America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.) Chapter 9 Nation Building and Nationalism



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America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.)

Chapter 9 Nation Building and Nationalism
9.1 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) The first goal of postwar expansionists in the United States after 1815 was

A) to obtain the Pacific Northwest from Great Britain.

B) to obtain Florida from Spain.

C) to acquire the former French colony of Louisiana.

D) to develop the trans-Appalachian West.

E) to eradicate the Native Americans.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 214 [Factual]

2) After 1815, the United States

A) grew rapidly in size and population.

B) was threatened by foreign invasion.

C) revised its form of government.

D) was unable to expand its economy.

E) invaded and occupied Canada.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 214, 218 [Factual]

3) In 1800, which of the following states was not part of the United States?

A) Florida

B) Tennessee

C) Kentucky

D) Georgia

E) Maryland

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 214 [Factual]

4) The Adams-Onis Treaty

A) excluded Spain from the North American continent.

B) reduced British influence in Florida.

C) granted the Northwest Territory to the United States.

D) weakened the Spanish position in Latin America.

E) made Florida a U.S. territory.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 214 [Factual]

5) The founder of the American Fur Company was

A) Jedediah Smith.

B) John Jacob Astor.

C) Kit Carson.

D) Andrew Jackson.

E) George Vanderbilt.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 214 [Factual]

6) The largest of the Five Civilized Tribes was the

A) Choctaw.

B) Cherokee.

C) Chickasaw.

D) Seminole.

E) Creek.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 215 [Factual]

7) By the mid 1820s, the Cherokee had each of the following EXCEPT

A) a written language.

B) a written constitution providing a republican form of government.

C) a system of slavery regulated by law.

D) a military force capable of defending their lands against white encroachment.

E) a salaried government bureaucracy.

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 215-216 [Factual]

8) The last resistance of Indians to white settlement in the Old Northwest came in 1831-1832 under Chief

A) Tecumseh.

B) Sitting Bull.

C) Osceola.

D) Black Hawk.

E) Rain-in-Face.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 218 [Factual]

9) The term preemption referred to the right of

A) squatters to secure title to land they had improved.

B) Native Americans to refuse to move to reservations.

C) land speculators to have first rights to purchase public domain land.

D) the government to seize land from farmers.

E) squatters to occupy Native American camps while they were away hunting.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 219 [Factual]

10) The characteristic unit of western agriculture was a

A) small frontier settlement.

B) family farm or owner-operated plantation.

C) ranch devoted to raising beef cattle.

D) communally owned and operated farm.

E) large plantation farmed by sharecroppers.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 219 [Factual]


11) Frontier pioneers

A) created new ways of living in the West.

B) attempted to recreate the life they had left behind in the East.

C) relied on local government for the necessities of living.

D) failed to establish a self-sufficient lifestyle.

E) quickly established a network of mercantilism.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 219 [Factual]

12) The first great federal transportation project was the

A) building of the National Road.

B) Lancaster Turnpike.

C) Erie Canal.

D) transcontinental railroad.

E) Union and Pacific Railroad.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 222 [Factual]


13) When President James Madison talked about the need for "internal improvements," he was referring to

A) improved reservations for Native American tribes.

B) reconstruction of the Capitol building in Washington, D.C.

C) construction of a reliable transportation system for the United States.

D) a more efficient method of moving proposed legislation through Congress.

E) a pay raise for Congress.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 219 [Factual]

14) Which of the following forms of transportation predominated before the 1820s and 1830s?

A) national road systems

B) canal systems

C) steam boats

D) flatboats

E) railroads

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 223 [Factual]



Fulton's Clermont, c. 1830

(New York Public Library)


15) Fulton's Clermont, first tested on the Hudson River, would have which of the following impacts on the Mississippi, the Hudson, the Great Lakes, and other major inland waterways in the United States?

A) It created easy and comfortable transportation systems in the Trans-Mississippi West for settlers desiring to settle the Great Plains.

B) It introduced slavery into the territories of the Ohio River Valley.

C) It turned the costly and debt-ridden cotton industry into a profitable agricultural enterprise in the south.

D) It made inexpensive two-way shipment of goods on inland waterways a practical reality.

E) It destroyed the myth of the Great American Desert and made farming in the far west a practical reality.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 223 [Conceptual]

16) Who was credited with the introduction of the steamboat?

A) Robert Fulton

B) Eli Whitney

C) DeWitt Clinton

D) Robert Lowell

E) Jerry Mahoney

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 223 [Factual]

17) A significant reason for America's rapid economic development was

A) the high level of federal support.

B) the rapid establishment of a strong manufacturing base.

C) the great national transportation system created by the nation's river network.

D) the absence of international economic competition.

E) the development of web presses for printing money.

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 213 [Factual]


18) The Erie Canal connected what two cities?

A) New York City and Philadelphia

B) Philadelphia and Pittsburgh

C) Cleveland and Cincinnati

D) Wheeling and Vandalia

E) Albany and Buffalo

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 224 [Factual]






Philadelphia, 1839

(National Archives)


19) Which of the following groups would most likely be the source of this poster produced in Philadelphia in 1839?

A) canal promoters

B) steel manufacturers

C) southern plantation owners

D) New England seaborne shippers

E) western farmer groups

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 224 [Factual]

20) The most spectacular engineering achievement of the young United States was the

A) Cumberland Trail.

B) Erie Canal.

C) Intercoastal Waterway.

D) Baltimore Turnpike.

E) the Washington Monument.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 224 [Factual]

21) The great canal building boom of the 1820s and 1830s ended

A) when canals proved to be an unprofitable means for transportation.

B) because of the limited useful lifespan of canals.

C) as a result of natural barriers to canals.

D) because of the lack of popular support for canals.

E) when environmentalists won legislation to stop canal projects.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 224 [Factual]

22) The economic revolution in the United States between 1810 and 1840 was one of ________ rather than production.

A) design

B) technology

C) hand work

D) domestic work

E) distribution

Answer: E

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 224 [Factual]

23) Most of the credit for getting the Erie Canal built belongs to

A) Alexander Hamilton.

B) DeWitt Clinton.

C) Henry Clay.

D) Robert Fulton.

E) James Madison.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 224 [Factual]

24) In the early nineteenth century, financing for canal projects came mainly from

A) privately held corporations.

B) the federal government.

C) tolls and user fees.

D) state and local government.

E) European investors.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 224 [Factual]

25) The development of profitable commercial farming resulted from

A) the availability of good land and the revolution in marketing.

B) an available supply of cheap labor.

C) dramatic advances in agricultural technology.

D) major increases in the prices paid for staple crops.

E) the population boom on the East Coast, which created increased demand for farm products.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 225 [Factual]

26) Which one of the following was NOT a factor in making the South the world's greatest producer of cotton?

A) demand created by the growing textile industry

B) the availability of good land in the Southwest

C) the existence of slavery in the South

D) the discovery of new, more productive species of cotton

E) the effect of the cotton gin on production

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 276-277 [Factual]

27) Crucial to the development of an agricultural marketing system was

A) the development of an effective means for the extension of credit.

B) the establishment of urban populations in the West.

C) a change in constitutional limitations in financing.

D) the establishment of methods for advertising the availability of agricultural products.

E) the development of cold storage.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 225 [Factual]

28) The postwar demand for money and credit led to

A) more state banks.

B) tighter money policies.

C) farm subsidies.

D) the charter of new federal mints.

E) the creation of new jobs.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 225 [Factual]

29) Between 1815 and 1820, the state banking systems

A) represented an effective source of reliable currency.

B) were the most important factor in expanding the market economy.

C) were unreliable and often failed.

D) supported the reestablishment of the national bank.

E) were frequently the cause of currency depreciations.

Answer: E

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 225 [Factual]

30) The term specie refers to

A) gold and silver.

B) paper money.

C) government bonds.

D) bank notes.

E) mortgages.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 225 [Factual]


31) Under the ________, manufacturers provided raw materials to people in their own homes and then picked up the finished products for distribution.

A) finishing off system

B) mass production system

C) piece work system

D) putting-out system

E) cottage industry system

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 226 [Factual]


32) Which of the following groups was initially a primary source of labor for the textile mills?

A) young single women

B) young single men

C) children

D) immigrants

E) African Americans

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 226 [Factual]


33) Industrialization after 1815 altered the manufacturing system in the United States by

A) immediately creating a need for large factories with many workers.

B) removing production from the home to the factory.

C) increasing the need for female labor.

D) eliminating the need for foreign equipment and technology.

E) becoming more efficient, therefore using fewer raw materials.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 226 [Factual]

34) The great showplace for early American industrialization was

A) New York, New York.

B) Boston, Massachusetts.

C) Lowell, Massachusetts.

D) Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

E) Burlington, Vermont.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 226 [Factual]

35) Many Americans believed high tariffs would

A) enhance America's image abroad.

B) prevent competition from foreign goods.

C) meet the demands of American farmers.

D) prevent political differences from arising.

E) take money out of their own pockets.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 228 [Factual]


36) After 1815, the Republican Party

A) adopted the programs of the Federalist Party.

B) sought to renounce Federalist accomplishments.

C) maintained its philosophy of states' rights and limited government.

D) promoted the continued existence of a two-party system.

E) changed its name to the Whig Party.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 228 [Factual]

37) The major advocate of the "American System" was

A) James Madison.

B) Henry Clay.

C) James Monroe.

D) John Quincy Adams.

E) Thomas Jefferson.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 228 [Factual]

38) The "American System"

A) represented the triumph of Jefferson's economic vision for America.

B) involved Federalists promoting Jeffersonian principles and programs.

C) featured a major military and naval buildup aimed at gaining the respect of European powers.

D) called for revoking the charter of the Bank of the United States.

E) was a master plan for national economic self-sufficiency.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 228 [Conceptual]

39) The second Bank of the United States, established in 1816, was

A) a mixed public-private institution.

B) controlled by private interests.

C) radically different from the first national bank.

D) supported by state and local banking interests.

E) a public institution.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 228 [Factual]

40) Legislation supporting internal improvements encountered difficulty because

A) western states' interests opposed it.

B) Presidents Madison and Monroe believed it did not meet the requirements of the Constitution.

C) there were limited amounts of available federal funding.

D) there was strong opposition from state governments.

E) no one could agree on where to begin.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 228 [Factual]

41) The president most closely identified with the "Era of Good Feelings" was

A) James Monroe.

B) James Madison.

C) John Quincy Adams.

D) Thomas Jefferson.

E) Bill Clinton.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 229 [Factual]

42) The Missouri Compromise of 1820 involved each of the following EXCEPT

A) an agreement that no more slave states could be created north of the southern boundary of Missouri.

B) Missouri was admitted as a slave state on condition that slavery be phased out over a period of time.

C) Maine was split off from Massachusetts and admitted as a free state.

D) northern and southern congressmen splitting along sectional rather than partisan lines on this issue.

E) adroit political maneuvering by Henry Clay to get the compromise through the House of Representatives.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 229-230 [Factual]


43) The question of admitting Missouri to the Union in 1819

A) found little opposition from northerners.

B) involved primarily economic issues.

C) had relatively little significance for the future of national expansion.

D) stirred southern fears regarding the balance of power between North and South.

E) quelled southern fears regarding the balance of power between North and South.

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 229 [Factual]


44) As chief justice of the Supreme Court, John Marshall

A) promoted the growth of state sovereignty.

B) supported the attainment of political and social equality.

C) emphasized the primacy of property and property rights.

D) abandoned his Federalist sympathies.

E) began the tradition of wearing four gold stripes on the sleeves of his robes.

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 230 [Factual]


45) Which of the following decisions strengthened the validity of a contract or charter?

A) Gibbons v. Ogden

B) McCulloch v. Maryland

C) Marbury v. Madison

D) Dartmouth College v. Woodward

E) Hemmings v. Jones

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 231 [Factual]


46) Which of the following was not a decision of the Marshall Court?

A) Gibbons v. Ogden

B) Dartmouth College v. Woodward

C) Dred Scott v. Sandford

D) McCulloch v. Maryland

E) Marbury v. Madison

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 192, 231 [Factual]

47) McCulloch v. Maryland involved questions regarding

A) the national bank.

B) internal improvements.

C) the role of the U.S. Congress.

D) the chartering of private corporations.

E) timber rights.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 231 [Factual]

48) According to the decision of Gibbons v. Ogden, which branch of government would regulate interstate commerce?

A) the executive branch

B) Congress

C) the Supreme Court

D) the individual states

E) the judicial branch

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 231 [Factual]

49) The main diplomatic challenge facing James Monroe in 1820 was

A) the continuing threat of English intervention in the United States.

B) the development of trading rights with Latin America.

C) establishing friendly relations with France.

D) responding to the revolt of Spain's Latin American colonies.

E) the "Native American problem."

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 232 [Factual]

50) In 1823, John Quincy Adams believed the nation should

A) form an alliance with the British.

B) avoid involvement in European affairs.

C) create an alliance with the newly independent Latin American nations.

D) control the affairs of the Western Hemisphere.

E) wrest control of New Orleans from the Spanish.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 232 [Factual]


51) The foreign policy initiative calling for an end to all European colonization efforts in the Western Hemisphere was known as the

A) Monroe Doctrine.

B) Adams-Onis Agreement.

C) Continental Treaty 1818.

D) Webster-Ashburton Treaty.

E) "American System."

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 232 [Factual]


52) The Monroe Doctrine

A) was immediately accepted by European powers.

B) had little significance for the United States in 1823.

C) opposed the independence of Spain's Latin American colonies.

D) required too much money to enact.

E) made little impression on the European powers.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 232 [Factual]


9.2 True/False Questions
1) When he returned for a visit to the United States in 1824, more than forty years after helping George Washington in the Revolution, the Marquis de Lafayette considered America to be a great success.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 212 [Factual]
2) In the 1820s and 1830s, it was a relatively easy task to induce the Native American tribes of the American Southeast to give up their lands.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 215-218 [Factual]
3) In order to purchase land in the Old Northwest, farm families usually had to buy it from speculators who profited from the sale.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 219 [Factual]
4) Settlers in the American West attempted, as much as possible, to create new and unique social, political, and economic institutions in their new environment.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 219 [Factual]
5) The invention of the steamboat was an exciting but economically insignificant event in the first decades of the nineteenth century.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 223 [Factual]
6) A major obstacle to economic development in the United States after 1815 was the instability of the nation's currency.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 225 [Factual]
7) Federal and state policies benefited all groups equally.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 228 [Factual]
8) The Missouri Compromise was primarily concerned with economics, and it had little to do with slavery.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 229-230 [Factual]
9) Chief Justice John Marshall was an ideological sectionalist who believed in states' rights.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 230 [Factual]
10) John Quincy Adams succeeded James Monroe as president of the United States.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 232 [Factual]
9.3 Essay Questions
1) Identify and discuss the major foreign policy objectives of the United States between 1815 and 1824.

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 228-232 [Conceptual]


2) In what ways did the transportation revolution contribute to the development of a national market economy in the United States between 1810 and 1840?

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 222-225 [Factual]


3) Describe the evolution of American policies and actions toward Native Americans between 1816 and 1830. Could the trans-Appalachian interior have been settled in any other fashion by American settlers? Why or why not?

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 215-218 [Conceptual]


4) Discuss how the major decisions of the Supreme Court under John Marshall's leadership enhanced the growth of nationalism and a strong federal government. Include examples of specific cases from the period.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 230-232 [Conceptual]


5) What evidence was there that public policies between the War of 1812 and the Age of Jackson supported and enhanced nationalism? Include examples from all three branches of government.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 227-232 [Conceptual]





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