American history I: final exam review



Download 0.49 Mb.
Page4/12
Date conversion29.04.2016
Size0.49 Mb.
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   12

Battle of Lexington & Concord (April 19, 1775)

  • British troops arrived in the town of Lexington and met 70 armed minutemen, leading to an exchange of gunfire; 8 minutemen were killed

  • Marching on to Concord, the British encountered a much larger force of 400+ minutemen and a more serious battle ensued

  • Not expecting the amount of resistance, the British retreated back to Boston

  • During their retreat, the British were under constant fire, mostly from small pockets of militia they encountered, and lost 99 men with another 174 wounded before reaching the safety of Boston

  • Colonial dead totaled 49, with 46 more wounded

  • Second Continental Congress

  • Three weeks after the battles, the Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia

  • The Congress voted to merge the various small militias into the Continental Army and to give command of that army to George Washington

    • Battle of Bunker Hill (June 17, 1775)

    • Following the Battles of Lexington & Concord, the British reinforced their position in Boston and brought in additional troops

    • The Massachusetts militia dug in and began fortifying Breed’s Hill (mistakenly confused by later reporters with nearby Bunker Hill) north of town

    • Gen. Gage sent 2200 British soldiers up the hill

    • The British suffered over 1000 casualties, but succeeded in taking the hill (because the American militia ran out of ammunition and retreated)

    • Despite the victory, Gage was replaced by the king with Gen. William Howe

    • The Olive Branch Petition (July 1775)

    • The Continental Congress sent the “Olive Branch Petition” to King George, asking for a cease-fire and to negotiate a compromise which would allow the Colonies to remain a self-governing part of the British Empire

    • Battle of Quebec

    • While waiting for a response from the King, American forces attacked Quebec and captured the Canadian town of Montreal, hoping French-Canadians would join the rebellion

    • The French did not join the rebellion, and the Americans retreated back inside their own border

    • Olive Branch Rejected (August 22, 1775)

    • King George refused to even read the Olive Branch Petition and instead issued the Proclamation for Suppressing Rebellion and Sedition, declaring the Colonies to be “open and avowed enemies.”

    • An American Government

    • Congress responded by taking on the formal role of government for the Colonies: they opened negotiations with the Native American tribes, created a postal service, and established a Navy and Marine Corps (who began attacking British shipping)

    • Southern Loyalists

    • The governor of Virginia, Lord Dunmore, organized Loyalists in creating two armies to support the King – one white and one black

    • The black army was built through the governor’s promise that any slaves who joined would be freed as a reward for their service

    • As a result, all of the major Virginia plantation owners joined the Revolution

    • Southern Patriots

    • Patriot forces defeated the Loyalists near Norfolk, Virginia in late 1775, taking control of the colony

    • Patriots followed up by defeating the Loyalists in North Carolina and blocked British troops from occupying Charles Town, SC in early 1776

    • Boston Retaken

    • George Washington’s first move was to send reinforcements to Boston and secure the hills to the south of the city

    • American military pressure around Boston prompted the British to evacuate their troops from the city rather than fight to keep the city

    • Britain’s War Plan

    • Britain responded by blocking all trade with the Colonies and establishing a naval blockade of American ports

    • They also hired 30,000 Hessian (German) mercenaries to beef up the British Army

    • Thomas Paine’s Common Sense

    • Published in January, 1776; by late spring it had sold over 100,000 copies

    • Paine attacked the idea of monarchy (and King George in particular) claiming that power should belong to the people

    • Paine’s arguments convinced many more colonists to support the Revolutionary cause

    • The Declaration of Independence

    • July 4, 1776: The Continental Congress issued the Declaration of Independence

    • The document listed the colonists’ complaints against the King and declared themselves to no longer be subjects of the British Empire

    • Colonial Problems

    • The Continental Army struggled to stay in the field

    • Many soldiers simply went home during planting or harvesting season; others deserted or refused to serve when their wages weren’t paid

    • Despite over 230,000 men serving at one time or another, the Continental Army rarely had more than 20,000 serving at any one time

    • Congress lacked the ability to levy taxes, so paying for the war was difficult

    • Congress tried issuing paper money with no gold or silver backing, but the money quickly became worthless

    • Financial Rescue

    • Pennsylvania merchant Robert Morris pledged most of his own wealth to help pay for the war and negotiated foreign loans to fund the rest

    • He also convinced the Continental Congress to create the Bank of North America to help keep the war funded and to build an economy for the new nation

    • British Problems

    • Many people in Britain opposed the war – especially merchants, who stood to suffer financially from lost trade, and fiscally conservative members of Parliament who did not want to add to the debt

    • The British knew they had to win quickly and cheaply, or support for the war would quickly dissolve

    • The British also had rivals in Europe who were eager to exploit the colonists’ rebellion

    • Spain, France, and the Netherlands all posed a threat to British interests elsewhere, forcing the British to reserve much of their military strength to act as a deterrent against European aggression

    • The British in New York

    • At the same time, the British, under General Howe, landed 32,000 troops in New York with an eye towards capturing New York City, thereby threatening the colonial capital of Philadelphia and hopefully separating New England from Virginia

    • Howe took one last shot at resolving the Revolution diplomatically, but found no success

    • Summer 1776, Howe moved to capture New York City, first routing the Continental Army on Long Island

    • Howe failed to capitalize on this early victory, moving slowly and cautiously towards Manhattan

    • Washington elected to abandon New York rather than risk becoming surrounded by the British

    • NYC would remain in British hands for the rest of the war

    • Nathan Hale

    • Washington left behind an officer named Nathan Hale to spy on the British in the city, but Hale was captured

    • Hale was sentenced to be hung, but he inspired many with his last words: “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.”

    • Battle of White Plains

    • Washington withdrew his forces to White Plains, NY, where he lost once again to the British in October, 1776

    • After defeating Washington, the British turned towards Philadelphia, but with winter setting in, they decided to encamp until spring in New Jersey

    • Washington Crosses the Delaware

    • Washington decided to surprise the British and launched an attack

    • On December 25, 1776, Washington led 2400 men across the Delaware River and defeated Hessian troops at Trenton, NJ and then went on to defeat a British force in Princeton before encamping himself in the New Jersey hills

    • Philadelphia Falls

    • From spring to fall 1777, Howe moved against Philadelphia, finally defeating Washington at Brandywine Creek in September, giving him control of the city

    • By this time, however, the Continental Congress had left the city, making Howe’s victory a hollow one

    • Attack From Canada

    • In June 1777, British Gen. John Burgoyne, under orders from King George, led his army of about 9000 British and 1000 Iroquois out of Quebec and into New York

    • Burgoyne believed that Howe was moving north to assist him, and did not know that Howe had instead moved against Philadelphia

    • Burgoyne found himself hounded by American militia and Continental troops under the command of Gen. Benedict Arnold

    • Without Howe’s help and supplies, Burgoyne was defeated and forced to surrender after the Battle of Saratoga in October, 1777

    • Valley Forge

    • The Continental Army spent the winter of 1777 encamped at Valley Forge, PA

    • That winter was an especially brutal one, and Washington lost over 2500 men to the cold and starvation

    • Washington used the winter to train his soldiers, however, instilling better discipline

    • Foreign Aid

    • Washington enlisted the help of a young French officer, the Marquis de Lafayette, and of a Prussian officer, Baron Friedrich von Steuben, to train his men in European military tactics and strategies

    • The American victory at Saratoga, coupled with positive reports from Lafayette, led France to enter the war on the side of the Americans in February, 1778

    • France became the first country to diplomatically recognize American independence and signed a military alliance against Britain with the US

    • Frontier Fighting

    • Fighting between American militias and Native American tribes allied with the British made the Western frontier a battleground of the Revolution as well

    • Americans battled Iroquois in New York and Pennsylvania and Cherokee in North Carolina and Virginia; in both regions the Indians were ultimately defeated by 1780

    • The War at Sea

    • At sea, American warships concentrated on attacking British merchant ships with the intent of inflicting damage on the British economy

    • The Continental Navy generally avoided head-to-head battles with the much more powerful British Navy

    • The most notable American naval victory of the war came in Sept. 1779 when the Bonhomme Richard, commanded by John Paul Jones, captured the British warship Serapis

    • When challenged to surrender early in the battle, Jones famously responded: “I have not yet begun to fight!”

    • British Turn South

    • After the defeat at Saratoga, Howe resigned and was replaced with Gen. Henry Clinton

    • Clinton decided to focus on gaining control of the Southern colonies and their valuable cash crops, believing that he would be assisted by the large numbers of Loyalists in Georgia & the Carolinas

    • Georgia Falls

    • December 1778: Clinton’s forces captured Savannah, Georgia and rapidly followed up by subduing the entire colony and putting a royal governor back in power

    • Clinton then sent Gen. Charles Cornwallis north with 14,000 men to attack Charles Town, SC

    • Charles Town Falls

    • May 1780: 5500 American soldiers in Charles Town were forced to surrender, marking the Americans’ largest defeat of the entire war

    • Washington dispatched Gen. Horatio Gates to defend the South Carolina backcountry

    • Battle of Kings Mountain

    • Gates found himself fighting both the British and a strong contingent of Loyalists

    • Gates, however, won the support of many of the settlers in the Appalachians and defeated the British-Loyalist force in the Battle of Kings Mountain in October 1780

    • Hit-and-Run Raids

    • American Gen. Nathaniel Greene decided that, rather than face the British head-on in major battles across the South, that he would instead keep his men in small units designed to carry out hit-and-run raids against British supply lines

    • In this way, Greene took back the interior South, leaving the British holding just Savannah, Charles Town, and Wilmington, NC by late 1781

    • British Attack Virginia

    • In Spring 1781, Gen. Cornwallis decided to leave the Carolinas and attack Virginia

    • Cornwallis joined his forces with those of Benedict Arnold (who had switched sides during the war) and began terrorizing the Virginia countryside

    • When a large American force moved into Virginia to counter Cornwallis, he moved his forces to the river-town of Yorktown, where he could be more easily resupplied by British ships

    • Cornwallis did not know, however, that a French fleet had blockaded the Chesapeake Bay and that no British supply ships could reach him at Yorktown

    • Meanwhile, Washington’s Continental Army, reinforced by 6000 French soldiers, had moved down from New York and surrounded Yorktown, trapping Cornwallis

    • After 3 weeks of fighting in the Battle of Yorktown, Cornwallis surrendered his 8000 men, effectively ending the war

    • The surrender at Yorktown was the breaking point for public support for the war back in Britain and in Parliament – the war had lasted for 6 years and had become too expensive and embarrassing

    • In March 1782, Parliament voted to begin peace negotiations

    • The War Ends: The Treaty of Paris (1783)

    • Britain agreed to recognize the United States of America as an independent nation

    • Ceded all territory east of the Mississippi River, North of Florida (which Britain returned to Spain) and south of Canada

    • On November 24, 1783 the last British soldiers left the United States

    • A New America

    • After achieving independence, The United States became a republic (Latin: “res publica” or “thing of the people”)

    • A republic is a government in which citizens vote to elect officials and those officials must govern based upon a set of common laws

    • In a republic, power ultimately resides in the “citizens,” all of whom are equal

    • Who’s a Citizen?

    • The idea that all citizens can vote, however, means you have to define who is a citizen

    • Problems:

      • Many Americans owned slaves – were Africans citizens?

      • Women had very few rights – were women citizens?

      • The wealthy were often seen as being above others – were the poor really the political equal of the rich?

    • Separation of Powers

    • John Adams and others argued that for the young republic to survive, it could not be a true democracy because the majority (the poor) would act to strip the minority (the rich) of their rights (in this case, to property)

    • Adams argued that to avoid this “tyranny of the majority,” the best government would be one where the executive, legislative, and judicial branches had separate powers that “checked and balanced” one another

    • In this way, no one group could achieve too much power

    • This idea of separation of powers was one of the ideals of the Enlightenment, having been proposed by the French Baron de Montesquieu in his 1748 book The Spirit of the Laws

    • Bicameral Legislatures

    • Adams also argued that the legislature should be divided into two houses (“bi-” = two)

    • One house should be controlled by citizens of property (to ensure their rights were protected) and the other should be made up of the “common” people (to ensure their rights were protected)

    • State Constitutions

    • Many states adopted constitutions based upon Adams’ ideals (including, arguably, the two most powerful states, Virginia and Massachusetts)

    • The United States as a whole, however, did not; instead the federal government would be a simple (and very weak) legislature until 1789

    • Expanded Suffrage

    • Men who had fought in the Revolution fully expected to be able to vote as equals, regardless of their social class, once the War was over

    • Most states allowed any adult, white male who had paid taxes to vote

    • Even in states that had owning property as a prerequisite to vote, most veterans qualified because they had been paid in land for their war service (remember, the paper money issued during the war was practically worthless, so veterans much preferred to be compensated with land grants instead)

    • Virginia’s Declaration of Rights (Written by George Mason in 1776)

    • Guaranteed all Virginians

      • Freedom of speech

      • Freedom of religion

      • Right to bear arms

      • Trial by jury

      • No searches without a warrant

      • No seizure of property without due process

    • Freedom of Religion?

    • In Virginia, Baptists petitioned to abolish the state’s practice of collecting taxes to support the Anglican Church

    • By collecting this tax, Virginia was essentially saying that the Anglican Church was the “official” religion of state

    • In 1786, Gov. Thomas Jefferson approved the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, declaring that the state had no official church and would no longer collect taxes for any church

    • Most states followed Virginia’s lead, abolishing state-collected taxing for churches and furthering the principle of creating a “wall of separation between church and state”

    • Small Gains for Women

    • The biggest gain for women in the new America was an increase in opportunities for education

    • 1779: Judith Sargent Murray wrote On the Equality of the Sexes, arguing that women could achieve as much as men if they had access to education

    • African-Americans

    • During the War, the British freed some slaves (as a way to hurt rebellious plantation owners) and even exported thousands of slaves to loyal British colonies in the Caribbean

    • 5000+ Africans even served in the Continental Army during the War, fighting for the colonists

    • After the War, many Americans saw the hypocrisy of fighting for freedom while keeping slaves in bondage

    • In 1777, Vermont became the first state to ban slavery outright

    • By 1800, Pennsylvania, New York, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts had all begun the process of ending slavery in their states by establishing an age at which all existing slaves must be freed (usually in their late 20s)

    • Freedom from slavery did not mean equality, however

    • Freed blacks found it difficult to get good jobs, an education, or voting rights

    • They even faced the danger of being kidnapped to be sold back into slavery in the South

    • Loyalists Flee

    • After the War, Loyalists (Americans who had opposed the Revolution) faced penalties such as seizure of property and loss of social status

    • About 100,000 fled the United States, mostly for Canada

    • A New American Identity

    • The War had brought the colonists together against a common enemy, forcing them to stop thinking of themselves as “Virginians” or “New Yorkers” and start thinking of themselves as “Americans”

    • The United States Under the Articles of Confederation

    • The Articles of Confederation

    • Nov. 1777: Continental Congress adopted the first framework for a federal government

    • The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union organized the 13 former colonies into a loose Union under the central authority of Congress

    • The Articles deliberately left the central government very weak; states feared that a strong central government would become tyrannical

    • Without a strong federal government, however, creating a “United States” proved difficult

    • How the Government Operated

    • Each state selected 3 – 7 Congressional representatives each (although each state only received one vote in Congress)

    • Once a year those representatives were sent to serve in the capital of Philadelphia

    • The government had no legislative or judicial branches – Congress was the government

    • The Confederation Congress had the right to declare war, raise an army, and sign treaties with foreign powers; they also served to resolve disputes between states

    • The Confederation Congress could NOT levy taxes or put any restrictions on trade

    • In order to generate revenue, Congress could only sell unsettled lands west of the Appalachians (which the 13 states had ceded to the central government as part of ratification of the Articles)

    • In order to sell these lands, however, Congress first had to survey and map it and then find settlers interested in buying tracts

    • To encourage settlement, the Congress had to also figure out a way to govern the region

    • The Northwest Ordinance

    • 1787: Congress passed the Northwest Ordinance, which laid out a plan for organizing and governing the Northwest Territory (modern Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan & Wisconsin, + part of Minnesota)

    • At first, Congress appointed a governor and other temporary officials to the Territory

    • Once 5000 adult male citizens had settled in a territory, they could elect a legislature

    • Once population reached 60,000 people, it could apply for full statehood

    • Protected Rights

    • The Ordinance guaranteed freedom of religion, protection of property rights, and trial by jury

    • It also banned slavery, reinforcing a trend of slavery in the South, but not in the North

    • British Trade Restrictions

    • After the Revolution, the British put tight restrictions on trade between their other colonies and the US; they also put strict rules in place for trade between the US and Britain

    • In response, Congress negotiated trade treaties with other European states and continued to trade with French colonies in the Caribbean

    • Despite limited trade with the British, US trade grew under the Confederation Congress

    • No Federal Tariffs

    • While few US goods hit British markets, the British were able to flood US markets because Congress was not empowered to levy tariffs (taxes on imports) and the individual states were inconsistent in their policies

    • These cheap British goods hurt American artisans

    • State vs. State

    • To protect their own artisans, individual states began taxing not only British goods, but also goods from each other – New York, for instance, began taxing goods from New Jersey

    • The “United States” were not acting united
  • 1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   12


    The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016
    send message

        Main page