Ancient civilization vocabulary name: Paleolithic Era



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ANCIENT CIVILIZATION VOCABULARY Name:
Paleolithic Era


  1. Paleolithic Era – Time period where people hunted and gathered for food; The Old Stone Age



  1. Nomads People who moved from place to place, hunting and gathering their food.



  1. Hominids - Members of the group of the earliest human species or human like creatures



  1. "Lucy" - Skeleton of earliest known hominid (3.1 million years old) found by the Leaky Family in Eastern Africa.



  1. The Leakey Family - Archaeologists who made important discoveries about early humans in Africa



Neolithic Revolution


  1. Neolithic Revolution – A major turning point in history, where people began to farm and domesticate animals; the New Stone Age or the Agricultural Revolution



  1. Domesticate – To tame an animal for human purposes



  1. Sedentary Agriculture - To farm in one place



  1. Traditional Economy – Economy based on past practices, such as farming or hunting and gathering



River Valley Civilizations


  1. River Valley Civilizations – An area that provided early civilizations water, farmland, transportation and trade (Ex: The Nile River, Indus River, Yellow River and the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers)



  1. Civilization – An area that has a highly organized social order with systems of religion and government



  1. Empire – A group of states or territories that were conquered and controlled by one ruler




  1. Mesopotamia – “The land between two rivers”; The area between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers that provided fertile land to civilizations such as Sumer, Babylon, Persia and the Phoenicians.


  1. Fertile Crescent – Fertile land that spans from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf, in the Middle East.



  1. Ziggurats - Stone temples made out of sun-dried bricks that were used for political and religious purposes



  1. Cuneiform - Sumerian system of writing using wedge shaped markings




  1. Hammurabi – Leader of Babylon who set strict, harsh codified laws; “Eye for an Eye and tooth for a tooth”



  1. Hieroglyphics – Ancient Egyptian writing system using pictures symbols for ideas or sounds



  1. Pharaoh – King of Egypt who was considered a living God



China


  1. Zhou Dynasty – Dynasty of China that ruled from 1027 BCE to 221 BCE that first claimed the Mandate of Heaven



  1. Mandate of Heaven - Chinese theory that the right to rule came from God/Heaven.



  1. Silk – An expensive material used for clothing that was a valuable Chinese export



  1. Middle Kingdom – An ethnocentric term that the Chinese used to describe their civilization



  1. Qin Dynasty – Dynasty of China that ruled from 221 BCE to 206 BCE



  1. Legalism – Qin Dynasty’s strict set of laws that imposed harsh penalties



  1. Han Dynasty – Dynasty of China that ruled from 206 BCE to 210 CE and experienced a Golden Age



  1. Civil Service Exam – Exams that were based on Confucian principles that Chinese government officials must pass


  1. Compass - Instrument used for determining direction; invented during the Han Dynasty in China



  1. Acupuncture – Medical treatment developed in China that inserts needles under the skin at specific points to relieve pain or treat various illnesses.



  1. Silk Road – Ancient trade route that spanned from China to the Middle East and the Eastern borders of Europe



India


  1. Maurya Empire – Ancient Indian Empire that ruled from 321 BCE to 185 BCE



  1. Bureaucracy – A system of managing government



  1. Gupta Empire – Ancient Indian Empire that united India from 320 CE to 550 CE and experienced a Golden Age



  1. Decimal System – Number system based on ten that is used today



  1. Arabic Numerals – Number system that we use today (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, etc.); Developed in India but called Arabic numerals because Europeans learned about number system through contact with Muslims via trade



Greece


  1. Greek City-States – Politically independent areas in Greece that formed due to mountainous terrain. (ex: Athens, Sparta, Olympia, Delphi)



  1. Athens – Greek city-state that experienced a Golden Age and had many achievements in art, literature, math and government.




  1. Sparta – Greek city-state that set up a totalitarian state based on militarism



  1. Golden Age – Time period of peace and economic prosperity that produces high levels of education, art, and technology



  1. Direct-Democracy – Form of Democracy that was first used in Ancient Athens, Greece.



  1. Philosophers – A term that means “seeker of wisdom.” A person who sought out answers about the world and human behavior by using reason and logic.



  1. Socrates - Greek philosopher who used the question and answer method to encourage young people to come to the absolute truth.



  1. Plato - Greek philosopher who wrote “The Republic” & felt the state was more important than the individual



  1. Aristotle – Greek philosopher who was Plato’s student and wrote about logic and political science; Alexander the Great’s teacher



  1. Parthenon – Famous landmark building in Ancient Athens that used columns and symmetry



  1. Columns - Structures first used Greek architecture that supported large buildings



  1. Sculpture – A form of art that is carved from stone.



  1. Theatre – An art form founded in ancient Greece that includes dramas, tragedies and comedies.



  1. Pythagoras – Greek mathematician who studied geometry and produced the Pythagorean Theorem (A2 + B2 = C2 )



  1. Hippocrates – Ancient Greek doctor who came up with a code for doctors; this code includes the doctor-patient confidentiality.



  1. Hellenistic/Hellenic Civilization– The blending of Persian, Egyptian and Greek culture that formed when Alexander the Great conquered and unified these areas.




  1. Alexander the Great – Emperor from Macedonia who conquered the areas from Greece to Egypt to India



Rome


  1. Pax Romana – Time of Roman peace and economic prosperity that produced great works of engineering and educational accomplishments (Rome’s Golden Age)



  1. Republic – Form of democracy where people elect or vote for representatives to make governmental decisions



  1. Patricians – Upper class citizens of Rome who made up the Senate



  1. Plebeians – Roman citizens (farmers, merchants, artisans and traders) who had little political power but fought for the creation of the Twelve Tables



  1. Twelve Tables – Codified laws that guaranteed the rights of Roman citizens and serves as the basis to modern laws systems



  1. Aqueducts – Architectural achievement of Rome that used a system of arches and pipes that brought fresh water from the mountains to the cities of the Roman Empire



  1. Coliseum – Architectural landmark in Rome that was used for Gladiator fights, chariots races and executions (Circuses).



  1. Bread and Circuses – Political idea that gave Rome’s poor population bread and entertainment to keep the citizens distracted from politics


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