American Democracy in Word and Deed mdusd/ucb h-ssp 8th Grade Lesson: “Indian Wars” Developed by: Sarah Nice Teaching American History Grant Focus Question



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American Democracy in Word and Deed

MDUSD/UCB H-SSP

8th Grade Lesson: “Indian Wars”
Developed by: Sarah Nice
Teaching American History Grant Focus Question:

How have the words and deeds of people and institutions shaped democracy in the U.S.?


Grant Yearly Theme: Cultural/Intellectual
History-Social Science Standard: 8.12.2
Unit Topic: A Growing America
Lesson Focus Question: How did the relationship between the federal government and the Sioux change as federal policies toward Plains Indians evolved.
Lesson Teaching Thesis:

Students will learn that at first, the Sioux were willing to negotiate with the U.S. government. However, as white encroachment increased, the Sioux were willing to fight wars for their lands.


Reading and Writing Strategy/ies:

  • READING Strategy:

    • Primary Source Analysis

  • WRITING Strategy:

    • Paragraph outline


Lesson Assessment:

Students will complete a paragraph answering the focus question.


Suggested Amount of Time:

1-2 class periods


Textbook:

Deverell, William and White, Deborah Gray. United States History: Independence to 1914. Orlando, Florida: Holt, Rinehart and Winston., 2006, Chapter 17:Americans Move West 543-569pp


Primary Source Citation:

Source: General Records of the United States Government, Record Group 11. Treaty with the Sioux-Brule, Oglala, Miniconjou, Yanktonai, Hunkpapa, Blackfeet, Cuthead, Two Kettle, San Arcs, and Santee-and Arapaho. 28 April 1868. National Archives. Web. 26 July 2011.

Source: General Records of the United States Government, Record Group 11. Treaty with the Sioux-Brule, Oglala, Miniconjou, Yanktonai, Hunkpapa, Blackfeet, Cuthead, Two Kettle, San Arcs, and Santee-and Arapaho. 28 April 1868. National Archives. Web. 26 July 2011.

Context of the lesson in the unit:

This lesson takes place in the Growing America Unit (unit 6 in the textbook). Specifically, it occurs in the chapter titled “Americans Move West”. This unit/chapter comes after unit 5 (The Nation Breaks Apart) and the chapter on Reconstruction. Because many teachers do not get to this section of the book, this unit can also be done earlier in the year as part of a thematic unit on how Native Americans have been treated in the United States. It can also be used after chapter 9 (“The Age of Jackson”) section 3 (“Indian Removal”) to expand on Native American policy after the age of Jackson.


Lesson Procedure:


  1. Homework:

Students should read “Wars for the West” pg 553-558 for homework before the unit starts. Students should complete a chapter reading log as part of their homework.
2. Introduction

  • Step 1: Pair students together so that they can review what they learned in the previous night’s homework (see homework above). Each student should write down three important ideas/facts from their partner’s review.

  • Step 2: Call on a student to give the whole class a summary of what was learned from the homework. I use equity sticks (the students call them sticks of doom) to call on students. In this way, every student knows that there is a chance they will be called on to share.

  • Step 3: Make a KWL chart on the board to gather what students know and want to know about the topics covered in the homework.


3. Reading Strategy

  • Step 1: Divide class into five groups

  • Step 2: This is a jigsaw activity. Pass out excerpts from Treaty of Fort Laramie to each group. Some of the excerpts are shorter than others. Some excerpts have easier language. Use your knowledge of your students to distribute the excerpts to each group.

  • Step 3: One person from each group should read the excerpt to their group. Students should answer their set of questions as a group. Walk around the classroom to make sure students understand what their section was about and can accurately summarize their source.

  • Step 4: While students are working, make a chart on the whiteboard that looks like the one below:

Treaty Article:

One sentence summary:

Purpose/fairness:

I







IV







VII







X







XI










  • Step 5: Have each group summarize their section of the treaty and answer the reading questions for the rest of the class.

  • Step 6: As students are sharing responses have a student fill in the chart you made on the whiteboard. In the middle column the student should record the one sentence summary. For the third column, ask the students what they think that purpose of that part of the treaty was or if they think that part of the treaty was fair.

  • Step 7: Give students 5-10 minutes to answer the “after class share-out” questions.

  • Step 8: Call on students (or take volunteers) to share their responses.

  • Step 9: Pass out “Behold, my friend’s, the spring has come”

  • Step 10: Call on one student to read aloud the document.

  • Step 11: Pass out the Analyzing a Primary Source worksheet. Give students 5-10 minutes to fill out the focus question, title of source, author, genre, who, and where box.

  • Step 12: Call on students to give this information aloud.

  • Step 13: Complete one example as a class in the observations box.

  • Step 14: Give students 20 minutes to complete the observations box.

  • Step 14: Allow students to share out what they have in their observations box with a partner/group for 10 minutes. Review as a class.


4. Writing Strategy

  • Hand out basic analytical frame/outline and give students 20-30 minutes to complete.


History-Social Science Content Standards:

8.12.2 Identify the reasons for the development of federal Indian policy and the wars with American Indians and their relationship to agricultural development and industrialization.



Historical and Social Sciences Analysis Skills:

Historical Interpretation

1. Students explain the central issues and problems from the past, placing people and events in a matrix of time and place.

2. Students understand and distinguish cause, effect, sequence, and correlation in historical events, including the long-and short-term causal relations.


Reading/Language Arts Content Standards:

Writing 1.1 Create compositions that establish a controlling impression, have a coherent thesis, and end with a clear and well-supported conclusion.

Writing Applications 2.3 Write research reports: a) Define a thesis. b) Record important ideas, concepts, and direct quotations from significant information sources and paraphrase and summarize all perspectives on the topic, as appropriate. c) Use a variety of primary and secondary sources and distinguish the nature and value of each.

Common Core State Standards:

Reading: Informational Text:


Key Ideas and Details

  • RI.8.1. Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

  • RI.8.2. Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to supporting ideas; provide an objective summary of the text.

Writing:


W.8.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.

  • Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.

  • Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.

  • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.

  • Establish and maintain a formal style.

  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.

Speaking and Listening:

SL.8.1.


  • Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 8 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.

  • Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.


Reading Log / Discussion Guide Name ________________________________

Chapter _______, Section ________, Pages___________




Chapter Title:

Section Title:


In Your Own Words:


Main Idea from text:

In Your Own Words:


TAKE CORNELL NOTES OR CREATE A ROUGH OUTLINE USING THE HEADINGS FROM THE BOOK


People


Events

Terms / Vocabulary


Timeline







Section Synopsis (What are the most significant events/people in this section?)




Teacher Key
Reading Log / Discussion Guide Name ________________________________

Chapter 17, Section 2, Pages 553-559




Chapter Title: Americans Move West

Section Title:

Wars for the West





In Your Own Words:

Fighting in the West between Native Americans and the U.S.



Main Idea from text:

  1. As settlers moved to the Great Plains, they encountered the Plains Indians.

  2. The U.S. Army and Native Americans fought in the northern plains, the Southwest, and the Far West.

  3. Despite efforts to reform U.S. policy toward Native Americans, conflict continued.

In Your Own Words:

The U.S government and Plains Indians fought wars in the West, despite efforts to reform U.S. policy




TAKE CORNELL NOTES OR CREATE A ROUGH OUTLINE USING THE HEADINGS FROM THE BOOK


People

Crazy Horse- ambushed and killed 81 cavalry troops on the Bozeman trail

George Armstrong Custer-…


Events

Treaty of Fort Laramie- the first major treaty between the U.S. government and Plains Indians

Treaty of Medicine Lodge-…


Terms / Vocabulary

Reservations- areas of federal land set aside for Native Americans

Buffalo Soldiers-…


Timeline

U
Teacher Key


se events from section to create a rough timeline. Include previous class topics to set up a historical timeframe.







Section Synopsis (What are the most significant events/people in this section?)
In the mid 1800s more and more people started moving out West they wanted protection from the Indian groups they encountered (the Plains Indians). At first the government made treaties with the Native Americans. However, as these treaties were encroached upon by white settlers/pioneers, Native Americans turned to violence to defend their lands. This led to wars between the Plains Indians and the United States.





Transcript of Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868)

ARTICLE I.


From this day forward all war between the parties to this agreement shall forever cease. The government of the United States desires peace, and its honor is hereby pledged to keep it. The Indians desire peace, and they now pledge their honor to maintain it.

If bad men among the whites, or among other people subject to the authority of the United States, shall commit any wrong upon the person or property of the Indians, the United States will, upon proof made to the agent, and forwarded to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs at Washington city, proceed at once to cause the offender to be arrested and punished according to the laws of the United States, and also reimburse1 the injured person for the loss sustained2.

If bad men among the Indians shall commit a wrong or depredation3 upon the person or property of nay one [anyone], white, black, or Indian, subject to the authority of the United States, and at peace therewith, the Indians herein named solemnly agree that they will, upon proof made to their agent, and notice by him, deliver up the wrongdoer to the United States, to be tried and punished according to its laws […]

Source: General Records of the United States Government, Record Group 11. Treaty with the Sioux-Brule, Oglala, Miniconjou, Yanktonai, Hunkpapa, Blackfeet, Cuthead, Two Kettle, San Arcs, and Santee-and Arapaho. 28 April 1868. National Archives. Web. 26 July 2011.

*** With your group develop a one-sentence summary of this article: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ .


Treaty of Fort Laramie Questions- Article I

1. Restate the first sentence in your own words.

2. What will happen if “bad men among the whites” commit a wrong against an Indian?

3. What will happen if “bad men among the Indians” commit a wrong against anyone (white, black, or Indian)?

After Class Share-out:


  1. What was the purpose of the Treaty of Fort Laramie (in one sentence)?



  1. Do you think the Treaty was fair? Why or why not?





Transcript of Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868)

ARTICLE IV.


The United States agrees, at its own proper expense, to construct, at some place on the Missouri river, near the centre of said reservation where timber and water may be convenient, the following buildings[…] a residence for the physician, to cost not more than $3,000; and five other buildings, for a carpenter, farmer, blacksmith, miller, and engineer-each to cost not exceeding $2,000; also, a school-house, or mission building, so soon as a sufficient4 number of children can be induced5 by the agent to attend school, which shall not cost exceeding $5,000 […]

Source: General Records of the United States Government, Record Group 11. Treaty with the Sioux-Brule, Oglala, Miniconjou, Yanktonai, Hunkpapa, Blackfeet, Cuthead, Two Kettle, San Arcs, and Santee-and Arapaho. 28 April 1868. National Archives. Web. 26 July 2011.

*** With your group develop a one-sentence summary of this article: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ .

Treaty of Fort Laramie Questions- Article IV


  1. What buildings does the U.S. government agree to build on Native American lands?


  1. Why do you think the U.S. government agrees to build these things?



  1. How will these places benefit Native Americans?



  1. How will these places benefit the U.S. government?

After Class Share-out:



  1. What was the purpose of the Treaty of Fort Laramie (in one sentence)?



  1. Do you think the Treaty was fair? Why or why not?


Transcript of Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868)

ARTICLE VII.


In order to insure the civilization of the Indians entering into this treaty, the necessity of education is admitted, especially of such of them as are or may be settled on said agricultural reservations, and they, therefore, pledge themselves to compel their children, male and female, between the ages of six and sixteen years, to attend school, and it is hereby made the duty of the agent for said Indians to see that this stipulation6 is strictly complied with […]

Source: General Records of the United States Government, Record Group 11. Treaty with the Sioux-Brule, Oglala, Miniconjou, Yanktonai, Hunkpapa, Blackfeet, Cuthead, Two Kettle, San Arcs, and Santee-and Arapaho. 28 April 1868. National Archives. Web. 26 July 2011.

*** With your group develop a one-sentence summary of this article: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ .

Treaty of Fort Laramie Questions- Article VII


  1. According to the treaty, why is education a necessity?



  1. Do male and female children have to attend school?




  1. Children must start school at what age? Children can stop attending school at what age?




  1. Why do you think the U.S. government required Native American students to go to school?

After Class Share-out:



  1. What was the purpose of the Treaty of Fort Laramie (in one sentence)?



  1. Do you think the Treaty was fair? Why or why not?


Transcript of Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868)

ARTICLE X.


[…] the United States agrees to deliver at the agency house on the reservation herein named, on or before the first day of August of each year, for thirty years, the following articles, to wit:

For each male person over 14 years of age, a suit of good substantial woollen [sic] clothing, consisting of coat, pantaloons7, flannel shirt, hat, and a pair of home-made socks.

For each female over 12 years of age, a flannel shirt, or the goods necessary to make it, a pair of woollen hose8, 12 yards of calico9, and 12 yards of cotton domestics.

For the boys and girls under the ages named, such flannel and cotton goods as may be needed to make each a suit as aforesaid, together with a pair of woollen hose for each.

And in order that the Commissioner of Indian Affairs may be able to estimate properly for the articles herein named, it shall be the duty of the agent each year to forward to him a full and exact census10 of the Indians, on which the estimate from year to year can be based.

And in addition to the clothing herein named, the sum of $10 for each person entitled to the beneficial effects of this treaty shall be annually appropriated11 for a period of 30 years, while such persons roam and hunt, and $20 for each person who engages in farming, to be used by the Secretary of the Interior in the purchase of such articles as from time to time the condition and necessities of the Indians may indicate to be proper.[…]



Source: General Records of the United States Government, Record Group 11. Treaty with the Sioux-Brule, Oglala, Miniconjou, Yanktonai, Hunkpapa, Blackfeet, Cuthead, Two Kettle, San Arcs, and Santee-and Arapaho. 28 April 1868. National Archives. Web. 26 July 2011.

*** With your group develop a one-sentence summary of this article: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ .

Treaty of Fort Laramie Questions- Article X

1. What items does the U.S. government agree to provide Native Americans with?

2. How long does the U.S. government agree to supply these items?
3. In order to get these items, what must the agent provide for the Commissioner of Indian Affairs?
4. How much will the U.S. government pay to those who hunt and roam? To those who farm?
5. Why do you think the U.S. government agrees to pay more to people who choose to farm?
After Class Share-out:


  1. What was the purpose of the Treaty of Fort Laramie (in one sentence)?



  1. Do you think the Treaty was fair? Why or why not?


Transcript of Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868)

ARTICLE XI.


In consideration of the advantages and benefits conferred12 by this treaty and the many pledges of friendship by the United States, the tribes who are parties to this agreement hereby stipulate13 that they will relinquish14 all right to occupy permanently the territory outside their reservations as herein defined, but yet reserve the right to hunt on any lands north of North Platte, and on the Republican Fork of the Smoky Hill river, so long as the buffalo may range thereon in such numbers as to justify the chase. And they, the said Indians, further expressly agree:

1st. That they will withdraw all opposition to the construction of the railroads now being built on the plains.

2d. That they will permit the peaceful construction of any railroad not passing over their reservation as herein defined.

3d. That they will not attack any persons at home, or travelling, nor molest15 or disturb any wagon trains, coaches, mules, or cattle belonging to the people of the United States, or to persons friendly therewith.

4th. They will never capture, or carry off from the settlements, white women or children.

5th. They will never kill or scalp white men, nor attempt to do them harm […]



Source: General Records of the United States Government, Record Group 11. Treaty with the Sioux-Brule, Oglala, Miniconjou, Yanktonai, Hunkpapa, Blackfeet, Cuthead, Two Kettle, San Arcs, and Santee-and Arapaho. 28 April 1868. National Archives. Web. 26 July 2011.

*** With your group develop a one-sentence summary of this article: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ .

Treaty of Fort Laramie Questions- Article XI


  1. In your own words, what do the Native Americans who agree to do?



  1. Which one did you find the most interesting/surprising?

After Class Share-out:



  1. What was the purpose of the Treaty of Fort Laramie (in one sentence)?



  1. Do you think the Treaty was fair? Why or why not?

Treaty of Fort Laramie Questions- Article I

1
Teacher Key


. Restate the first sentence in your own words.

The United States and Indians will no longer be at war.

2. What will happen if “bad men among the whites” commit a wrong against an Indian?

They will be arrested and punished according to the laws of the United States.

3. What will happen if “bad men among the Indians” commit a wrong against anyone (white, black, or Indian)?

They will be arrested and turned over to the United States.

After Class Share-out:


  1. What was the purpose of the Treaty of Fort Laramie (in one sentence)?

The purpose of the Treaty of Fort Laramie was to end wars between the Unites States and the Indians.

  1. Do you think the Treaty was fair? Why or why not?

I DO think the treaty was fair because the Indians still got to stay on their land and hunt. They also received things like clothing and money in exchange for staying on their land and not attacking people.

I DO NOT think the treaty was fair. The Native Americans had to give up all other land that was not on the reservation. Even though the US provided a school, this was only a way to make Indians more like white people. Also, how do we know if they really wanted stuff like cloth?

Treaty of Fort Laramie Questions- Article IV


  1. W
    Teacher Key
    hat buildings does the U.S. government agree to build on Native American lands?

The U.S. government is going to build a house for the doctor (physician) and buildings for a carpenter, farmer, blacksmith, miller, and engineer. They are also going to build a school-house/mission building.




  1. Why do you think the U.S. government agrees to build these things?

Because they really want the Indians to sign the treaty so that U.S. citizens can move out West and be safe.



  1. How will these places benefit Native Americans?

The Native Americans get new buildings with people to work in them. These industries were very important at the time.





  1. How will these places benefit the U.S. government?

These places helped convince the Native Americans to sign the treaty. Also, a school-house allows Native American children to be indoctrinated with U.S./white ways.

After Class Share-out:


  1. What was the purpose of the Treaty of Fort Laramie (in one sentence)?

See teacher key for Article I

  1. Do you think the Treaty was fair? Why or why not?

See teacher key for Article I

Treaty of Fort Laramie Questions- Article VII



  1. A
    Teacher Key
    ccording to the treaty, why is education a necessity?

Education is meant to “insure the civilization of the Indians”.





  1. Do male and female children have to attend school?

Yes.



  1. Children must start school at what age? Children can stop attending school at what age?

They must go between the ages of six and sixteen.




  1. Why do you think the U.S. government required Native American students to go to school?

Because they wanted to “teach” the Native Americans the white man’s ways. They wanted to civilize them.

After Class Share-out:


  1. What was the purpose of the Treaty of Fort Laramie (in one sentence)?

See teacher key for Article I

  1. Do you think the Treaty was fair? Why or why not?

See teacher key for Article I

Treaty of Fort Laramie Questions- Article X

1
Teacher Key
. What items does the U.S. government agree to provide Native Americans with?

For males 14 years and older: woolen suit (coat, pantaloons, flannel shirt, hat, socks)

For females 12 years and older: a flannel shirt, woolen hose, 12 yards of calico, 12 yards of cotton

For boys and girls younger than the ages listed: enough flannel and cotton to make a suit and a pair of woolen hose


2. How long does the U.S. government agree to supply these items?


30 years

3. In order to get these items, what must the agent provide for the Commissioner of Indian Affairs?


A census of the Indian population

4. How much will the U.S. government pay to those who hunt and roam? To those who farm?


Hunters and roamers receive $10 while farmers receive $20.

5. Why do you think the U.S. government agrees to pay more to people who choose to farm?


The U.S wants the Indians to settle down and farm. Hunting up buffalo requires a lot of space…space that white settlers want.

After Class Share-out:



  1. What was the purpose of the Treaty of Fort Laramie (in one sentence)?

See teacher key for Article I

  1. Do you think the Treaty was fair? Why or why not?

See teacher key for Article I

Treaty of Fort Laramie Questions- Article XI



  1. I
    Teacher Key
    n your own words, what do the Native Americans who agree to do?

Native Americans agree to:



  • Give up all land outside the reservation

  • Allow the construction of railroads currently being built on the plains

  • Allow the future construction of railroads on the plains

  • They will not attack travellers

  • They will not capture or hold hostage white women and children

  • They will never harm, kill, or scalp a white man




  1. Which one did you find the most interesting/surprising?

Answers will vary


After Class Share-out:

  1. What was the purpose of the Treaty of Fort Laramie (in one sentence)?

See teacher key for Article I

  1. Do you think the Treaty was fair? Why or why not?

See teacher key for Article I

“Behold, my friends, the spring is come” (Sitting Bull, 1875)


The chief and wise-man of the Sioux, Sitting Bull (c. 1830-1890) was their greatest leader and a sharp-witted and poetic speaker. At an Indian council at the Powder River, Sitting Bull described his mistrust of the American people.

Behold, my friends, the spring is come; the earth gladly received the embraces of the sun, and we shall soon see the results of their love! Every seed is awakened, and all animal life. It is through this mysterious power that we too have our being, and we therefore yield16 to our neighbors, even to our animal neighbors, the same right as ourselves to inhabit this vast17 land.

Yet hear me, friends! We have now to deal with another people, small and feeble18 when our forefathers first met with them, but now great and overbearing. Strangely enough, they have a mind to till the soil. And the love of possessions is a disease in them. These people have made many rules that the rich may break, but the poor may not! They have a religion in which the poor worship, but the rich will not! They even take tithes19 of the poor and weak to support the rich and those who rule. They claim this mother of ours, the Earth, for their own use, and fence their neighbors away from her, and deface20 her with their buildings and their refuse. They compel her to produce out of season, and when sterile she is made to take medicine in order to produce again. All this is sacrilege21.

This nation is like a spring freshet; it overruns its banks and destroys all who are in its path. We cannot dwell22 side by side. Only seven years ago we made a treaty by which we were assured that the buffalo country should be left us forever. Now they threaten to take that from us also. My brothers, shall we submit23? Or shall we say to them: “First kill me, before you can take possession of my fatherland!”


Source: Blaisdell, Bob, ed. Great Speeches by Native Americans . New York; Courier Dover Publication, 2000. 166. Print

ANALYZING A PRIMARY SOURCE
Focus Question: How did the relationship between the federal government and the Sioux change as federal policies toward Plains Indians evolved.
Title of Source: _____________________________________ Author: ____________________ Genre (letter, cartoon, photo?): _________________


WHEN & WHERE

Place and Time: Where and When was it delivered?

Historical Context: What was going on during this event or era/period?




WHO

Author: background, sex, race, social class, education; credibility; expertise. What is his/her perspective?

Audience: Who is the intended audience?



OBSERVATIONS

DESCRIPTION OF SOURCE

What is said…

Quote...

MESSAGE/ARGUMENT

The speaker is trying to tell me…

QUESTIONS

I wonder…

My reaction to the source is…

straight arrow connector 3







straight arrow connector 4





straight arrow connector 5






Teacher Key
ANALYZING A PRIMARY SOURCE
Focus Question: How did the relationship between the federal government and the Sioux change as federal policies toward Plains Indians evolved.
Title of Source: Behold my friends, the spring is come Author: Sitting Bull Genre (letter, cartoon, photo?): Speech


WHEN & WHERE

Place and Time: Where and When was it delivered?

Given at an Indian council at Powder River in 1875



Historical Context: What was going on during this event or era/period?

Expansion out West. Discovery of Comstock Lode in 1859. Expansion of cattle industry into the Great Plains. Building of the transcontinental railroad. Homestead Act of 1862. Navajo captives led on the Long Walk in 1864. The Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868).






WHO

Author: background, sex, race, social class, education; credibility; expertise. What is his/her perspective?

Sitting Bull, male, chief and wise-man of the Sioux. Fought against U.S. government.



Audience: Who is the intended audience?

Other Native Americans at an Indian council





OBSERVATIONS

DESCRIPTION OF SOURCE

What is said…

Quote...

MESSAGE/ARGUMENT

The speaker is trying to tell me…

QUESTIONS

I wonder…

My reaction to the source is…

straight arrow connector 6“ We therefore yield to our neighbors, even to our animal neighbors, the same rights as ourselves to inhabit this vast land”

The Native Americans are willing to share land/inhabit it with others.

Questions/ reactions will vary.


straight arrow connector 7“[…] the love of possessions is a disease in them. These people have made many rules that the rich may break, but the poor may not!”

The white people are materialistic and the rich do not have to follow rules.

straight arrow connector 8“Only seven years ago we made a treaty […]. Now they threaten to take that from us also. My brothers, shall we submit? Or shall we say to them: First kill me, before you can take possession of my fatherland.”

The Treaty of Fort Laramie is being violated. The Native Americans are willing to fight before they give up their land

BASIC ANALYTICAL PARAGRAPH FRAME/OUTLINE
Focus Question: How did the relationship between the federal government and the Sioux change as federal policies toward Plains Indians evolved.
Thesis statement:________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Evidence (Argument) 1:___________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Evidence (Argument) 2:___________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Evidence (Argument) 3:___________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Analysis: These arguments show ______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Concluding statement: ___________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________



1 Reimburse: to pay back to someone

2 Sustained: suffered

3 Depredation: An act of attacking or plundering

4 Sufficient: enough to meet the needs of a situation

5 Induced: persuaded, convinced

6 Stipulation: a condition, a requirement

7 Pantaloons: pants

8 Hose: socks

9 Calico: patterned cloth

10 Census: an official count or survey of a population

11 Appropriated: given for a special purpose

12 Conferred: given

13 Stipulate: specifies, states

14 Relinquish: give up, forfeit

15 Molest: pester or harass

16 Yield: give up, surrender, give way

17 Vast: large, big, expansive

18 Feeble: weak

19 Tithes: donations

20 Deface: disfigure, to mar the appearance of

21 Sacrilege: violation of a sacred object in words or actions

22 Dwell: live

23 Submit: give in, accept or yield to a superior force


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