|American Revolution Chapter 6 Study Guide
Before the Revolutionary Era – Essentials:
What is a colony? What does it mean to colonize the New World?
A group of people who settle in a distant land but are still ruled by the government of their native land
Who lived in America prior to colonization?
How did European settlement impact Native peoples?
Disease and warfare led to the death of millions, conflicts over land
Which countries in Europe dominated settlement in the Americas? Who controlled the 13 colonies?
Spanish, English, Portuguese, Dutch, France
England controlled 13 colonies
What were the 13 original colonies? Label the three colonial regions on a map and give one characteristic about each region.
New England (rocky soil, cold weather) – New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut
Middle (bread basket, mild winters) – New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware
Southern (hot climate, slave labor) – Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia
Lead up to Revolution – Essentials:
What was the cause of the French and Indian War (AKA 7 years war) – who dominated the region as a result?
French determination to halt westward expansion by the British (they begin to build forts and Washington is sent and confronts French at Fort Duquesne – modern day Pittsburg)
Why do tensions begin between the colonies and the “mother country” England?
England is hoping to get some money from colonies to pay off war debt, begin taxing
What does “no taxation without representation” mean?
Colonies had no representation in British Parliament – so therefore, we should not have to pay taxes we had no hand in voting on
How did the British react to colonial protest?
Repealed some taxes at first (after boycotts), but added more repressive measures and did not back down
What happened at Lexington and Concord? “Shot heard around the world”
First shots of the American Revolution – British attempting to find colonial weapons, militia clashes with British troops Paul Revere “The British are coming!”
American Revolution – Terms and Significance – Chapter 6
Section 1 pages 168-171
Continental Army- Patriot army, under Washington’s leadership – undersupplied, not well-trained (initially)
Patriots- loyal to colonies, want to see America independent from England
Loyalists- loyal to King, want America to remain tied to Britain
Battle of Bunker (Breeds) Hill- First major battle of the Revolution “Don’t shoot until you see the whites of their eyes” – British victory, but high casualties, shows fighting spirit of Americans
mercenaries- soldiers for hire (Hessians hired by British to fight)
blockade- shutting of a port to keep people or supplies from moving in or out
Section 2 pages 173-180
Thomas Paine/Common Sense- Enlightenment thinker from England, moves to Philadelphia writes pamphlet in easy language for common people to understand arguing for independence, convinces many the time for revolution has come!
Traitor – person who betrays his or her country
Thomas Jefferson – main author of the Declaration of Independence
John Adams – leading delegate at Continental Congress (from Virginia), early supporter of independence from England
Benjamin Franklin – another leading delegate at C.C. (from PA), printer, politician, spend much time in England
Enlightenment – intellectual movement in Europe that encourages questioning – think for yourself is the motto of the Enlightenment
Voltaire – free speech
Locke – Why do we need gov’t? In a state of nature your “natural right” (life, liberty and property) is not protected, also discussed right to revolution (if gov’t is not protecting your natural rights) – Jefferson borrows heavily from Locke when writing the Dec. of Ind.
natural rights – rights all people have from birth, life, liberty, property
Declaration of Independence & organization (what are the three main parts that follow the preamble?) – Natural rights, wrongs by king (grievances), independence
Section 3 pages 181-185
Battle of Long Island – British victory, leads to British control of NY, Washington retreats
Battle of Trenton, Princeton – Washington crosses the Delaware, attacks Hessian force in Trenton the day after Xmas, victory for Americans
Washington leaves campfires burning to fool Cornwallis and achieves a victory at Princeton
Germantown/Brandywine – Philadelphia, losses for Washington, Howe was supposed to meet up with British generals Burgoyne and Leger, but instead takes over Philadelphia and stays for the winter (this is harmful to British plan b/c he fails to provide reinforcements to Burgoyne who will in turn lose at Saratoga)
Valley Forge – Washington retreats here following losses in Philadelphia, harsh winter, men lacking supplies, food, disease rampant throughout camp. Needed supplies arrive and improved weather make the situation much better
Von Steuben – German military leader, trains men, teaches bayonet tactics, helps them leave Valley Forge a united and skilled force
What was the British war strategy and why did it fail? To capture major cities, reinforcements don’t arrive in time, bad decisions by generals
Saratoga – turning point battle, American victory, French aid begins
allies/alliance – agreement between nations to aid one another (usually in war)
Section 4 pages 186-190
How roles did women and African-Americans play in the Revolution? – women cook and aid at camps, make clothing, bullets, some even dress as men and fight, take over the jobs of men
African-Americans – some join British who promise the enslaved freedom. Washington also allows freed African-Americans to fight (not at first but eventually changes policy)
Why did many Native Americans side with the British?
British convinced them that a Patriot victory would mean more land lost to them.
Section 5 pages 191-195
guerilla tactics- nonconventional warfare – hit and run raids – Francis “Swamp Fox” Merion in South Carolina uses these tactics to frustrate the British
Battle of Cowpens – use of unconventional warfare leads Americans to victory
Battle of Yorktown – Last major battle of the war, Cornwallis retreats to a peninsula where he is trapped and is forced to surrender
Siege – military blockade or bombardment of an enemy town or position to force surrender
Why did the Americans win the war? – knowledge of geography, foreign assistance, patriotism/desire for independence, generals (Washington)