2. Analyze the factors that contributed to the increasing centralization of Spain and the
factors that contributed to the continuing fragmentation of Italy in the period
3. Compare and contrast Enlightenment and Romantic views of nature, with reference to
specific individuals and their works.
4. Analyze how the political and economic problems of the English and French
monarchies led to the English Civil War and the French Revolution.
5. Analyze how industrialization and imperialism contributed to the development of
consumer culture in the period 1850–1914.
6. Analyze the ways in which the policies of Joseph Stalin transformed the policies of
7. Analyze the ways in which Western European nations have pursued European
economic and political integration from 1945 to the present, referring to at least two
2. Describe the challenges to royal authority in eastern Europe in the seventeenth
and eighteenth centuries and evaluate the effectiveness of those challenges.
3. Describe and analyze the impact of the rise of Russia on international relations in
Europe in the period from 1685 to 1815.
4. Contrast Renaissance Florence with Reformation Geneva with respect to religion,
government, and everyday life.
5. In the late nineteenth century, millions of workers and intellectuals proclaimed
themselves socialists, yet few worked toward the violent revolution predicted
by Karl Marx. Analyze the major factors that account for this phenomenon.
6. Analyze the extent to which conservatives in continental Europe were successful in
achieving their goals in the years between 1815 and 1851. Draw your examples from
at least two states.
7. Analyze the impact of science and technology on European society in the period from
1800 to 1900.
2. Analyze the ways in which European monarchs used both the arts and the sciences to
enhance state power in the period circa 1500–1800.
3. Analyze the various Protestant views of the relationship between church and state in
the period circa 1500–1700.
4. Analyze the various effects of the expansion of the Atlantic trade on the economy of
Western Europe in the period circa 1450–1700.
5. Compare and contrast how TWO of the following states attempted to hold together
their empires in the period circa 1850 to 1914.
6. Compare and contrast the goals and achievements of the feminist movement in the
period circa 1850–1920 with those of the feminist movement in the period 1945 to
7. Analyze the ways in which the theories of both Darwin and Freud challenged
traditional European ways of thinking about religion, morality, and human behavior
in the period circa 1850–1950.
2. Compare and contrast the economic and social development of Russia with that of the
Netherlands in the period 1600–1725.
3. Assess the ways in which women participated in and influenced TWO of the
The French Revolution
Question 4 appears on the following pages.
4. Analyze the ways in which the two works above, Perugino’s Christ Delivering the
Keys of the Kingdom to Saint Peter (1481–1483) on the left, and Michelangelo’s David
(1501–1504) on the right, represent the values of Italian Renaissance culture.
5. Analyze the political and economic effects of changing population patterns in Western
Europe in the period circa 1950 to the present. Cite specific examples from at least
6. Analyze the ways in which the ideas of seventeenth-century thinkers John Locke and
Isaac Newton contributed to the ideas of eighteenth-century Enlightenment thinkers.
7. Analyze the development of the various forms of European socialism in the 1800s.
2. Analyze the long-term and short-term factors responsible for the disintegration of
communist rule in TWO of the following states:
3. Considering the period 1918 to 1948, analyze the political and diplomatic problems
faced by TWO of the following newly created Eastern European states.
4. Analyze the extent to which Frederick the Great of Prussia and Joseph II of Austria
advanced and did not advance Enlightenment ideals during their reigns.
5. Compare and contrast the economic factors responsible for the decline of Spain with
the economic factors responsible for the decline of the Dutch Republic by the end of
the seventeenth century.
6. Analyze various ways in which the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) represented a
turning point in European history.
7. Analyze how Galileo, Descartes, and Newton altered traditional interpretations of
nature and challenged traditional sources of knowledge.
2. Evaluate the changes and continuities in women’s public roles during the Renaissance.
3. Analyze the impacts of the Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Reformation
(Counter Reformation) on the social order of sixteenth-century Europe.
4. Analyze the impact of the major developments of the Commercial Revolution on
Europe’s economy and society in the period 1650 to 1789.
5. Analyze artistic and literary responses to industrialization over the course of the
6. Compare and contrast the crises in state authority that precipitated the French
Revolution in 1789 and the February and October Revolutions in Russia in 1917.
7. Analyze the effects of nationalism on the Austrian Empire in the period 1815 to 1914.
2. Analyze the methods and degrees of success of Russian political and social reform
from the period of Peter the Great (1689–1725) through Catherine the Great
3. Describe and analyze the changes that led to Europe’s rapid population growth in the
4. Analyze the economic and social challenges faced by Western Europe in the period
from 1945 to 1989.
5. European women’s lives changed in the course of the nineteenth century politically,
economically, and socially. Identify and explain the reasons for those changes.
6. Analyze the major factors responsible for the rise of anti-Semitism in nineteenthcentury
7. Analyze the ways in which the events of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic
period (1789–1815) led people to challenge Enlightenment views of society, politics,
and human nature.
2. Contrast late-nineteenth-century European attitudes and policies about race to those
3. Analyze the ways in which TWO of the following groups challenged British liberalism
between 1880 and 1914.
4. Analyze the similarities and differences in the methods used by Cavour and Bismarck
to bring about the unification of Italy and of Germany, respectively.
5. Analyze the reasons for the decline of the Holy Roman Empire as a force in European
politics in the period 1517 to 1648.
6. Analyze the impact of TWO cultural and/or technological developments on European
education in the period 1450 to 1650.
7. Compare and contrast the political ideas of Hobbes and Locke.