An "Era of Good Feelings" the "American System" and New Economic Direction

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I0. An “Era of Good Feelings”

A0. The “American System” and New Economic Direction

10. The Republicans had three domestic initiatives.0

a0) Reestablishment of a national bank

b0) Federal financing for roads and canals

c0) The Tariff of 1816

20. Republicans sought to create a national market economy.0

a0) They envisioned regional economic specialization.

b0) A transportation network and a strong currency would link the three regions.

30. The Republicans won decisively in 1816.0

B0. The Transportation Problem in the West and South

10. National roads were built.0

a0) After the War of 1812, the government undertook to finance new roads.

20. Canals reduced shipping costs.0

C0. James Monroe and the Nationalist Agenda

10. The Monroe administration resolved remaining differences with England.0

a0) The Rush-Bagot Agreement

b0) The Convention of 1818

20. Adams-Onís Treaty

30. Britain proposed an alliance with the United States to prevent intervention by other European nations in Latin America.0

40. The Monroe Doctrine

II0. Dynamic Growth and Political Consequences

A0. The Panic of 1819

10. Unsafe financial practices swept through the country after 1800.0

a0) The Land Ordinance of 1800, liberalized by another ordinance in 1804, led to risky farm purchases.

b0) Land speculators

c0) Role of banks

20. International developments undermined the economy.0

a0) The demand for U.S. goods fell in Europe.

b0) Gold and silver ceased flowing to Europe as Latin American nations became independent.

30. A six-year depression began in 1819.0

a0) Tightened credit produced financial panic.

B0. Economic Woes and Political Sectionalism

10. Conflict over protective tariffs divided the nation’s three major sections.0

C0. The Missouri Compromise

10. Missouri’s application for statehood also became a sectional issue.0

a0) Controversy over whether it would be a slave state or a free state was really about the political balance between the sections in Congress.

20. The Missouri Compromise sought to please both North and South.0

30. A second compromise

D0. New Politics and the End of Good Feelings

10. The election of 1824 reflected sectional divisions.0

20. The House of Representatives determined the election.0

30. The outcome ended the single-party system.0

III0. The “New Man” in Politics

A0. Adams’s Troubled Administration

10. Adams did not prove to be popular as president.0

a0) The 1828 Tariff of Abominations

B0. Democratic Styles and Political Structure

10. Political participation became more democratic between 1800 and 1830.0

a0) By 1828, nearly every state had adopted popular election for the members of the Electoral College.

20. Political organizations multiplied.0

a0) Antimasonic Party

C0. The Rise of King Andrew

10. By 1826, Van Buren organized the Democratic Party.0

a0) The new party threw its support to Andrew Jackson.

20. Jackson trounced Adams in the election of 1828.

D0. Launching Jacksonian Politics

10. Jackson introduced the popular step of appointing officeholders for only four years.0

a0) Use of patronage consolidated the Democratic Party’s control of power.

20. Jackson expanded the power of the presidency.

IV0. The Reign of King Andrew

A0. Jackson and the Bank

10. Many Americans disliked the Second Bank of the United States.0

a0) Many saw it as benefiting the wealthy only.

b0) State bankers believed it exerted excessively restrictive control.

c0) Speculators and debtors preferred instability to the financial stability it brought.

20. Congress approved its recharter in 1832, rather than waiting until 1836.0

a0) Clay and Webster hoped thereby to embarrass Jackson.

30. Jackson went to war against the bank.0

a0) His recharter veto was immensely popular.

b0) To weaken the bank, he ordered all federal funds withdrawn.

c0) “Pet” banks

40. The bank fought back.0

a0) Nicholas Biddle

b0) Economic instability

B. Jackson and the West

50. Federal support for internal improvements0

a0) Maysville Road bill

60. He backed very low prices for public land.

C0. Jackson and the Indians

10. Americans viewed American Indians east of the Mississippi as hindering westward expansion.

20. After the War of 1812, the government pressured American Indians to move west of the Mississippi.0

a0) This produced factionalism and conflict within the tribes.

30. Adams at times protected the Indians.0

40. Jackson’s policy emphasized aggressively moving all American Indians west of the Mississippi.0

a0) The Indian Removal Act

b0) Cherokee Nation v. Georgia

c) Worcester v. Georgia

c0) Treaty of New Echota

d0) Five Civilized Tribes

D0. The Nullification Crisis

10. South Carolina led the South’s opposition to protective tariffs after passage of the Tariff of Abominations.0

a0) Calhoun’s South Carolina Exposition and Protest

20. Jackson opposed the doctrine of nullification.0

a0) Force Bill

30. The crisis was eventually resolved.0

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