American Democracy in Word and Deed mdusd/ucb h-ssp 11th Grade Lesson Developed by



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American Democracy in Word and Deed

MDUSD/UCB H-SSP

11th Grade Lesson
Developed by: Jen Collier, Laima Haider, Thatcher Palmer, Ryan Boyd.

(Revised by: Thatcher Palmer, 8/12)


Teaching American History Grant Focus Question:

How have the words and deeds of people and institutions shaped democracy in the U.S.?


Grant Yearly Theme: Economics
History-Social Science Standards: 11.6.5 & 11.7.4
Unit Topic: WWII
Lesson Focus Question:

How and why did government policy toward migrant Mexican workers change from the Great Depression to WWII?


Lesson Teaching Thesis:

Based on the experience of the Great Depression and WWII, the American government treated Mexican and Mexican-American workers as resources to be utilized or discarded based on economic and wartime realities. During the Great Depression, with a shortage of available jobs, Mexican workers were encouraged to leave the country or were deported. Due to wartime production and military conscription during WWII, a large labor force was needed in agriculture and the railroad industry. Consequently, Mexican workers were asked to come back and join the workforce through the Bracero Program.


Reading and Writing Strategies:

Reading Strategy:

-Reading with Check For Understanding Questions

-Reading with Cause and Effect Chart

Writing Strategy:

-Primary Source Analysis

-Framed Paragraph

Lesson Assessment:

Students will be assessed based on their ability to analyze the primary sources (using the “Analyzing Quotes From Primary Sources” chart) and answer the focus question in a well-organized framed-paragraph (“The Bracero Program Framed Paragraph”).


Suggested Amount of Time:

Three to four 60-minute class periods.



Textbook:

Danzer, Gerald et. al. The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21st Century. Evanston, Illinois: McDougal Litell Inc., 2006, pp. 506, 662.



Primary Source Citation:





Context of the lesson in the unit:

Students will have studied both the Great Depression and WWII by the time we discuss the Bracero program (towards the end of the WWII unit).


Lesson Procedure:
1. Introduction

Step One:

-Students will be asked to answer the following questions in a Think-Write-Pair-Share format as part of a starter/warm-up activity (teacher puts on board):


During the Industrial Revolution, the U.S. needed workers, and our government encouraged immigration to the U.S. During this time period over 20 million immigrants came (mostly legally) to the U.S. from Europe, Asia, Mexico, and other parts of the world. Today, there is a shortage of jobs in the U.S., immigration quotas have been set, and relatively few numbers of immigrants are allowed into the country (even legally). Do you think the government should begin letting more immigrants into the country legally again? Why or why not? Explain your answer.
Step Two:

-Students will then be asked to share their written answers to the questions with a partner.


Step Three:

-Teacher will lead a whole-class discussion on the topic.

-Teacher will help students to draw out important points during discussion.

-Students will turn in their individual answers.




2. Reading Strategy
Step One:

-First, students will read “The Bracero Program” reading with the “Check For Understanding” questions.
Step Two:

-Next, students will answer the “Check For Understanding” questions either in partners,

as a whole class, or individually (at the teacher’s discretion).
Step Three:

-(After analyzing primary sources) students will read “Hispanic Americans: Migrant Workers and Braceros” while filling out a “Cause and Effect” activity chart.


3. Textbook

-Students will read the section of their text on the deportation of Mexican laborers and the Bracero Program, pages 506 and 662.
4. Primary Source Analysis
Step One:

-Students will look at the “Bracero Program Primary Source # 1” and the “Bracero

Program Primary Source # 2” together as a class.

Note: While looking over the primary sources, the teacher will likely need to help guide

the students through the time-frame so that they know that they are looking at one source

from the Depression-era and another source from the WWII-era.
Step Two:

-After looking at the “Bracero Program Primary Source # 1,” the students will fill out the

chart that helps them to define the word “repatriate.” This can be a teacher-led activity, if necessary.
Step Three:

-Next, students will fill out the “Analyzing Quotes From Primary Sources” chart. Students should work alone or in pairs on this activity so that they can construct the analysis themselves.


5. Writing Strategy

-After completing the “Hispanic Americans: Migrant Workers and Braceros” reading and

the associated “Cause and Effect” chart, students will answer the Lesson Focus Question in a well-organized framed-paragraph (“The Bracero Program Framed Paragraph”).

6. Homework:

-Students will finish their framed-paragraph writing assignment (if not finished), due the next day.
History-Social Science Content Standards:
11.6.5 Trace the advances and retreats of organized labor, from the creation of the American Federation of Labor and the Congress of Industrial Organizations to current issues of a postindustrial, multinational economy, including the United Farm Workers in California.
11.7.4 Analyze Roosevelt’s foreign policy during World War II.
Historical and Social Science Analysis Skills:
3. Students explain how the present is connected to the past, identifying both similarities and differences between the two, and how some things change over time and some things stay the same.
Common Core State Standards
RH.11-12.2. Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among the key details and ideas.
RH.11-12.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including analyzing how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term over the course of a text (e.g., how Madison defines faction in Federalist No. 10).
RH.11-12.7. Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, as well as in words) in order to address a question or solve a problem.
RH.11-12.10. By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 11–CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Name:




The Bracero Program
During the Great Depression, unemployment in the U.S. hit as high as 25 percent. As fewer jobs became available, many Americans began to resent Mexican migrant workers in the U.S. because they felt that they were taking their jobs. As a result, the U.S. government began deporting hundreds of thousands of Mexican workers who did not have work visas. These workers were told that if they returned to the U.S. without legal visas, they would be considered criminals.

All of this changed when the U.S. entered WWII. The U.S. participation in the war caused the U.S. government to start a massive war production program. Weapons, supplies, food, and transportation of goods all needed to be provided in mass quantities. Producing all of these war materials required a very large labor force. Whereas during the Great Depression there had been a shortage of jobs, during the war there was a shortage of labor. To solve this labor shortage problem, the U.S. government made an agreement with the Mexican government that created a program to allow limited numbers of Mexican workers to come to the U.S. to work in the agricultural and railway industries. This program, which began in 1942 and lasted until 1964, allowed over 4 million Mexican workers to legally enter the U.S. The program quickly came to be known as the “Bracero Program.”

Many Mexican workers saw this as an excellent opportunity, and they formed large crowds at border towns in hopes of being accepted into the program and into the U.S. For many of the workers who were accepted into the Bracero Program, however, life in the U.S. was very difficult. Many of the “Braceros” faced hardships such as low pay, long working hours, and brutal, unsafe and unsanitary working conditions. Furthermore, racism against Mexican immigrants in the U.S. was rampant during this time, and as more and more Braceros crossed the border, the racism became more apparent.

Still, hundreds of thousands of Mexican migrant workers continued to flow over the border (both legally and illegally) because most of them believed that they had greater opportunities even within the Bracero Program than they did amongst the harsh economic conditions of Mexico.



Check For Understanding:

  1. Why were Mexican migrant workers deported from the U.S. during the Great Depression?




  1. How did the U.S. participation in WWII cause a need for a larger labor force within the U.S.?




  1. Which industries did most “braceros” work in?




  1. What kinds of working conditions did many “braceros” face when they began working in the U.S.?




  1. Why did more and more Mexican workers continue to come to the U.S. in search of work despite these

conditions?
Source: “Los Braceros” http://www.farmworkers.org/benglish.html
KEY


The Bracero Program

During the Great Depression, unemployment in the U.S. hit as high as 25 percent. As fewer jobs became available, many Americans began to resent Mexican migrant workers in the U.S. because they felt that they were taking their jobs. As a result, the U.S. government began deporting hundreds of thousands of Mexican workers who did not have work visas. These workers were told that if they returned to the U.S. without legal visas, they would be considered criminals.

All of this changed when the U.S. entered WWII. The U.S. participation in the war caused the U.S. government to start a massive war production program. Weapons, supplies, food, and transportation of goods all needed to be provided in mass quantities. Producing all of these war materials required a very large labor force. Whereas during the Great Depression there had been a shortage of jobs, during the war there was a shortage of labor. To solve this labor shortage problem, the U.S. government made an agreement with the Mexican government that created a program to allow limited numbers of Mexican workers to come to the U.S. to work in the agricultural and railway industries. This program, which began in 1942 and lasted until 1964, allowed over 4 million Mexican workers to legally enter the U.S. The program quickly came to be known as the “Bracero Program.”

Many Mexican workers saw this as an excellent opportunity, and they formed large crowds at border towns in hopes of being accepted into the program and into the U.S. For many of the workers who were accepted into the Bracero Program, however, life in the U.S. was very difficult. Many of the “Braceros” faced hardships such as low pay, long working hours, and brutal, unsafe and unsanitary working conditions. Furthermore, racism against Mexican immigrants in the U.S. was rampant during this time, and as more and more Braceros crossed the border, the racism became more apparent.

Still, hundreds of thousands of Mexican migrant workers continued to flow over the border (both legally and illegally) because most of them believed that they had greater opportunities even within the Bracero Program than they did amongst the harsh economic conditions of Mexico.



Check For Understanding:


  1. Why were Mexican migrant workers deported from the U.S. during the Great Depression?

During the Depression, there was a shortage of jobs and the American government wanted any available jobs to go to American citizens.

  1. How did the U.S. participation in WWII cause a need for a larger labor force within the U.S.?

The mass production of war materials and supplies created a labor shortage in the U.S. during WWII, and Mexican workers could be used to fill those jobs.

  1. Which industries did most “braceros” work in?

They worked mostly in agriculture and railroad maintenance.

  1. What kinds of working conditions did many “braceros” face when they began working in the U.S.?

They faced low pay, long working hours, unsafe and unsanitary conditions, and racism.

  1. Why did more and more Mexican workers continue to come to the U.S. in search of work despite these conditions?

They believed that they had greater opportunities for a higher standard of living in the U.S., whether they worked legally under the Bracero Program or illegally as undocumented workers.
Source: “Los Braceros” http://www.farmworkers.org/benglish.html
Bracero Program Primary Source # 1

source:



To help you understand what the word “repatriate” means, let’s fill out the following chart together as a class:

Term:

Repatriate




Define:

Image:


KEY


Term:

Repatriate




Define:
To restore or return to the country of birth, citizenship, or origin.

Image:
Students will draw pictures/images here that will help them to understand the meaning of the word “repatriate.” The teacher can help the students to generate ideas here if necessary.


Bracero Program Primary Source # 2

source:

Name:

Analyzing Quotes From Primary Sources
Lesson Focus Question: How and why did government policy toward migrant Mexican workers change from the Great Depression to WWII?
Directions: Fill in the chart below using the quotes from the two primary sources in order to analyze the significance/meaning of each primary source.


Quote from text (Evidence)

Explanation of quote:

What does it say in your own words?



Analysis:

What do you think it means or implies?



Relevance to Focus Question:

This shows/proves that ….




Primary Source # 1

“This is an opportunity for you to repatriate on your own Government’s Boat.”













Primary Source # 2

“Farmers and orchardists in Washington state have placed orders for approximately 6000 imported Mexican workers…”












KEY

Analyzing Quotes From Primary Sources
Lesson Focus Question: How and why did government policy toward migrant Mexican workers change from the Great Depression to WWII?
Directions: Fill in the chart below using the quotes from the two primary sources in order to analyze the significance/meaning of each primary source.


Quote from text (Evidence)

Explanation of quote:

What does it say in your own words?



Analysis:

What do you think it means or implies?



Relevance to Focus Question:

This shows/proves that ….




Primary Source # 1

“This is an opportunity for you to repatriate on your own Government’s Boat.”




This is a way for Mexican immigrants to go back to their home country on their own government’s boat.

This means/implies that the U.S. government wants Mexican migrant workers to go back to Mexico because of the Great Depression’s resulting job shortage.

This shows that whereas the U.S. government had not previously been as aggressive about deporting Mexican immigrants, when job shortages came about as a result of the Depression, the government suddenly wanted the Mexican immigrants to be gone.

Primary Source # 2

“Farmers and orchardists in Washington state have placed orders for approximately 6000 imported Mexican workers…”



Farmers in Washington state have arranged for 6,000 Mexican migrant workers to come back to the U.S. to work.

It means that the U.S. now suddenly wanted Mexican migrant workers to come back to work in the U.S. (to help with the war effort) even though they had gone to great lengths to get them to leave during the Depression.

This shows that the U.S. government was basing its policy on immigration on its own economic needs without ever taking into consideration the needs and/or working/living conditions of the migrant workers themselves.



Hispanic Americans: Migrant Workers and Braceros (1930s-1964)
“During the Great Depression of the 1930s, racial anxieties ran high. Mexicans in California and other states were seen as competition for already scarce jobs. Various civic organizations and chambers of commerce successfully pressed local, county, and state governments to round up Mexican Americans indiscriminately (citizens and non-citizens alike) and "repatriate" them to Mexico.

This situation shifted in the early 1940s. World War II brought a labor shortage as American workers joined the armed forces. In 1942, Congress enacted the Emergency Labor Program — called the Bracero Program (brazos is the Spanish word for arms) — to allow temporary Mexican migrants into the United States to work in American industry.

Source: <http://www.calisphere.universityofcalifornia.edu/calcultures/ethnic_groups/subtopic3b.html>

NAME_________________________


Cause and Effect

Cause

Effect

Because of the Great Depression






Because Mexican-Americans were seen as competition for scarce jobs





Because of the labor shortage during World War II







Lesson Question: How and why did government policy toward migrant Mexican workers change from the Great Depression to WWII?

KEY

Cause and Effect



Cause

Effect

Because of the Great Depression



Racial tensions ran high.


Because Mexican-Americans were seen as competition for scarce jobs


Mexican-Americans were repatriated to Mexico (citizen or not).


Because of the labor shortage during World War II


Congress enacted the Bracero Program to allow temporary citizenship to Mexican-Americans.




Lesson Question: How and why did government policy toward migrant Mexican workers change from the Great Depression to WWII?

Name:



The Bracero Program Framed Paragraph

Background: During the time between the Great Depression and WWII, the economic, political, and social landscapes of the U.S. changed. U.S. government policy toward migrant Mexican workers, for example, changed dramatically. This change in policy reflected some of these economic, political, and social changes at large.
Expectations: Answer the question below by completing the framed paragraph that has been provided for you.

-Be sure to have an introduction, body, and conclusion to your paragraph.

-Use complete sentences, and be sure to finish any sentences that have been left unfinished.

-And don’t forget to indent!


Question: How and why did government policy toward migrant Mexican workers change from the Great Depression to WWII?

(Introduction)

. (Body) During the Great Depression . When WWII broke out . This shows that .

(Conclusion)

In conclusion, .



KEY
The Bracero Program Framed Paragraph

Background: During the time between the Great Depression and WWII, the economic, political, and social landscapes of the U.S. changed. U.S. government policy toward migrant Mexican workers, for example, changed dramatically. This change in policy reflected some of these economic, political, and social changes at large.
Expectations: Answer the question below by completing the framed paragraph that has been provided for you.

-Be sure to have an introduction, body, and conclusion to your paragraph.

-Use complete sentences, and be sure to finish any sentences that have been left unfinished.

-And don’t forget to indent!


Question: How and why did government policy toward migrant Mexican workers change from the Great Depression to WWII?

(Introduction)

From the Great Depression to WWII, government policy towards Mexican migrant workers changed drastically . (Body) During the Great Depression Mexican immigrants were seen as competition for already scarce jobs. Because of this, the government “repatriated” many Mexican workers back to Mexico . When WWII broke out a labor shortage occurred because many American men were joining the armed forces and going off to war. In 1942, the government enacted the Bracero Program in order to allow Mexican immigrants back into the U.S. in order to fill these newly vacated jobs . This shows that The U.S. government based its policy toward immigration on its own economic needs, without taking into consideration the needs of the migrant workers themselves .

(Conclusion)

In conclusion, the U.S. government went from being completely against Mexican immigration to encouraging immigration because they simply needed workers .


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