could not fail to remark the unusual number of the 'three-fifths' class in the railroad cars. The same causes which, perhaps, have produced the brisk demand for the rough material on the Coast of Congo, may also have had influence on the better bred and more valuable Virginian article. * * * * * * But a more potent influence than even the love of money has been at work in that region," the alarm created by John Brown's inroad. "The region more immediately within its influence is becoming fast depopulated of its Slaves."
The Washington correspondent of the Anti-Slavery Standard, after speaking, on the 23rd of January last, of a disturbance in one of the Washington boarding-houses, produced by the keeper's selling, to be sent to the far South, three young men, brothers, his Slaves, because he was angry with one of them, adds that in that city "scarce a day passes which does not witness dreadful, heart-rending cases of the sale of a human being from all his associates and family relations to the far South, never to see them again." In the New-York Tribune, of April 2, is a copy of a paper which had "been circulating in Washington, for a day or two past," stating that "the wife of Samuel Marshal, a woman of excellent character," had been sold to a trader, was in the Slave-pen, and would be taken "from her husband and children on Saturday next, unless purchased from the trader for $800 before that time." "Her husband is one of the most upright and trustworthy persons;" she "has been his loyal wife for twenty years, and is the mother of eleven children, seven of whom are living." An appeal is made "to all who have hearts, to aid in restoring a wife to her husband and a mother to her children." And it is in the Capital of the "Model Republic," that a woman must be ransomed from the soul-trader, to prevent her being torn from husband and children; while we are told by politicians that the Slave-trade has been abolished in Washington, by that blessed "Compromise of 1850," which saved our "Glorious Union" from being shivered to atoms.
Charles Reemelin, of Ohio, while making a southern tour, was lately on a train, in Alabama, to which were attached two car-loads of negroes on their inland "middle passage." He says writing to the Cincinnati Commercial, "there were some one hundred and fifty negroes, young and old, men, women, and
children, mothers of large families, some alone, some surrounded by their offspring. They came, the trader said, from Virginia and North Carolina, from which region and Tennessee one hundred thousand are taken South each year; at this time the emigration amounts to three thousand a week. They were destined for the New-Orleans Slave-market, where the trader expected to get $ 2,000 for every healthy, full-grown negro." A statement is just now going the rounds of the periodical press, that, "during the quarter ending March 31, the number of Slaves that arrived in Texas was about twenty-seven thousand." Many of these, probably, accompanied their immigrating masters; but the greater part, we presume, were taken thither by the traders. A letter written to the New-York Tribune, from Fairfax County, Va., on the 29th of August last, shows a specimen of the happy blending of business and religion in the Old Dominion. After describing a camp-meeting, held in that county the week before, it thus concludes: "Immediately after the camp broke up, last Friday, twenty-seven negroes were sold, on the ground, to some southern traders. Among this number, one woman and seven children. One of the men was on his knees, engaged in prayer, when the trader slapped him on the shoulder, and told him he must go with him. He intimated his willingness to go, but assured his former master that if they should meet up in heaven, he would have a settlement with him there. The trader stopped his mouth with his hand, and handcuffed him. The whole party were then put into an omnibus, which was ready for them, and they were conveyed to Alexandria. Such is the way in which the Virginian Methodists 'follow Christ.’"
Among "A Woman's Observations in the South," published in the Tribune, of October 22, we find the following. A man who, by many years' Slave-trading, from Virginia to Mississippi and Louisiana, had made enough money to give him a good standing in society, now thought of marrying. He had for years kept a beautiful mulatto woman, in a richly-furnished house, with servants to wait on her, and her babies rocked in a mahogany cradle; she believing that they were all free, and would inherit their lather's wealth. But one dark night they were surprised in their slumbers, gagged, put aboard a steamboat, carried to New Orleans, and sold. "The bride of that
man knew all these facts." She called on the writer, who was willing to see her only from "curiosity to see if there was anything womanly about such a person;" and who, naturally enough, "could hut wonder" at finding that "she was very beautiful," and "spoke softly—with a woman's voice."
We glean from the southern journals a few of the statements, from time to time appearing in them, to show the market-value of human merchandise. The Richmond (Va.) Despatch, in July last, announced, as the prices in Richmond, at that time, "No. 1 men, 20 to 26 years old, from $1,450 to $1,500; best grown-girls, 17 to 20 years old, from $1,275 to $1,325; girls, from 15 to 17 years old, $1,150 to $1,250; girls, from 12 to 15 years old, $1,000 to $1,100; best plough-boys, 17 to 20 years old, $1,350 to $1,425; boys, from 15 to 17 years old, $1,250 to $1,375; boys, from 12 to 15 years old, $1,100 to $1,200." The Atalanta (Ga.) American, a few weeks later, records the sale of twenty-eight Slaves, in Henry County, men, women, and children, for an average of $796 each. One field-hand, 18 years old, brought $1,640; three boys of 14, an aggregate of $3,829; two boys of 10, $1,708; one of 7, $726; a woman of 23, with three boys, of 5 years, 3 years, and 8 months, $1,995; a woman of 23, with a boy of 3 years, and a girl of 18 months, $2,305; a girl of 19, $1,200; one of 15, $1,023 ; one of 7, $778. The Selma (Ala.) Sentinel gives the prices of "a lot of negroes" sold in Selma, about the 1st of March; one of whom, a carpenter, 29 years old, brought $ 2,050; another, a blacksmith, of 24, $2,245; a boy of 17, $1,570; a boy of 13, $1,165; an unsound boy of 11, $900; girls of 16,18, and 19, respectively, $1,626, $1,380, and $1,600; a woman of 27, with a child, $1,670; a girl of 11, $1,600; and a girl of 13, $3,205. In St. Louis, on the 29th of February, a sale of Slaves took place, at which two boys, of 14 and 16, brought $2,435; a woman of 20, with a child of 4, $1,500; a woman of 23, with two children, 5 and 3, $1,750; and so on. Some sales are mentioned, at prices which average somewhat below these; but at one, in West Baton Rouge, La., about the end of February, they went up still higher, the figures standing thus:—"One woman and four children, $5,650; one boy, $4,400; do. do., $3,475; do. do., $3,400; do. do., $3,305; do. do, $3,200." And the Greenville (S. C.) Enterprise tells of "a likely fellow, said to be a good joiner and carpenter,"
who, at a sale in that region, went for $3,500; but the buyer was afterward offered $4,000 for him. And such is the way in which the worth of manhood is estimated, in this "free, enlightened, Christian land!"
While human merchandise commands such prices, it is not strange that, among those morally capable of dealing in it, some are little scrupulous as to the means of supplying so profitable a market; and, consequently, that kidnapping freemen is a crime of frequent occurrence. Though only the All-seeing can know, certainly, how frequent it is, yet cases enough have come to our knowledge, within the past year, to prove that it is often perpetrated, and not always with careful discrimination in regard to the color of its victims.
The New-Orleans Bulletin tells us that about the middle of last May, a suit was brought in one of the courts of New Orleans, in which a Slave-girl claimed and gained her freedom, on the ground that she was white and free-born, and had been kidnapped from Arkansas about two years before. "Scientific gentlemen" testified, at the trial, that there was about her "no evidence of African descent." Near the beginning of June, a free negro, from La Salle County, Illinois, on his way to Pike's Peak, was seized while passing through Missouri, put in jail at St. Joseph, on pretence of suspicion that he was a runaway Slave, and notice was given, as usual in such cases, that unless claimed by an owner or redeemed by his friends, he would be sold for his jail-fees. The issue of the case we have not learned. Not far from the same time, the Cincinnati Gazette gave an account of the kidnapping of a free colored native of Salem, O., named Day, from a steamboat, lying at a wharf, in Cincinnati, whence, tied and gagged, he was taken across the river and lodged in jail, at Covington. Fortunately for him, the outrage became known in Cincinnati, where he was under bonds to answer some charge in the Police Court; and an officer went over and brought him back; but we do not hear that the kidnappers suffered any legal penalty.
On the night of June 10, a colored man, named Butler, and
his wife and child, formerly Slaves of a widow, in Maryland, by whom they were manumitted, and since then residents of Cumberland County, Pa, where they were "highly esteemed," says the Carlisle American, "for their industry, sobriety, and general good behaviour," were secretly and forcibly carried off to Maryland, and thrust into the jail of Frederic County, as "fugitives from service." The principal kidnapper was one Myers, a citizen of Frederic County, and a sort of professional negro-catcher. He admitted having carried off the family, but claimed to have done it legally. Some days before the abduction, he applied to a Mr. Biddle, of Carlisle, who had been a United States Commissioner, for a warrant to seize his victims; but, learning that Mr. Biddle had resigned the office, he said he would take them by force, without a hearing. The Ex-Commissioner warned him not to attempt it, but he heeded not the warning. A deputy sheriff, of Cumberland County, soon after decoyed him into Pennsylvania, by stratagem, and arrested him, and he was subsequently tried and convicted as a kidnapper, and is now, we believe, undergoing the penalty of his crime, in the penitentiary, though the authorities of Maryland have made some efforts in his behalf, to arrest the course of justice.
About the 1st of July, as we learn from the Vicksburg (Miss.) Whig, one A. R. Burks was arrested in Vicksburg, charged with kidnapping a woman and her three children, of white and Indian blood. The woman and one child were found in his possession; one child he had sold for $500, the other had disappeared, and he could not or did not account for it. On the examination before the mayor, it was proved that the woman and children were free, "being descendants of a white woman," and that burks had told the witness, before whose eyes they were forcibly taken away, that "it was no harm to sell them, as free Africans were being brought in and sold." Burks was bound over for trial, and the woman and children were set free.
On the 11th of August, a decision of the Probate Court, in Abbeville, Ala, released a young woman and her child, "poor whites," of Georgia, from Slavery, into which the woman had been sold, under circumstances of peculiar atrocity. One James C. Wilson went, about the 1st of March, to the house of a Mrs. Hicks, in Columbus, Ga., where he was taken sick, and for seve-
ral weeks was nursed by Mrs. Hicks and her daughter. He rewarded their kindness by stealing the daughter away and selling her, as a Slave, to a Rev. John Guilford, in Henry County, Ala.; then returning, decoying her brother, a boy of fifteen, from his home, and selling him also into Slavery. After several months, the mother learned where her daughter, was, and that she had, in the meantime, become a mother. She interested several lawyers in her cause, and a writ of habeas corpus was procured, by means of which the girl and her child were released.
The Edwardsville (III.) Journal mentions an attempt made, in the latter part of August, by two men, one of them colored, to consign a white mechanic, one Isaac Dickson, to Slavery, on pretence that he was a runaway Slave. He was stopped on the road, bound, and taken to Edwardsville, but there he found witnesses to prove his freedom, and was discharged. A correspondent of the Chicago (III.) Tribune, writing on the 1st of November, tells of four instances of kidnapping, accomplished or attempted, within a few weeks preceding, near Jonesboro'. The first man seized, on the 12th of September, proved to be a Slave, travelling on business for his master. A second was taken, the next day, and put into Jonesboro' jail, to wait a requisition from a master. Another was the porter of the sleeping car on the Illinois Central Railroad. He would have been thrust into jail, also, had not the conductor interposed, and, revolver in hand, attested his freedom. In the fourth case, the victim was captured near Carbondale, after a chase of about eighteen miles, during which he was several times fired upon. The writer adds, "examples of this species of villany are furnished us almost daily; they are, absolutely, 'too numerous to mention.'"
On the 12th of October, Oliver Anderson, a colored man, living in Chilicothe, Ohio, was forcibly dragged from his home, at night, and carried off to Slavery. The Scioto Gazette, in giving an account of the outrage, says, "Anderson has been a resident of this city four or five years, and was a quiet, inoffensive, and industrious man. That he was a freeman, there is but little doubt." A committee, appointed at an "indignation meeting," of the citizens of Chilicothe, to inquire into the facts of the case, reported, as the result of their investigations,
their belief that he "was taken without law, by persons who had no claim to him, even under the fictions of the southern code." Happily we have later news from him, in the Columbus Journal, to the effect that, "one frosty night," last January, he left Kentucky, taking with him two Slaves, one, his brother; that, "they reached the Underground Railroad in good time, were rushed through on the express train," and are now in Canada. "This," adds the Journal, "ought to be quite satisfactory to the managers of the Underground Railroad — two hundred per cent on the original investment, and expenses paid by the kidnappers." A little later than the seizure of Anderson, an attempt was made to enslave a free colored family, in Louisville, Kentucky. The particulars appeared in the Democrat, of that city. A negro and his wife had been emancipated by will, some years before, and had afterwards, with the fruits of their industry and frugality, bought their son and his wife, and set them free. On the 23rd of October, the father suddenly died. A neighbor, named McGrath, knowing that he had bills of sale of his children, but not aware that he had given them free papers, conspired with a lawyer, Clary, and another man, to defraud them of freedom. The lawyer forged a bill of sale from the old negro to McGrath, and, armed with that, the conspirators went to seize their prey; but the production of the free papers baffled their design, and exposed their villany. The lawyer and McGrath were promptly lodged in jail to await a trial; the result of which we have not seen.
The New-Haven Palladium, of December 2, states that one George W. Bishop, of New Haven, had just been arrested in Philadelphia, "charged with enticing a free colored man from New York to Alabama, and there selling him." Bishop went to Alabama, with horses for sale, and employed the colored man to assist in taking care of the horses, but returned without him. Being asked what he had done with the man, he replied, that he had left him in Alabama. "It is rumored," says the Palladium, "that bishop sold the negro for $1000. Certain it is, that on his return he had more money than he was ever known to have before, and displayed it in a manner to excite considerable comment." Near the end of December, as James Lewes, a free colored boy, living near Harrington, Del; was going, one evening, from his father's house to his employer's, one Morris
met him in the woods, tied him to a tree, went home, and got his horse and carriage, and took the boy to Maryland, and tried to sell him to a Slave-dealer. The dealer's suspicion that the boy was free, led to inquiries, which brought out the truth; the boy was sent back, and the kidnapper committed to Dover jail. These facts we find in the Milford (Del.) News. The same paper mentions the arrest, some time in March last, of a man, who, with five others, had recently stolen a negro, and sold him out of the State. And adds, that "negro-stealing and selling out of the State, contrary to the law, is said to be carried on extensively in Sussex; and one man, residing at Seaford, it is said, has made a large amount of money at the business." A correspondent of the New-York Tribune, writing from Lewes, Del., on the 25th of April, corroborates the testimony of the News, as to the frequency of kidnapping in Delaware. He says, that, "at the recent session of the Superior Court, in Sussex County, indictments were found against two men for imprisoning a free negro, with intent to kidnap, and against six men for kidnapping, and assisting to kidnap."
On the night of the 2nd of March, four men went to the house of John Brown, a free colored man, living in Sadsbury, Lancaster County, Pa., pretending they had come to take him before a magistrate, on a charge of having robbed a neighboring store. Confident in his innocence, and recognizing two of the men as well-known neighbors, Brown went with them, raising no alarm. They took him to a carriage, in the woods near by, put him in, drew pistols, and, with threats, compelling him to silence, drove with him to Baltimore, and lodged him in a Slave-pen, for sale. Upon his protesting that he was free, the Slave-dealer refused to buy or sell him, and soon after a man coming in who knew him, and confirmed his assertion of his freedom, he was released, and sent home. Meanwhile the alarm had somehow been given, and pursuit, though too late to be availing, was made. But two of the kidnappers had been arrested, and subsequently two others, who had escaped to Cincinnati, were followed and taken, and all were committed or bound over for trial; as also were a tavern-keeper, at whose house Brown was kept concealed, by his captors, through the day after he was seized, and one or two others suspected of participation in the kidnapping.
We have accounts before us of a dozen or more other instances of the perpetration of this crime, within the year. Some of the victims afterward escaped or were rescued, others are no doubt still in bondage. Among the latter is believed to be Charles Fisher, of Kansas, two attempts to kidnap whom were mentioned in our last How he was taken the third time, is not known; but, while Dr. Doy was in a Missouri prison, fisher was brought there, and horribly tortured, till his assent was extorted to a confession, dictated to him, that he had a master somewhere. He was then taken away, and has not since been heard of, A Kansas correspondent of the New-York Tribune, who relates these facts, adds that "during the few months of Dr. Doy's incarceration, many such cases came under his notice." One, of which he gives particulars, was that of a free colored man, bum in Illinois, and owning eighty acres of land, with some improvements, near Aurora, in that State. He had gone to Kansas to look at the country, with a view to removal thither, and on his return through Missouri, was seized, thrust into the jail, and compelled, like Fisher, by torture with a scourge of sheet-iron jagged with sharp points, to own himself a Slave, and to name, as the place whence he escaped, some part of Virginia, named to him, in which he had never been.
One attempt, of which we have an account in the Cleveland (Ohio) Leader, and some of the Canadian journals, was made in Canada, upon a woman, born free in New-York city, stolen thence, and held as a Slave, in Texas, about eleven years. Last summer, she escaped from her mistress, during a visit to Niagara Falls, and had been employed about a month, as a servant, at the Clifton House, when her master, aided by the keeper of the house, made an effort to reenslave her, but happily was defeated by the interference of the colored waiters, who had learned, in some way, what was going on. Another case, related on the 10th of April last, by a Washington correspondent of the Boston Traveller, is that of Alexander Scarborough, a colored seaman, from New Bedford, who left his vessel in Baltimore, and set out to walk to Washington. Near Annapolis he was arrested on charge of being a runaway Slave, and imprisoned to await the demand of a master, till he was in danger of being sold to pay jail-fees; as he probably would have been, but that his condition came to the knowledge of Mr. Eliot, member of Con-
gress from the district he belongs in, who promptly interposed, and, at an expense of not less than one hundred dollars, effected his deliverance. thaddeus hyatt, while imprisoned in the Washington jail, for alleged "contempt" of the usurped judicial authority of the United States Senate, became acquainted with several cases of illegal imprisonment, in that jail, of free colored persons, who, but for his interference, would have been enslaved under the forms, but against the substance, of law.
One flagrant instance of this base and detestable wickedness (the perversion of legal forms to the business of kidnapping), took place in Maryland, a little more than a year ago, but did not come to our knowledge in time to be mentioned in our last It is worthy of record, as a striking illustration of the sort of justice which persons, claimed as Slaves, receive from the tribunals of the Slave-land. martha ann, a Slave whom a Mrs. bullen, of Cecil County, Md., had received from her father, married moses wright, a free colored man, by whom, before the death of her mistress, she had a son, named perry. Mrs. bullen, after the death of her husband, in 1848, removed, with martha and her boy, to Delaware, where, in April, 1849, she died, leaving, by will, freedom to martha immediately, and to perry when twenty-eight years old. To the friend who drew her will, she said her chief reason for making it was her wish to manumit her Slaves. The will was duly proved at the Newcastle, Del., Probate Office. martha went back to her husband, in Maryland, and there lived, as a free woman, about nine years, the number of her children increasing, in that time, to four. In March, 1858, their humble home was rudely broken up. A son of Mrs. bullen, armed with letters of administration on his father's estate, seized martha and her children, as a part of it, and, heeding neither their entreaties and those of the husband and father, nor the will of his mother, of which a copy was produced, he hurried them to the county-jail, where they remained for two months or more; the mother being, for the most of the time, confined to her bed with a disease which had preyed on her for years, now aggravated by the unwholesome prison-air. Meanwhile, a petition for their freedom was filed in court. In May, the claimant appeared in court, and, by making oath that he believed he could not have an impartial trial in Cecil County, procured — in spite of the remonstrances