Ancient civilization vocabulary name: Paleolithic Era

Download 28.65 Kb.
Date conversion20.04.2016
Size28.65 Kb.
Paleolithic Era

  1. Paleolithic Era – Time period where people hunted and gathered for food; The Old Stone Age

  1. Nomads People who moved from place to place, hunting and gathering their food.

  1. Hominids - Members of the group of the earliest human species or human like creatures

  1. "Lucy" - Skeleton of earliest known hominid (3.1 million years old) found by the Leaky Family in Eastern Africa.

  1. The Leakey Family - Archaeologists who made important discoveries about early humans in Africa

Neolithic Revolution

  1. Neolithic Revolution – A major turning point in history, where people began to farm and domesticate animals; the New Stone Age or the Agricultural Revolution

  1. Domesticate – To tame an animal for human purposes

  1. Sedentary Agriculture - To farm in one place

  1. Traditional Economy – Economy based on past practices, such as farming or hunting and gathering

River Valley Civilizations

  1. River Valley Civilizations – An area that provided early civilizations water, farmland, transportation and trade (Ex: The Nile River, Indus River, Yellow River and the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers)

  1. Civilization – An area that has a highly organized social order with systems of religion and government

  1. Empire – A group of states or territories that were conquered and controlled by one ruler

  1. Mesopotamia – “The land between two rivers”; The area between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers that provided fertile land to civilizations such as Sumer, Babylon, Persia and the Phoenicians.

  1. Fertile Crescent – Fertile land that spans from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf, in the Middle East.

  1. Ziggurats - Stone temples made out of sun-dried bricks that were used for political and religious purposes

  1. Cuneiform - Sumerian system of writing using wedge shaped markings

  1. Hammurabi – Leader of Babylon who set strict, harsh codified laws; “Eye for an Eye and tooth for a tooth”

  1. Hieroglyphics – Ancient Egyptian writing system using pictures symbols for ideas or sounds

  1. Pharaoh – King of Egypt who was considered a living God


  1. Zhou Dynasty – Dynasty of China that ruled from 1027 BCE to 221 BCE that first claimed the Mandate of Heaven

  1. Mandate of Heaven - Chinese theory that the right to rule came from God/Heaven.

  1. Silk – An expensive material used for clothing that was a valuable Chinese export

  1. Middle Kingdom – An ethnocentric term that the Chinese used to describe their civilization

  1. Qin Dynasty – Dynasty of China that ruled from 221 BCE to 206 BCE

  1. Legalism – Qin Dynasty’s strict set of laws that imposed harsh penalties

  1. Han Dynasty – Dynasty of China that ruled from 206 BCE to 210 CE and experienced a Golden Age

  1. Civil Service Exam – Exams that were based on Confucian principles that Chinese government officials must pass

  1. Compass - Instrument used for determining direction; invented during the Han Dynasty in China

  1. Acupuncture – Medical treatment developed in China that inserts needles under the skin at specific points to relieve pain or treat various illnesses.

  1. Silk Road – Ancient trade route that spanned from China to the Middle East and the Eastern borders of Europe


  1. Maurya Empire – Ancient Indian Empire that ruled from 321 BCE to 185 BCE

  1. Bureaucracy – A system of managing government

  1. Gupta Empire – Ancient Indian Empire that united India from 320 CE to 550 CE and experienced a Golden Age

  1. Decimal System – Number system based on ten that is used today

  1. Arabic Numerals – Number system that we use today (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, etc.); Developed in India but called Arabic numerals because Europeans learned about number system through contact with Muslims via trade


  1. Greek City-States – Politically independent areas in Greece that formed due to mountainous terrain. (ex: Athens, Sparta, Olympia, Delphi)

  1. Athens – Greek city-state that experienced a Golden Age and had many achievements in art, literature, math and government.

  1. Sparta – Greek city-state that set up a totalitarian state based on militarism

  1. Golden Age – Time period of peace and economic prosperity that produces high levels of education, art, and technology

  1. Direct-Democracy – Form of Democracy that was first used in Ancient Athens, Greece.

  1. Philosophers – A term that means “seeker of wisdom.” A person who sought out answers about the world and human behavior by using reason and logic.

  1. Socrates - Greek philosopher who used the question and answer method to encourage young people to come to the absolute truth.

  1. Plato - Greek philosopher who wrote “The Republic” & felt the state was more important than the individual

  1. Aristotle – Greek philosopher who was Plato’s student and wrote about logic and political science; Alexander the Great’s teacher

  1. Parthenon – Famous landmark building in Ancient Athens that used columns and symmetry

  1. Columns - Structures first used Greek architecture that supported large buildings

  1. Sculpture – A form of art that is carved from stone.

  1. Theatre – An art form founded in ancient Greece that includes dramas, tragedies and comedies.

  1. Pythagoras – Greek mathematician who studied geometry and produced the Pythagorean Theorem (A2 + B2 = C2 )

  1. Hippocrates – Ancient Greek doctor who came up with a code for doctors; this code includes the doctor-patient confidentiality.

  1. Hellenistic/Hellenic Civilization– The blending of Persian, Egyptian and Greek culture that formed when Alexander the Great conquered and unified these areas.

  1. Alexander the Great – Emperor from Macedonia who conquered the areas from Greece to Egypt to India


  1. Pax Romana – Time of Roman peace and economic prosperity that produced great works of engineering and educational accomplishments (Rome’s Golden Age)

  1. Republic – Form of democracy where people elect or vote for representatives to make governmental decisions

  1. Patricians – Upper class citizens of Rome who made up the Senate

  1. Plebeians – Roman citizens (farmers, merchants, artisans and traders) who had little political power but fought for the creation of the Twelve Tables

  1. Twelve Tables – Codified laws that guaranteed the rights of Roman citizens and serves as the basis to modern laws systems

  1. Aqueducts – Architectural achievement of Rome that used a system of arches and pipes that brought fresh water from the mountains to the cities of the Roman Empire

  1. Coliseum – Architectural landmark in Rome that was used for Gladiator fights, chariots races and executions (Circuses).

  1. Bread and Circuses – Political idea that gave Rome’s poor population bread and entertainment to keep the citizens distracted from politics

The database is protected by copyright © 2016
send message

    Main page