America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.) Chapter 5 The American Revolution: From Elite Protest to Popular Revolt, 1763-1783

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America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.)

Chapter 5 The American Revolution: From Elite Protest to Popular Revolt, 1763-1783
5.1 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) For American colonists, the postwar years following the conclusion of the Seven Years' War could be characterized best as

A) hostile toward the British.

B) a time of optimism about the future.

C) apathetic about colonial-British relations.

D) eager for independence from Great Britain.

E) trying to rebuild.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 108 [Conceptual]

2) On the eve of the American Revolution, approximately ________ million people were living in the thirteen colonies.

A) 2.5

B) 3.5

C) 4.5

D) 5

E) 5.2

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 108 [Factual]

3) George III believed

A) Parliament should run the empire.

B) the monarch should make policies for the empire.

C) the monarch should be a figurehead.

D) qualified men should run the government.

E) the monarch should consider parliamentary opinion when making decisions.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 109 [Factual]

4) In the 1760s and 1770s, most members of Parliament

A) were well-informed in colonial affairs.

B) were creative in their solutions to colonial problems.

C) had little understanding or knowledge of colonial affairs.

D) feared the power of the colonial assemblies.

E) had invested money in the colonies.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 110 [Conceptual]

5) The central issue in the Anglo-American debate over governance was

A) divine sovereignty.

B) laissez faire.

C) parliamentary sovereignty.

D) absolute rule.

E) colonial sovereignty.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 110 [Factual]

6) Central to the colonists' position in the Anglo-American debate over parliamentary powers was

A) their strong belief in the powers of their own provincial assemblies.

B) their unswerving support of the monarchy.

C) their willingness to defer to the wishes of Parliament.

D) their desire for an authoritarian government.

E) their desire for revolution.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 110 [Factual]

7) In the 1760s and 1770s, colonists viewed the political struggle with Britain in terms of

A) haves against have-nots.

B) democracy against aristocracy.

C) good against evil.

D) West against East.

E) agriculture against industrialization.

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 118 [Conceptual]

8) The English political philosopher most often cited by American rebels was

A) Thomas Paine.

B) Edmund Burke.

C) William Pitt.

D) John Locke.

E) David Hume.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 111 [Factual]

9) According to this political theory, power is dangerous and must be countered by virtue.

A) commonwealth

B) separation of powers

C) balance of power

D) contractual law

E) corruption and virtue

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 111 [Factual]

10) A major source of information for the colonists was

A) newspapers.

B) books.

C) church meetings.

D) the market-place.

E) the town crier.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 111 [Factual]

11) The most significant consequence of the Seven Years' War was

A) its virtual destruction of American Indians.

B) that it left Britain with an enormous debt.

C) that France retained a foothold in Quebec.

D) the assassination of George II.

E) that it made the colonists less eager to go to war with Britain.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 111 [Factual]

12) Who was the Delaware Prophet?

A) Cotton Mather

B) Pontiac

C) Charles Townshend

D) George Grenville

E) Neolin

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 112 [Factual]

13) Which of the following prohibited colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains?

A) Navigation Act of 1772

B) Proclamation of 1763

C) Sugar Act of 1764

D) Townshend Acts of 1767

E) Settlement Act of 1765

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 133 [Factual]

14) As a result of the Sugar Act, the duty on molasses was

A) reduced significantly.

B) raised dramatically.

C) removed entirely.

D) kept at essentially the same level.

E) replaced with a duty on processed sugar.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 112 [Factual]

15) The Stamp Act of 1765 affected

A) only businessmen and merchants.

B) primarily colonial manufacturers.

C) the lives of ordinary people, as well as those of the elite.

D) only those who engaged in direct trade with Great Britain.

E) notaries and other public officials.

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 114 [Factual]

16) The leader of the anti-Stamp Act movement in Virginia was

A) Thomas Jefferson.

B) George Washington.

C) Patrick Henry.

D) Sam Adams.

E) John Hancock.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 113 [Factual]

On the Death of Five young Men who was [sic] Murthered, March 5th 1770. By the 29th Regiment.

(Library of Congress)

17) The handbill printed by Boston leaders during 1770 would be most directly connected to which of the following groups?

A) Paxton Boys

B) Regulators

C) Sons of Liberty

D) Jayhawks

E) Border Ruffians

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 114 [Conceptual]

18) The radical American group which first emerged during the Stamp Act crisis was known as

A) the Loyalists.

B) the Sons of Liberty.

C) the Democratic Republicans.

D) the Federalists.

E) Oliver's Raiders.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 114 [Factual]

19) The tone of the Stamp Act Congress reflected

A) extreme radicalism, with some delegates calling for an immediate declaration of independence.

B) restraint and conciliation, with no mention of independence or disloyalty.

C) a bitter division between pro-independence radicals and Loyalists who favored acquiescence to British rule.

D) angry disputes between various colonies and regions.

E) the strength of the Loyalist faction in the colonies.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 114 [Factual]

20) The boycott movement against the Stamp Act

A) had little effect on Great Britain.

B) mobilized colonial women to action.

C) ultimately hurt American businessmen more than British.

D) was opposed by New England businessmen.

E) was badly organized.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 114 [Factual]

21) Which of the following stated Parliament's belief in its own sovereignty?

A) Townshend Acts

B) Declaratory Act

C) Coercive Acts

D) Stamp Act

E) Sovereignty Act

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 115 [Factual]

22) One consequence of the Townshend Acts was

A) the strengthening of intercolonial unity.

B) the weakening of intercolonial unity.

C) the strengthening of the powers of colonial governors.

D) the strengthening of the presence of the British army.

E) the dissolution of colonial assemblies.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 116 [Factual]

23) Massachusetts reacted to the passage of the Townshend Acts with the

A) Minute Men.

B) Circular Letter.

C) Virginia Resolves.

D) First Continental Congress.

E) Boston Tea Party.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 116 [Factual]

24) The fundamental issue leading to the Boston Massacre in 1770 was the

A) British attempt to enforce the Tea Act.

B) Boston Tea Party.

C) passage of the Townshend Acts.

D) sinking of the Gaspee.

E) presence of so many British troops in American cities.

Answer: E

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 116 [Factual]

25) The Boston Massacre

A) proved the importance of the British army in the colonies.

B) raised the possibility of colonial armed resistance.

C) had little effect on Anglo-colonial relations.

D) had little support from colonial leaders.

E) left fifty-three Americans dead.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 116 [Conceptual]

26) Each of the following developments took place between the Boston Massacre and the Boston Tea Party EXCEPT

A) the activities of British customs commissioners eroded the loyalty of many colonists.

B) the Quebec Act extended the boundary of Quebec southward to the Ohio River.

C) Rhode Islanders burned a British customs vessel, the Gaspee.

D) colonial protest leaders organized the committees of correspondence.

E) colonial Loyalists emerged as an identifiable group.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 117, 120 [Factual]

27) Samuel Adams's role prior to 1774 can best be described as

A) pacifier.

B) compromiser.

C) genuine revolutionary.

D) pragmatist.

E) guerilla fighter.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 120 [Conceptual]

28) The Tea Act of 1773 was passed in order to

A) save the East India Company.

B) raise revenue to pay royal governors' salaries.

C) punish colonists for the Boston Massacre.

D) support the stationing of British troops in America.

E) recover revenue lost by reducing the tax on molasses.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 120 [Factual]

29) England passed the Coercive Acts in response to

A) the colonial boycott of the Stamp Act.

B) the Boston Tea Party.

C) the American victory at Saratoga.

D) the Declaratory Act.

E) the Tea Act.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 121 [Factual]

30) Committees of correspondence were initially formed

A) to communicate grievances to villages throughout Massachusetts.

B) to communicate grievances to George III.

C) to limit correspondence between the colonies and Parliament ..

D) to create legislation in response to the Coercive Acts.

E) to organize colonists who were sympathetic to the Crown...

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 120 [Factual]

31) A major difficulty that confronted the First Continental Congress was

A) the refusal of its delegates to challenge British authority.

B) Parliament's decision to declare the meeting illegal.

C) the bad weather that prevented some delegates from attending.

D) Virginia's refusal to send delegates.

E) the fact that the delegates from different regions were unfamiliar with one another.

Answer: E

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 122 [Factual]

32) The Suffolk Resolves advocated

A) forcible resistance to the Coercive Acts.

B) the assassination of British tax collectors.

C) the formation of an American navy.

D) the repeal of the Stamp Act.

E) the formation of the Sons of Liberty.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 122 [Factual]

33) The purpose of the continental "Association" was to

A) foster improved relations between the various colonies.

B) seek a conservative, peaceful resolution of the political crises of the mid 1770s.

C) raise money to help feed starving Indians displaced by the western settlements.

D) maintain a total boycott of all British imports.

E) raise and equip armies to fight for the American cause.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 122 [Factual]

34) The most important responsibility facing the Second Continental Congress was to

A) convince the colonists of the necessity for war.

B) win loyalty from the Indians.

C) organize the colonies for war.

D) find a strong political leader for the nation.

E) draft the Declaration of Independence.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 123 [Factual]

35) In December 1775, Parliament passed the ________, which declared war on American international commerce.

A) Declaratory Act

B) Prohibitory Act

C) Commerce Act

D) Tea Act

E) Trade Act

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 124 [Factual]

36) Common Sense

A) provided the colonists with a rationale for revolution.

B) acknowledged the sovereignty of the monarch.

C) criticized colonial resistance.

D) had little popularity among the colonists.

E) did not criticize all monarchs, just George III.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 124 [Conceptual]

37) The author of the Declaration of Independence was

A) George Washington.

B) Benjamin Franklin.

C) Samuel Adams.

D) Patrick Henry.

E) Thomas Jefferson.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 125 [Factual]

38) The Declaration of Independence

A) stated that all men "are created equal."

B) blamed George III for much of the impasse.

C) was unanimously approved with no alterations.

D) both A and B

E) both A and C

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 125 [Factual]

39) During the early months of the Revolutionary War, American soldiers

A) received excellent training.

B) despaired of ever defeating the superior British army.

C) were overconfident about their chances of victory.

D) rebelled against Washington's leadership.

E) were mentally prepared for a long, difficult fight.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 126 [Factual]

40) Which of the following explains why England lost the war?

A) The British government did not believe it could win the war.

B) British finances could not support the war.

C) British strategists did not understand how to fight the war.

D) George III never supported the war effort.

E) British soldiers sympathized with the Americans.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 125–126 [Factual]

41) The colonial militias

A) played a decisive role in several major battles.

B) kept the slave populations in line.

C) maintained political control over large areas of the colonies unoccupied by British troops.

D) consisted mainly of African Americans.

E) would sometimes switch sides if they did not get paid.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 126 [Factual]

42) The American victory that brought about the French alliance occurred at

A) Saratoga.

B) Yorktown.

C) Breed's Hill.

D) Philadelphia.

E) Trenton.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 129 [Factual]

43) Essential to the establishment of a colonial alliance with the French was the work of

A) Thomas Paine.

B) John Adams.

C) John Dickinson.

D) Thomas Jefferson.

E) Benjamin Franklin.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 129 [Factual]

44) For the British, French intervention meant

A) a change in military strategy.

B) little change in their military strategy.

C) little challenge to their empire.

D) a new ally in the war effort.

E) fighting a two-front war, both in the colonies and in Europe.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 130 [Factual]

45) In 1779, military strategists predicted that Britain's last chance for victory over the colonies lay in

A) a more effective use of its great navy.

B) the breaking of the French-American alliance.

C) calling on its European allies for help.

D) a successful campaign in the American South.

E) increasing the British army in the colonies by 25,000 men.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 130 [Factual]

46) The British commander who surrendered at Yorktown in 1781 was

A) Howe.

B) Gage.

C) Cornwallis.

D) Paine.

E) Clinton.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 131 [Factual]

47) Which one of the following individuals was NOT an American military leader?

A) George Washington

B) Richard Howe

C) Horatio Gates

D) Nathaniel Greene

E) John Stark

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 126 [Factual]

48) The Treaty of Paris of 1783

A) established the American borders at the Appalachian Mountains.

B) ensured Loyalists would not be compensated for their lands.

C) did not provide a favorable conclusion to the war.

D) guaranteed independence of the United States.

E) did not include compensation for Loyalists whose lands had been confiscated.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 133 [Factual]

The Tory's Day of Judgment, E. Tisdale, 1795

(Library of Congress)

49) The event depicted in the cartoon shown above is most accurately described by which of the following?

A) treatment given government revenue agents attempting to collect Hamilton's whiskey tax in western Pennsylvania.

B) punishment rendered judges and bankers by rebels in western Massachusetts during Shays' Rebellion.

C) public embarrassment extended to loyalist supporters of the King during the American Revolution.

D) mob's treatment of an early abolitionist.

E) Connecticut's treatment of a sinner who violated one of its "Blue Laws."

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 132 [Factual]

50) American Loyalists, who sided with the British during the War for Independence,

A) tended to be wealthy conservatives.

B) were known for their wickedness and immorality.

C) favored a strongly centralized, authoritarian form of government.

D) came from all occupations and social classes.

E) were pacifists who opposed war for any reason.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 131 [Factual]

51) Approximately ________ Loyalists left America after the war.

A) 10,000

B) 100,000

C) 200,000

D) 300,000

E) 500,000

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 131 [Factual]

52) Which of the following was NOT a task facing the new nation?

A) what form the new government would take

B) how political power would be distributed

C) how to ensure political equality for all

D) how to fend off French attempts to control our country

E) the division of state and federal authority

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 132 [Factual]

5.2 True/False Questions
1) By 1763, there was little hope of compromise between the British government and the American colonists.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 110 [Conceptual]
2) American Loyalists found the British to be reliable and supportive partners during the Revolutionary War.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 132 [Factual]
3) American forces enjoyed considerable success in the early phases of the Revolutionary War.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 126–128 [Factual]
4) Widespread poverty in colonial America explains much of the motivation behind the American Revolution.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 108 [Factual]
5) The Battle of Yorktown brought defeat for the English.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 131 [Factual]

6) In eighteenth-century Britain, Parliament had achieved political sovereignty, and even the king had become subordinate to it.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 110 [Factual]

7) The Sons of Liberty virtually led a terrorist campaign against British tax collectors during the colonial agitation over the Stamp Act.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 114 [Factual]
8) With the Declaratory Act, Parliament finally recognized the sovereignty of the colonial assemblies.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 114 [Factual]
9) Thomas Hutchinson was the leading advocate of colonial independence in New York.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 117 [Factual]
10) Although most American patriots disagreed with the Loyalists, they tended to treat them with respect after the Revolutionary War.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 132 [Factual]
5.3 Essay Questions
1) What was the relationship between England's internal political problems and the loss of its colonial empire in America?

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 129-131 [Factual and Conceptual]

2) Describe the American perception of the idea of parliamentary sovereignty.

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 130 [Factual and Conceptual]

3) Trace the development of the Anglo-American conflict. Could the relationship have been saved?

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 128-137 [Factual and Conceptual]

4) Compare British and American strategies for fighting the American Revolutionary War.

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 148-153 [Factual and Conceptual]

5) Imagine that you are a farmer in Massachusetts when war breaks out. Explain your reasons for supporting the Revolution.

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 144-149 [Factual and Conceptual]

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