American Democracy in Word and Deed mdusd/ucb h-ssp 8th Grade Lesson: “Boston Massacre” Developed by



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American Democracy in Word and Deed

MDUSD/UCB H-SSP

8th Grade Lesson: “Boston Massacre”
Developed by: Cathleen Foster and Suzan Taylor
Teaching American History Grant Focus Question:

How have the words and deeds of people and institutions shaped democracy in the U.S.?


8th Grade Year-long Focus Questions:

How have the words and deeds of people and institutions shaped democracy in America?


Unit Focus:

Our Colonial Heritage & The American Revolution


Unit Focus Question:

How did America develop and change from its earliest inhabitants through its colonial periods, to a new independent nation?


Lesson Focus Question:

How did the Patriots use propaganda to turn the killings on King Street in Boston on March 5, 1770 into the Boston Massacre?


Lesson Working Thesis:

The Patriots turned the killings on King Street in Boston on March 5, 1770 into the Boston Massacre by using propaganda to unite the colonists in opposition to British policies.


Reading and Writing Strategies:

  • READING Strategy:

    • Analyzing Art

    • Sentence Deconstruction

    • Cause and Effect Chart

  • WRITING Strategy:

    • Choosing evidence

    • Paragraph Frame


Suggested Amount of Time:

One class period



Textbook:

Deverell, William and White, Deborah Gray. United States History: Independence to 1914. Orlando, Florida: Holt, Rinehart and Winston., 2006, Chapter 2:(The English Colonies), p 67


Primary Source Citation:

“Enlargement of Paul Revere’s Engraving of the Boston Massacre” http://www.earlyamerica.com/review/winter96/enlargement.html 10 Aug 2010

Obituary of Patrick Carr, the fifth and final victim of the Boston Massacre, published in "The Boston Gazette, and Country Journal" on 19 March 1770, with an engraving of his coffin by Paul Revere (1735-1818). http://americanrevolutionurness.webs.com/day9.htm (12 Aug 2010).
Context of the lesson in the unit (and its connection to American Democracy in Word and Deed):

This lesson comes towards the middle of the unit. Students will have already learned about the colonies and are beginning to review conflict between the colonies and Great Britain leading up to the American Revolution.


Lesson Procedure:

  • Present information on propaganda and have students fill in the worksheet with definitions and explanations of different types of propaganda. (10 mins)

  • Show the Paul Revere engraving and have students complete the accompanying worksheet. Discuss using Think/Pair/Share procedures. (10 mins)

  • Sentence Deconstruction (10 mins)

    • Read the obituary aloud to students as they read along silently

    • Reread the selection sentence by sentence, filling out the sentence deconstruction chart (missing verbs and questions on the side) with appropriate scaffolding.

  • Cause and Effect Chart (10 mins)

    • Read “Boston Massacre” section on p. 67 in the textbook

    • Have students complete the cause and effect chart using Think/Write/Pair/Share procedures

  • Choosing Evidence (5 mins)

  • Paragraph Frame (5 mins)

  • Homework – have students write a paragraph using the paragraph frame.

  • Extension – show the Boston Massacre scene from the HBO miniseries John Adams (2008)

  • Assessment – can be completed as homework or as an in-class quiz


History-Social Science Content Standards:

8.1 Students understand the major events preceding the founding of the nation and relate their significance to the development of American constitutional democracy.


Historical and Social Sciences Analysis Skills:

Chronological and Spatial Thinking:

1. Students explain how major events are related to each other in time.

Research, Evidence, and Point of View

2. Students distinguish fact from opinion in historical narratives and stories.

4. Students assess the credibility of primary and secondary sources and draw sound

conclusions from them.

5. Students detect the different historical points of view on historical events and determine

the context in which the historical statements were made (the questions asked, sources used, author’s perspective).
Reading/Language Arts Content Standards:

Reading 8.2.3 Find similarities and differences between texts in the treatment, scope, or organization of ideas

Writing 8.1.3 Support theses or conclusions with analogies, paraphrases, quotations, opinions from authorities, comparisons, and similar devices

What is Propaganda?


  • Propaganda is information or ideas methodically spread to promote or injure a cause, movement, nation, etc.

  • It is used as advertisements to "sell" a product or idea or to persuade a person to do or believe something.

  • Examples include commercials, advertisements, movie trailers, lawn signs, etc.


Types of Propaganda


  • BANDWAGON—Everybody’s doing it!

  • TESTIMONIAL—Famous person uses product.

  • PLAIN FOLKS—Everyday people use product.

  • TRANSFER—Symbols or quotes used that are not associated with product

  • FEAR—People fear to use or not use the product.

  • LOGICAL FALLACIES—If one thing is true, it must always be true for someone else.

  • GLITTERING GENERALITIES—In the name of democracy, family values (when used positively), rights, civilization, even the word "American."

  • NAME-CALLING—As a negative image.

  • JINGLES—Songs or rhymes for you to sing and remember.

  • EMOTIONAL —Any other advertisements that invoke and emotion.

Propaganda http://its.guilford.k12.nc.us/act/grade6/gr6_files/Farnan_ads/Propaganda.ppt 10 Aug 2010



Name _________________________

Date __________________________

Period ________________________
1. Use the notes from the power point presentation on propaganda to review the following information.

a. Propaganda is information or ideas methodically spread to promote or injure a cause,

movement, nation, etc.

b. Propaganda is used as advertisements to "sell" a product or idea or to persuade a person to do or believe something.

c. Propaganda examples include commercials, advertisements, movie trailers, lawn signs, etc.
2. The ten types of propaganda:

Bandwagon

Logical Fallacies

Testimonial

Glittering Generalities

Plain Folks

Name-Calling

Transfer

Jingles

Fear

Emotional

Propaganda Activity http://its.guilford.k12.nc.us/act/grade6/gr6_files/Farnan_ads/PlanningSheet.doc 10 Aug 2010




“Enlargement of Paul Revere’s Engraving of the Boston Massacre” http://www.earlyamerica.com/review/winter96/enlargement.html 10 Aug 2010
ANALYZING ART Name: ___________________

Visual Analysis Worksheet

Title of Image: The Bloody Massacre Perpetrated in King Street Boston on March 5, 1770 by a party of the 29th Regiment

Artist: Paul Revere

Media: engraving

I see ….

It tells me …..

I wonder …..








Lesson Question: How did the Patriots use propaganda to turn the killings on King Street on March 5, 1770 into the Boston Massacre?


WHY: Analysis

How did Paul Revere use this painting as propaganda?



ANALYZING ART Name: ___________________

Visual Analysis Worksheet

Title of Image: The Bloody Massacre Perpetrated in King Street Boston on March 5, 1770 by a party of the 29th Regiment

Artist: Paul Revere

Media: engraving

I see ….

It tells me …..

I wonder …..








Lesson Question: How did the Patriots use propaganda to turn the killings on King Street on March 5, 1770 into the Boston Massacre?


WHY: Analysis

How did Paul Revere use this painting as propaganda?
The painting shows a group of British soldiers firing on an unarmed crowd. There’s an officer behind the soldiers, so it looks like a planned, organized attack.




Last Wednesday night died, Patrick Carr, an Inhabitant of this Town, of the Wound he received in King-Street on the bloody and execrable Night of the 5th Instant—He had just before left his Home, and upon his coming into the Street received the fatal Ball in his Hip which passed out at the opposite Side ; this is the fifth Life that has been sacrificed by the Rage of the Soldiery, but it is feared it will not be the last, as several others are dangerously languishing of their Wounds. His Remains were attended on Saturday last From Faneuil-Hall by a numerous and respectable Train of Mourners, to the same Grave, in which those who fell by the same Hands of Violence were interred the last Week.
Vocabulary:

execrable – deplorable

languishing – lingering

interred – buried


Obituary of Patrick Carr, the fifth and final victim of the Boston Massacre, published in "The Boston Gazette, and Country Journal" on 19 March 1770, with an engraving of his coffin by Paul Revere (1735-1818). http://americanrevolutionurness.webs.com/day9.htm (12 Aug 2010).

NAME_______________________________





-Time marker

-Connector words

-Prepositional phrase

-Circumstances

Who (subject)

Participants

Action words (verbs/ verb phrases)

Who, What, Where

Message

Questions or conclusions-

What connections can you make from this information?

Last Wednesday night







Patrick Carr, an Inhabitant of this Town, of the Wound

What happened to Patrick Carr?




he




in King-Street on the bloody and execrable Night of the 5th Instant--




He




his home


and upon







into the Street










the fatal Ball in his Hip

which

[the Ball]




out at the opposite Side ;


this




the fifth Life


Which phrase in this section portrays the British soldiers as villains?


which







by the Rage of the Soldiery,

but

it










it




the last

as

several others




of their Wounds.




His Remains




on Saturday last from Faneuil-Hall by a numerous and respectable Train of Mourners, to the same grave

How could this obituary be used as propaganda?

in which

those who




by the same Hands of Violence










the last Week.

NAME_______________________________





-Time marker

-Connector words

-Prepositional phrase

-Circumstances

Who (subject)

Participants

Action words (verbs/ verb phrases)

Who, What, Where

Message

Questions or conclusions-

What connections can you make from this information?

Last Wednesday night




died

Patrick Carr, an Inhabitant of this Town, of the Wound

What happened to Patrick Carr?

He was one of the victims; he was shot in the hip and later died.




he

received

in King-Street on the bloody and execrable Night of the 5th Instant--




He

had just before left

his home


and upon




coming

into the Street







received

the fatal Ball in his Hip

which

[the Ball]

passed

out at the opposite Side ;


this

is

the fifth Life


Which phrase in this section portrays the British soldiers as villains?

rage of the soldiery”



which




has been sacrificed

by the Rage of the Soldiery,

but

it

is feared







it

will not be

the last

as

several others

are dangerously languishing

of their Wounds.




His Remains

were attended

on Saturday last from Faneuil-Hall by a numerous and respectable Train of Mourners, to the same grave

How could this obituary be used as propaganda?

The obituary exaggerates the violence on King Street and portrays Patrick Carr as an innocent victim.

in which

those who

fell

by the same Hands of Violence







were interred

the last Week.

NAME: ____________________________________________________________________________________


The tension exploded on March 5th, 1770. A lone British solder standing guard had an argument with a colonist and struck him. A crowd gathered around the soldier, throwing snowballs and shouting insults. Soon a small number of troops arrived. The crowd grew louder and angrier by the moment. Some yelled, “Come on you rascals…Fire if you dare!” Suddenly, the soldiers fired into the crowd, instantly killing three men, including sailor Crispus Attucks. “Half Indian, half negro, and altogether rowdy,” as he was called, Attucks is the best-rememberd casualty of the incident. Two others died within a few days.
Samuel Adams and other protesters quickly spread the story of the shootings. They used it as propaganda – a story giving only one side in an argument – against the British. Colonists called the shootings the Boston Massacre. Paul Revere created an elaborate color print titled, “The Bloody Massacre perpetrated in King Street.”
Deverell, William and White, Deborah Gray. United States History: Independence to 1914. Orlando, Florida: Holt, Rinehart and Winston., 2006, Chapter 2:(The English Colonies), p 67
Cause and Effect


Cause

Effect

[Because] A lone British soldier standing guard had an argument with a colonist





[Because] A small number of troops arrived




[Because] Some [of the crowd] yelled “Come on you rascals…fire if you dare!”





[Because] Samuel Adams and other protesters spread the story of the shootings, using it as propaganda.







Lesson Question: How did the Patriots use propaganda to turn the killings on King Street into the Boston Massacre?

NAME: TEACHER KEY


The tension exploded on March 5th, 1770. A lone British solder standing guard had an argument with a colonist and struck him. A crowd gathered around the soldier, throwing snowballs and shouting insults. Soon a small number of troops arrived. The crowd grew louder and angrier by the moment. Some yelled, “Come on you rascals…Fire if you dare!” Suddenly, the soldiers fired into the crowd, instantly killing three men, including sailor Crispus Attucks. “Half Indian, half negro, and altogether rowdy,” as he was called, Attucks is the best-rememberd casualty of the incident. Two others died within a few days.
Samuel Adams and other protesters quickly spread the story of the shootings. They used it as propaganda – a story giving only one side in an argument – against the British. Colonists called the shootings the Boston Massacre. Paul Revere created an elaborate color print titled, “The Bloody Massacre perpetrated in King Street.”
Deverell, William and White, Deborah Gray. United States History: Independence to 1914. Orlando, Florida: Holt, Rinehart and Winston., 2006, Chapter 2:(The English Colonies), p 67
Cause and Effect


Cause

Effect

[Because] A lone British soldier standing guard had an argument with a colonist



a crowd gathered around the soldier, throwing snowballs and shouting insults.

[Because] A small number of troops arrived


the crowd got louder and angrier by the moment.

[Because] Some [of the crowd] yelled “Come on you rascals…fire if you dare!”



suddenly, the soldiers fired into the crowd, instantly killing three men.

[Because] Samuel Adams and other protesters spread the story of the shootings, using it as propaganda.

(this answer is not directly from the text)

Colonists became more likely to rebel against the British.


Lesson Question: How did the Patriots use propaganda to turn the killings on King Street into the Boston Massacre?
The Patriots used propaganda to exaggerate the violence of the killings on King Street and vilify the British soldiers in order to encourage colonists to unite in opposition to British policies.

Name: _____________________________________________________________________________________


Choosing Evidence
Read the thesis statement below and circle the three best pieces of supporting evidence.
Question: How did the Patriots turn the killings on King Street into the Boston Massacre?
Possible thesis: The Patriots used propaganda to turn the killings on King Street into the Boston Massacre by exaggerating the violence of the event, vilifying British soldiers, and portraying colonists as innocent victims.
1. Patriots began calling the event a “massacre” even though only five people died.
2. The crowd yelled, “Come on rascals…Fire if you dare!”
3. Samuel Adams and other protesters quickly spread the story of the shootings.
4. The Boston Massacre happened in 1775.
5. Newspapers portrayed the colonists as innocent victims and vilified the British soldiers.
6. The soldiers were charged with murder and represented by John Adams.

Name: TEACHER KEY


Choosing Evidence
Read the thesis statement below and circle the three best pieces of supporting evidence.
Question: How did the Patriots turn the killings on King Street into the Boston Massacre?
Possible thesis: The Patriots used propaganda to turn the killings on King Street into the Boston Massacre by exaggerating the violence of the event, vilifying British soldiers, and portraying colonists as innocent victims.
1. Patriots began calling the event a “massacre” even though only five people died.
2. The crowd yelled, “Come on rascals…Fire if you dare!”
3. Samuel Adams and other protesters quickly spread the story of the shootings.
4. The Boston Massacre happened in 1775.
5. Newspapers portrayed the colonists as innocent victims and vilified the British soldiers.
6. The soldiers were charged with murder and represented by John Adams.

BOSTON MASSACRE PARAGRAPH OUTLINE
Thesis statement: The Patriots used propaganda to turn the killings on King Street into the Boston Massacre.
Background Info (What happened?): The violence began when __________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Background Info (What is propaganda?): The Patriots used propaganda, __________________
_____________________________________________________________________________,
to try to use this event to change colonists’ attitudes towards the British.
Evidence: The obituary of Patrick Carr, one of the victims, shows that newspapers __________
_____________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Analysis (So what?): ___________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Evidence: Paul Revere’s engraving of the event shows that the Patriots ____________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Analysis (So what?): ___________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Concluding statement: Propaganda allowed the Patriots to change the way their fellow colonists felt
about the killings on King Street, transforming it from an unfortunate scuffle between soldiers and civilians to a
massacre which inspired colonists to unite in opposition to British policies.

Name: ______________________________________________________________________________________


Assessment
1. What was the Boston Massacre and why was it important in American history?

2. How did the engraving “The Boston Massacre” use the event as propaganda?

3. What year did the Boston Massacre take place?

a. 1609


b. 1770

c. 1860


d. 1940

4. Who was the first victim of the Boston Massacre?

a. Paul Revere

b. Benjamin Franklin

c. Crispus Attucks

d. Abigail Adams

Name: TEACHER KEY
Assessment
1. What was the Boston Massacre and why was it important in American history?
The Boston Massacre occurred in 1770 when British soldiers shot at a crowd of colonists. The Patriots used propaganda to turn this event into encouragement for colonists to unite against the British.

2. How did the engraving “The Boston Massacre” use the event as propaganda?


The engraving exaggerates the situation to show the British soldiers as villains and the colonists as innocent victims. It shows a line of soldiers with an officer behind them shooting at a crowd of unarmed colonists, making it seem like this was a planned attack.

3. What year did the Boston Massacre take place?

a. 1609

b. 1770

c. 1860


d. 1940

4. Who was the first victim of the Boston Massacre?

a. Paul Revere

b. Benjamin Franklin



c. Crispus Attucks

d. Abigail Adams


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