks

      2. Stele of Naram-Sin

  • STELE – large upright stone marker of something of importance often decorated with relief sculpture

  • Shows a famous Mesopotamian king striding up a mountain and conquering his enemies

  • Horned helmet symbolizes his divinity




    1. Assyrians

      1. Lived in fortress like cities (Dur-Sharrukin)

      2. Reliefs of war scenes decorated the palace

      3. Reliefs of lion hunting scenes representing the king’s ritual hunts also decorated the palace ex. Dying Lioness

      4. Lamassu – human headed, winged-bulls acted as guardians for the palace against evil spirits




    1. Hittites

      1. People from modern-day Turkey

      2. Lion’s Gate, Boghazkoy, Turkey ca. 1400 BCE (G-44)




    1. Babylonians

      1. Ishtar Gate was the main entrance to Babylon,

  • dedicated to the goddess Ishtar

  • animals represent other deities

  • blue and gold glazed bricks that project out like relief sculpture




    1. Persians

      1. Large royal palace at Persepolis, former capital of Persian Empire (G-50)

  • Late 6th – 5th centuries BCE

  • Relief of larger than life sized figures with traditional Near Eastern stylizations (partial profile, frontal eye, long curly beards)

      1. APADANA – royal audience hall of a Persian Palace

  • 60 feet high and 217 feet square

  • 36 colossal columns

  • Audience of thousands could have fit inside




  1. ANCIENT EGYPT




    1. PALETTE OF NARMER

      1. Predynastic

      2. Carved in bas relief

      3. arranged in registers

      4. Hierarchical scale shows status

      5. commemorates political unification by conquest

      6. It is one of the first identifiable recordings of a historical event in art




    1. PYRAMIDS

      1. Old Kingdom

      2. First form was mastabas

      3. Then IMHOTEP (history’s first known architect) invented the Stepped Pyramid of Djoser

      4. Great Pyramid of Giza – Monumental expression of a pharaoh’s power and the Egyptian belief in the afterlife




    1. STATUE OF KHAFRE (CHEFREN)

      1. Alternate dwelling place for pharaoh’s ka

      2. Kept in pharaoh’s mortuary temple

      3. Carved in diorite to last for eternity

      4. Rigid regal pose, flawless body




    1. SEATED SCRIBE

      1. Ca. 2500 BCE

      2. Old Kingdom scribe

      3. Found in his mastaba

      4. More naturalistic appearance because he is not as important as a pharaoh




    1. ROCK-CUT TOMBS

      1. Pyramids were phased out during Middle Kingdom

      2. Pharaohs and nobles were buried in tombs cut into cliffs

    2. TEMPLE OF HATSHEPSUT

      1. New Kingdom

      2. Designed by Senmut

      3. Mortuary temple of first great female monarch in history

      4. Complex does NOT include a pyramid

      5. Form of temple reflects its natural surroundings

      6. Statues of Hatshepsut show her in various guises – female, male, sphinxes – found vandalized




    1. RAMSES

      1. Ca. 1200 BCE

      2. Colossal rock-cut temple

      3. Four colossal images of Ramses

      4. Interior has statue columns of Ramses




    1. TEMPLE AT LUXOR

      1. PYLON – sloping towers or gateways that are the entrance to an Egyptian temple

      2. Hypostyle hall – a hall with a roof supported by rows of columns

  • Post-and-lintel support

  • Included small clerestory windows – windows in upper part of a wall




    1. AKHENATON AND NEFERTITI

      1. New Kingdom

      2. AKHENATON was a reforming pharaoh and an iconoclast who went against traditional Egyptian religion

      3. New AMARNA style – a more curvilinear approach to the human form. Standard Egyptian canon for pharaohs and their family was relaxed (more interaction among family members, more relaxed positions)

      4. Relief of Akhenaton and Nefertiti

      5. Bust of Nefertiti




    1. TOMB ART

      1. Paintings in tombs were intended to show what ka would do during the afterlife both as the person’s responsibility and for leisure

      2. Egyptian canon followed for important figures but relaxed more for servants (Hierarchical scale used)

      3. Fowling scene from Nebamun’s tomb




    1. TREASURES OF KING TUT

      1. Discovered in 1922 by Howard Carter




    1. BOOK OF THE DEAD

      1. Book of pictures and spells to guide soul through afterlife

      2. Last judgment of Hu-Nefer shows him being brought before Osiris, god of the underworld

      3. Painting onto papyrus




  1. AEGEAN ART




    1. Cycladic art

      1. Abstract, highly schematized forms

      2. Most Cycladic statues depict women

      3. Men are typically shown playing an instrument

      4. Made out of marble – plentiful in Aegean




    1. MINOAN ART

      1. PALACE AT KNOSSOS

  • Discovered by Sir Arthur Evans on the island of Crete

  • Sophisticate palace with bulging red columns

  • Labyrinthine rooms

  • Includes first frescoes in art history




      1. MINOAN FRESCOES

  • First surviving frescoes in art history

  • Depict a peaceful people who went about daily activities, performed religious ceremonies, and enjoyed the sea




      1. HARVESTER VASE

  • Oldest surviving example of Minoan relief sculpture

  • Study of human anatomy

  • Celebration of the harvest




      1. SNAKE GODDESS

Unlike Mesopotamia and Egypt, Crete had no temples nor monumental statues of gods or kings

  • Snake goddess may be a deity

  • Anthropomorphic deity – fashioned in a human image

  • Holds snakes in each hand




      1. OCTOPUS VASE

  • Shows Minoan predilection for naturalistic scenes

  • Peaceful society




    1. MYCENAEAN ART

      1. Citadel (walled city) of Mycenae

  • Discovered by Heinrich Schliemann

  • First use of CORBELLED ARCHES

  • Cyclopean masonry

  • LION’S GATE – monumental entrance into city of Mycenae, two colossal lions perched in relieving triangle

  • Tholos – Mycenaean tombs

  • Treasury of Atreus – tholos that contained treasures of Mycenaean kings

  • Repousse mask of Mycenaean king – made from gold




  1. ANCIENT GREECE




    1. GEOMETRIC PERIOD (9th – 8th centuries BCE)




      1. Geometric amphora from Dipylon Cemetery

  • Abstract geometric forms that repeat

  • Used as a grave marker

  • Divided into registers

  • Depicts a funeral procession for a warrior possibly




    1. ARCHAIC PERIOD (6th century BCE)




      1. New York” Kouros (6th century BCE)

  • Youthful male figure

  • First example of nudity in monumental statuary

  • Egyptian influence (foot striding forward)

  • Stylized hair

  • Used as a grave marker for a young man




      1. Kore – youthful female figure

  • Wear clothing usually a peplos or chiton

  • Use of “archaic smile” which gives it a greater sense of naturalism




      1. VASES (Pottery)

  • Only source of surviving Greek paintings from ancient times

  • Often depicts myths, the Iliad, or athletic events

  • Black figure – black figures with red backgrounds, details are incised with a stylus, ex. Achilles and Ajax playing the dice game

  • Red figure – red figures with black backgrounds, details painted on with a brush, ex. Hercules wrestling Antaios by Euphronios




    1. CLASSICAL PERIOD (5th – 4th century BCE)




      1. When: 450 BCE – mid 5th century was a highpoint for Greek art

      2. Where: Athens was the center of the arts and architecture

      3. Appearance of Classical statues can be summarized by the acronym HAIR

  • Heroic

  • Aloof

  • Idealized

  • Restrained




      1. Kritios Boy – Early Classical, first to demonstrate CONTRAPPOSTO – relaxed natural stance

      2. Warriors of Riace

  • Possibly by Polykleitos

  • Contrapposto

  • Heroic wars

  • Nudity was acceptable because Greeks believed in anthropomorphic gods

  • Discovered while diving off the coast of Riace, Italy

  • Demonstrates how Classical Greek statues were caste in bronze

      1. Doryphoros

  • Sculpted by Polykleitos

  • Originally called Canon

  • Represents a heroic warrior (once held a spear – Doryphoros – “spear-bearear”

  • Stands in contrapposto

  • Demonstrates chiastic balance of body parts

      1. Aphrodite of Knidos

  • Sculpted by Praxiteles

  • First monumental statue of female nude

  • Part of temple dedicated to Aphrodite

      1. Apoxyomenos

  • Sculpted by Lysippos

  • Shows an athlete after a workout cleaning himself

  • Late Classical




      1. Grave steles

  • Markers for people who died

  • Stele of Hegeso – young aristocratic woman shown with her servant and her dowry

  • Stele of a young hunter – nude young man with his dog, his aged father appears very upset at the loss of his son

  • Classical qualities still prevail – calm, restrained emotion, young male figures are nude



    1. CLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE

      1. After defeating Persians, Athens was on a high note and sponsored great architecture

      2. Acropolis – religious center of Athens

      3. Greek temples housed a cult statue of a god or goddess

      4. Classical orders –

        • Doric

        • Ionic

        • Corinthian (not as popular during Classical period, more popular during Hellenistic)

      5. Parthenon

  • Mid-5th century BCE

  • Designed by Iktinos and Kallikrates

  • Doric style temple

  • A series of visual refinements that makes the temple appear more beautiful (curved lines and tilted columns)

  • Contains an interior Ionic frieze (continuous frieze) of the Panathenaic Procession

  • Phidias – great Classical sculptor – created the statue of Athena for the inside of the Parthenon and was in charge of the sculptural program for the entire temple (all the pediment and frieze sculptures)

      1. Greek Theater at Epidauros

  • Built gracefully into a hillside

  • Perfect harmony and balance

  • Used for the performance of plays during the days of the Dionysos festival

  • Circular area was the ORCHESTRA (place for dancing)

  • THEATRON – place for seeing – the seats

  • Wedge-shaped sections – CUNEI

  • SKENE – the backdrop behind the orchestra



    1. HELLENISTIC (3rd and 2nd centuries BCE)

      1. Where: Pergamon – present-day Turkey – becomes center of the arts in the Mediterranean

      2. When: Begins after the death of Alexander the Great 323 BCE




      1. KEY CHARACTERISTICS

  • Everyday people

  • Expresses emotion

  • Expressionism – designed to elicit emotional response from viewer

  • Erotic (sometimes)




      1. Boxer

  • Shows his age and weariness

  • Scars from years of fighting

  • Caste in bronze

      1. Old Woman

        • On way to festival of Dionysos with basket of offerings

        • Wrinkled, hunched over

      2. Demonsthenes

  • Sad looking thin older man

  • Famous Athenian who warned Athens to prepare because of the threat of the Macedonians

  • Athens did not heed his warnings and was crushed by Philip of Macedon and his son Alexander

      1. Venus de Milo




      1. ALTAR OF ZEUS at Pergamon




        • Dedicated to Zeus

        • Commemorates the defeat of the Gauls, who attempted to invade Pergamon

        • Colossal frieze around the base of the altar depicts the GIGANTOMACHY – the epic battle between the Olympic Gods and the Titans – Olympic gods won

        • Famous scene – Athena defeating Alkyoneos – dramatic, expressionistic scene

      1. Dying Gaul

      2. Gallic chieftain

        • Has killed his wife and is killing himself

        • Preserves his honor rather than surrender to the Greeks

        • Noble quality of Greek enemies – enhances the reputation of the Greeks for defeating them




  1. ETRUSCAN ART

    1. KEY POINTS

      1. The high point of Etruscan art was contemporary with ARCHAIC Greek art – note the “archaic smile” and stylized hair of Etruscan figures

      2. Etruscan temples contained roofline statuary. The buildings do not exist today exist through models, which were based on written account by Vitruvius

    2. Statue of Apulu (Apollo)

      1. Made of terracotta

      2. Decorated roof of Etruscan temple

      3. Similarities to kouros but where clothing and it more stylized




    1. Husband and wife sarcophagus from Cerveteri

      1. Much Etruscan art discovered in necropolises – large cemeteries

      2. Shows higher status of Etruscan women

      3. Contains their ashes

      4. Made of terracotta




    1. Capitoline Wolf

      1. Caste in bronze

      2. One of the most memorable portrayals of an animal in the history of art

      3. According to the legend, the wolf nursed Romulus and Remus after they were abandoned as infants




    1. Chimera

      1. Like the Lamassu from Assyria and mushushu from the Ishtar Gate, the Chimera is a composite creature.

      2. Lion’s head and body, serpent’s tail, and a goat’s head growing out of the left side




  1. ROMAN ART AND ARCHITECTURE




    1. AQUEDUCTS

      1. Pont-du-Gard aqueduct, Nimes France

  • Shows imperial aspiration of the Rome, wanted to connect all its territory with aqueducts for water transportation

  • Shows ability of Rome to impose its will on nature and transport water from a natural source many miles away

  • A symbol of Rome – conveys its power to other people in the region

  • Uses a series of arches, which are made from wedge-shaped stones called VOISSOIRS. VOISSORS are supported by a SPRINGING stone and held together by a KEYSTONE in the center.




    1. ROMAN BUSTS

      1. Portrait busts of patricians

  • Aristocratic families kept portraits busts of deceased family members

  • Busts based off wax death masks

  • Carried out during funeral processions

  • Veristic – very truthful qualities, unidealized realism, even unflattering features – conveys age and experience

  • Gravitas – serious expression – Romans had a sense of duty




    1. POMPEII AND HERCULANEUM

      1. Two Roman resort cities buried during the eruption of Mount Vesuvius 79 CE

      2. Being covered in ash preserved many artifacts of each city

      3. Discovery of these cities in the 18th century inspired the Neoclassical period as well as augmenting the Grand Tour (trip to visit various sites in Italy and Greece)

      4. Roman villas

  • Atrium – welcoming room with a impluvium – water collection pool in the center of the room

      1. Floors decorated with mosaics

  • BATTLE OF ISSUS – ALEXANDER MOSAIC – decorated a home in Pompeii

  • Depicts Alexander’s victory over the Persians

  • Shows the influence of Hellenistic Greek painting (does not exist anymore) on Roman art – a mosaic representation of a famous Greek painting




      1. Walls decorated with frescoes

  • First style – simulated marble

  • Second style – illusion of a three-dimensional space ex. Villa of the Mysteries

  • Third style – fantastical wispy architectural motifs

  • Fourth style – a combination of all the styles

  • STILL-LIFE WITH PEACHES AND VASE OF WATER – Fourth style, discovered in Herculaneum, shows Roman interest in light, shadow, observing nature and recording it




    1. ART TO GLORIFY EMPERORS




      1. Augustus Primaporta

      2. ARA PACIS – Altar of Peace

  • Altar dedicated to Caesar Augustus defeating the enemies of Rome and beginning the Pax Romana

  • Propaganda piece that conveys Augustus’ social and political agenda

  • Scene of Aeneas sacrificing – ancestor of Augustus who was the son of Venus – shows Augustus divine lineage

  • Scene of Tellus (Mother Earth) with boys on her lap, peaceful animals recline, a vase pours forth water, grain grows around bountifully – Augustus has brought peace and prosperity to the Roman Empire

  • Scene of Imperial procession – family and court of Augustus walk in a procession holding their children by the hands – social message about parenting

      1. Colosseum

        • Amphitheater

        • Used for mass entertainment and spectacles (gladiator contests)

        • Ascending orders of columns and extensive use of arches– would influence Renaissance buildings (Rucellai Palace by Alberti)

        • Commissioned by Emperor Vespasian – a way of giving back to the people after the wicked reign of Nero (remember Nero’s Domus Aurea – Golden House built after the great fire in Rome)




      1. ARCH OF TITUS




      1. TRAJAN’S COLUMN AND MARKET PLACE

  • Markets of Trajan – first mall of the time period

  • Makes extensive use of Roman vaulting technology – barrel vaults and groin vaults

  • Designed by Apollodorus of Damascus

  • Trajan’s Column is a part of the area

  • Contains a 625-foot frieze depicting Trajan’s four military campaigns against the Dacians

  • Trajan was seen as one of the greatest Roman emperors




      1. PANTHEON

  • One of the most influential buildings of all time

  • Commissioned by Hadrian during the 2nd century

  • Made extensive use of CONCRETE – six different mixtures from heavy mixture at bottom to light mixture at the top of the dome

  • A rotunda – a dome resting on a drum (cylinder)

  • An oculus – light but also represents the all-seeing eye of Jupiter as the sun passed throughout the day

  • Niches on the side walls intended for statues of Roman deities

  • Thick concrete and block piers support the sides of the drum and hold up the dome

  • Coffered ceiling – recessed panels that are decorative, one contained bronze stars – made the dome’s interior look like the vault of heaven

  • A PORTICO – a porch supported by columns, contains an entablature and a pediment

  • Influenced the cupola of the Duomo in Florence by Brunelleschi, Palladio’s Villa Rotunda, and Jefferson’s Monticello among many other buildings




      1. EQUESTRIAN STATUE OF MARCUS AURELIUS

  • Only Roman equestrian statue to survive because mistakenly believed to be Constantine – first Roman emperor to embrace Christianity

  • Marcus Aurelius was one of the last good Roman emperors

  • May be giving a gesture of mercy toward a barbarian that was once under his horses hoof

  • Caste in bronze

  • Influential on Renaissance art – Donatello’s Equestrian Statue of Gattamelata – Donatello spent time in Rome and would have seen Marcus Aurelius. Also Verrocchio’s Equestrian Statue of Colleoni




      1. BATHS OF CARACALLA

  • Caracalla was a famous Soldier-Emperor – unstable time in Late Roman Empire

  • Created the larges baths of the Roman empire

  • Supported by FENESTRATE GROIN VAULTS – groin vaults that allow spaces in the side walls for windows

  • Multi-purpose leisure complex

  • Extensive use of concrete and blocks




      1. TETRARCHS

  • Late Roman period

  • Four Roman emperors, including Diocletian

  • Made from porphyry

  • Depicts the Roman leaders and anonymous and equal rulers

  • Reveals the troubles of the later Empire




      1. CONSTANTINE

        • Defeated two rivals after Diocletian retired to unify the Roman Empire

        • Arch of Constantine – in Rome, influential on Renaissance art such as Perugino’s Delivery of the Keys of the Kingdom to Saint Peter as well as buildings such as Alberti’s Sant Andrea in Mantua, borrowed pieces from the arches of the Good Emperors – Trajan, Hadrian, and Marcus Aurelius

        • Colossal head of Constantine – part of a colossal statue of Constantine that was place in the Basilica Nova – large basilica (city office building and courthouse), depicts Constantine as eternally youthful and ever vigilant (large eyes)over his empire, similarities to appearances of Jupiter

        • Remember that the Roman basilica will be the form that early Christian churches will take

        • Build’s Old Saint Peter’s Basilica




  1. EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART




    1. CATACOMBS

      1. Underground burial complex used by early Christians

      2. Used for religious ceremonies and as places to bury the dead

      3. Art features painting of Christ as the Good Shepherd

        • Simplified figural form

        • Communicates message

        • Christ resembles a Roman




    1. OLD SAINT PETER’S (G-310)

      1. Built by Constantine on the site where St. Peter is believed to be buried

      2. Fulfills Christ’s statement to Peter – “Thou art Peter and upon this rock I will build my church.”

      3. Built as a BASILICA

        • Narthex – an entrance porch of a church

        • Nave – long central hall where the congregation sits

        • Transept – cross arm placed at right angle to the nave

        • Apse – semicircular projection at the end of the nave

        • Clerestory – windows in the upper part of a wall

        • Side aisles

        • Timber roof

      4. Directions

        • Altar and choir are in the EAST

        • Statue of Christ faces the WEST

        • Congregation faces EAST during the service and WEST as they leave the basilica

      5. Torn down by Pope Julius II in 1506




    1. CENTRAL PLAN CHURCHES

      1. Circular shape inspired by Greek tholos (round tombs) and by the Pantheon in Rome

      2. Major church form for Byzantine Empire

      3. In the West, central plan was typically used as a MAUSOLEUM or a BAPTISTERY




    1. MOSAICS

      1. Often decorate early Christian and Byzantine churches

      2. Early Christian mosaics are still depicted with naturalism characteristic of classical art (sense of depth, shading, full-figured bodies in different positions)

      3. Byzantine mosaics changed in appearance to reflect greater spirituality and communicate the message (Flat, Floating, Frontal, and Gold backgrounds to represent spiritual world)




    1. SARCOPHAGI

      1. Large stone coffins

      2. Became popular as Christianity began to become popular

      3. SARCOPHAGUS OF JUNIUS BASSUS

        • Early Christian, 4th century CE

        • Roman who became a Christian

        • Shows a blend of Christian subject matter (Christ seated on throne in center niche upper register and shown triumphantly entering Jerusalem in central niche lower register) with classical features (Classical style architecture and more Romanized appearance of Christ)

      4. Crucifixion scenes are very rare in early Christian art.




    1. EMPEROR JUSTINIAN

      1. Undertook massive rebuilding program

      2. Built HAGIA SOPHIA

        • Constantinople

        • Architects were Athemius and Isidorus

        • Spiritual lighthouse to guide the faithful to the world’s greatest Christian city

        • Dome rises 180 feet above the ground

        • Seems to rest on a halo of light

        • Uses PENDENTIVES – concave triangular supports – to support the dome and open up space below

        • Turned into a mosque in 1453 by Ottoman Turks

      3. Built SAN VITALE

  • Built during the reign of Justinian (527-565 CE)

  • Centrally planned church

  • Apse decorated with MOSAICS

  • Contains famous mosaics of Justinian and his wife Theodora




    1. TRANSFIGURATION OF JESUS

      1. Famous mosaic from SAINT CATHERINE’S MONASTERY, SINAI, EGYPT

      2. Byzantine aesthetic – Flat, Floating, Frontal, and Golden background

      3. Depicts when Jesus went to the top of a mountain and was transfigured (his appearance turned to a bright light) and Moses and Elijah appeared by his side

      4. Jesus brought Peter, John, and James who recoil in fear in the lower portion of the mosaic

      5. Figures cast no shadows even though they are bathed in light

      6. The Transfiguration does not represent the real world but a mystical vision – typical of Byzantine mosaics

      7. Found in the APSE of the church




    1. ICONS AND ICONOCLASM

      1. Early Byzantine icons were painted in ENCAUSTIC – pigment mixed with melted wax and applied while hot

      2. ICONOCLASM – 8th – 9th centuries – destruction of religious images

      3. Post-iconoclasm – icons began to be produced again and put on display on a screen in the front of Byzantine churches

      4. Later Byzantine icons were painted in TEMPERA – pigment mixed with egg yolks




  1. ISLAMIC ART

    1. ISLAM AND IMAGES

      1. Islam discouraged the making of images that might be worshipped as idols

      2. Koran and mosques do NOT contain representations of human figures – NO statues or portraits of figures (human or animal)

    2. CALLIGRAPHY AND ARABESQUES

      1. Calligraphy – beautiful handwriting with verses from the Koran. Sometimes, Islamic calligraphy is written in KUFIC – a very official writing style

      2. Arabesques – flowing, intricate geometric and floral pattern

    3. Plan of a mosque

      1. Minarets – towers for the call to prayer

      2. Forecourt – courtyard for communal gathering

      3. Hypostyle Hall – prayer for communal gathering and prayer

      4. Qibla – wall that faces toward Mecca, allows faithful to know in which direction to prayer

      5. Mihrab – decorative niche in qibla; filled with calligraphy that acts as a page from the Koran

    4. Ottoman Architecture

      1. Ottomans conquered the Byzantine Empire, replaced them in the region and made Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) their capital.

      2. Converted Hagia Sophia into a mosque – added four minarets at the corners

      3. Influenced by Byzantine central plan architecture and applied it to mosques.

      4. Sinan – greatest Ottoman architect. Designed central plan mosques

    5. Taj Mahal

      1. Built in India during reign of Shah Jahan – famous Mughal sultan

      2. Built as a MAUSOLEUM or tomb

      3. Perfectly symmetrical from the outside

      4. Meant to honor a Mughal queen, built by her bereaved husband

      5. Mughals were Muslims so Taj Mahal has elements of Islamic architecture (minarets at corners)

      6. NOT A MOSQUE! A tomb




  1. EARLY MIDDLE AGES – ART OF WARRIOR LORDS, HIBERNO-SAXON, CAROLINGIAN, AND OTTONIAN




    1. ART OF WARRIOR LORDS

      1. Also called the ANIMAL STYLE

      2. Small and portable works of art – time a great migration of tribes across Europe

      3. Sutton-Hoo purse cover

      4. Frankish fibula

      5. Highly decorative – CLOISONNE – use of small metal strips, soldered onto a metal plate, spaces filled in with jewels and enamel

      6. Abstract, intertwined animal motifs – hence name ANIMAL STYLE




    1. HIBERNO-SAXON ART

      1. CARPET PAGE FROM LINDISFARNE GOSPELS

        • Famous example of HIBERNO-SAXON (meaning Irish – Saxon) art

        • Created in a SCRIPTORIA (writing workshop) at the Lindisfarne Monastery located on a remote island off England’s northeast coast

        • A manuscript containing the Word of God was looked upon as a sacred object whose beauty should reflect the importance of its contents.

        • Called a CARPET PAGE because its full page decoration resembles a beautiful carpet

        • Created in 700 CE or beginning of 8th century

        • Dense INTERLACE designs

        • Abstract animal imagery




      1. TETRAMORPHS

  • Gospel writers (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) often depicted as animals in Hiberno-Saxon illuminated manuscripts




      1. BOOK OF KELLS

        • Famous example of a Hiberno-Saxon illuminated manuscript

        • Chi-Rho-Iota page – initials for Christ

        • Boasts an unprecedented number of full-page illuminations including carpet pages




    1. CAROLINGIAN ART (800s)

      1. CHARLEMAGNE

        • Rule of the Franks from 768-814 –

        • Crowned Holy Roman Emperor

        • Sponsored a revival of learning throughout Europe

        • Wanted to revive the glory of the Roman Empire




      1. JEWELLED BOOK COVERS

        • Revived learning and books

        • Made using cloisonne

        • Contained illuminated pages

        • Spread of ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPTS – an important part of the Carolingian period




      1. SAINT MATTHEW WRITING HIS GOSPEL

        • Two versions:

        • Coronation Gospels – Charlemagne’s personal Gospels – classical calm Saint Matthew – resembles classical philosopher with a toga, sense of depth, good shading, Roman furniture

        • Ebbo Gospels – highly energized use of line, steep background plane, his hair stands on end as he feverishly writes his gospel

        • Two different versions of same theme show how popular ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPTS were during the Carolingian period.




      1. PALATINE CHAPEL

  • Charlemagne’s personal chapel at his palace at Aachen (his capital city)

  • Resembles SAN VITALE, RAVENNA – central plan building, Charlemagne spent more time at Ravenna than Rome – closer connection

  • Interior of chapel reflects Charlemagne’s desire to revive the glory of the Roman empire – domed ceiling, extensive use of round arches, Corinthian columns

  • Shows Charlemagne’s emphasis on Christianity – ideal social order – mosaic of God on the ceiling, second level for Charlemagne and his nobles, lowest level for commoners attending church services




      1. WESTWORKS

  • Carolingian architecture promoted the BASILICA as the best form for Western European churches

  • WESTWORK – large western façade of a church. Notice the plain exterior – no monumental sculpture




      1. SAINT GALL MONASTERY

        • Charlemagne sponsored the spread of monasteries

        • Ideal monastic community

        • Basilica church

        • Cloister – courtyard for prayer and meditation

        • Refectory – dining hall for monks

        • Hospital

        • Library




    1. OTTONIAN ART (900s or 10th century)

      1. Ottonian Revival - Germany

        • The Ottonian Revival took place because of the leadership of Otto I, II, and Otto III

        • Took over leadership of Central Europe after period of instability after the death of Charlemagne

        • Carrying on the tradition of reviving the glory of the Roman empire

        • Ottonian leaders established diplomatic connections through the marriage of Otto II to the Byzantine princess Theophanu, who acted as regent after the death of husband because her son (Otto III was too young to rule). Ottonian art exhibits similarities to Byzantine art.




      1. OTTONIAN ARCHITECTURE

  • Carried on the tradition of Carolingian architecture with the use of the basilica as the main church form as well as large WESTWORKS for the western facades of those churches




      1. SAINT MICHAEL’S AT HILDESHEIM

        • Built by Bishop Bernward

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