America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.) Chapter 4 Experience of Empire: Eighteenth-Century America



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America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.)

Chapter 4 Experience of Empire: Eighteenth-Century America
4.1 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) After 1690, Americans increasingly

A) isolated themselves from British and European influence.

B) became part of the larger Anglo-American world.

C) turned away from Britain, and toward France and Germany.

D) adopted Native American ways and customs.

E) moved away from towns.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 81 [Factual]


2) The factor most responsible for the growth in the colonial population between 1700 and 1770 was the

A) natural reproduction of colonial families.

B) great wave of immigration during that period.

C) program of forced migration instituted by the monarchy.

D) dramatic upsurge in the importation of slaves.

E) increasing intermarriage between settlers and Native Americans.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 82 [Factual]


3) During much of the eighteenth century, the population of colonial America was ________, with half the people ________.

A) old; over 40

B) young; under 16

C) old; over 60

D) young; under 10

E) entering adulthood; between 16 and 20

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 82 [Factual]


4) The largest group of white, non-English immigrants to the colonies were

A) the Dutch.

B) the Germans.

C) the Swedish.

D) the Scots-Irish.

E) the French.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 82 [Factual]


5) The first large group of German immigrants moved to America seeking

A) free land.

B) religious tolerance.

C) an opportunity to become wealthy farmers.

D) markets for their craft products.

E) work.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 82 [Factual]


6) A tireless leader who helped German Lutheran immigrants in colonial America was

A) Benjamin Franklin.

B) William Penn.

C) Francis Pastorius

D) Henry Mühlenberg

E) Jonathan Edwards

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 83 [Factual]


7) Under the ________, thousands of convicted felons migrated to the colonies during the eighteenth century.

A) Transportation Act

B) Debtor's Law

C) Recidivist Act

D) Convicted Felon's Law

E) Impressment Act

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 84 [Factual]


8) The leader of the Indian rebellion against Spain in New Mexico in 1680 was

A) Juan de Cabellero.

B) El Popé.

C) Francisco Coronado.

D) Cochise.

E) Theyanoguin.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 88 [Factual]


9) The first permanent European settlement in what would become the United States was

A) Jamestown.

B) Boston.

C) St. Augustine.

D) Plymouth.

E) Roanoke.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 89 [Factual]


10) Spanish colonization in Florida resulted from

A) the continuing search for the Fountain of Youth.

B) reports of advanced Indian tribes possessing large amounts of gold.

C) concern over French encroachment in the Southeast.

D) alarm over the English settlements at Jamestown and Plymouth.

E) the need to find a haven for aging conquistadors ready for retirement.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 89 [Factual]


11) Which one of the following regions was not considered part of the Spanish borderlands in the eighteenth century?

A) California

B) New Mexico

C) Minnesota

D) Texas

E) Florida

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 88-90 [Factual]


12) Which tribe was most successful at resisting efforts to convert them to Catholicism?

A) Pueblos

B) Coahuiltecans

C) Aztecs

D) Pimas

E) Conchos

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 89 [Factual]


13) For many Americans, the main appeal of the Enlightenment was its focus on

A) searching for useful, practical knowledge.

B) reviving interest in classical education.

C) defending traditional Christian beliefs.

D) pure scientific research.

E) achieving a classless society.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 91 [Factual]


14) The one American who, more than anyone else, symbolized the spirit of the Enlightenment was

A) Jonathan Edwards.

B) George Washington.

C) Cotton Mather.

D) George Whitefield.

E) Benjamin Franklin.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 91 [Factual]


15) By the 1760s, a substantial percentage of American exports involved trade with

A) the West Indies.

B) Africa.

C) Holland.

D) Brazil.

E) France.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 92 [Factual]


16) The West Indies played a vital role in the colonial economy by

A) providing colonial merchants with profits that offset their British debts.

B) supplying New England merchants with naval stores.

C) acting as the midpoint in the burgeoning African slave trade.

D) facilitating colonial smuggling activity.

E) providing rum to the colonies.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 92 [Factual]


17) A major financial problem that confronted mid-eighteenth-century America involved the

A) heavy debt owed to the British.

B) colonists' refusal to buy English products.

C) shortage of gold and silver coinage.

D) colonies' failure to print paper money.

E) lack of credit available to merchants.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 93 [Factual]


18) As its industries became more efficient, the British economy picked up considerably after

A) 1650.

B) 1660.

C) 1670.

D) 1680.

E) 1690.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 92 [Factual]


19) The shifting patterns of eighteenth-century colonial trade helped to

A) separate the colonies from British culture.

B) widen differences between regions of the colonies.

C) "anglicize" American culture.

D) promote the growth of a totally unique American culture.

E) expose the colonists to more diverse religions.

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 92-93 [Conceptual]


20) The Great Awakening

A) had less impact on ordinary Americans than the Enlightenment.

B) was a highly unified and coordinated religious revival movement.

C) took place in many regions of the colonies, over several decades of the eighteenth century.

D) affected, for the most part, only Congregationalists.

E) spread quickly, but faded even faster.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 93-94 [Conceptual]


21) The two most important leaders of the Great Awakening in colonial America were

A) Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield.

B) John Winthrop and Jonathan Edwards.

C) John Locke and Benjamin Franklin.

D) Thomas Gordon and John Trenchard.

E) Cotton Mather and George Whitefield.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 94 [Factual]


22) The preaching of Jonathan Edwards emphasized

A) emotionalism rather than serious theology

B) the Calvinistic teachings of the Puritans

C) the humanistic values of the Enlightenment

D) achieving salvation through good works

E) carrying the gospel to the Indians

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 94 [Factual]


23) Followers of the Great Awakening, who emphasized a powerful, emotional religion, were known as

A) "Old Lights."

B) "New Lights."

C) Presbyterians.

D) deists.

E) evangelicals.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 94-95 [Factual]


24) The founder of the African Methodist Episcopal Church was

A) George Whitefield.

B) Gilbert Tennent.

C) Richard Allen.

D) Jonathan Edwards.

E) Eleazar Wheelock.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 95 [Factual]


25) Colonial ministers who opposed the Great Awakening were known as

A) "New Lights."

B) "Old Lights."

C) evangelicals.

D) pietists.

E) contraries.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 94 [Factual]


26) Which of the following was NOT an important effect of the Great Awakening?

A) It stimulated higher education in the colonies.

B) It strengthened the authority of the old colonial religions.

C) It encouraged the development of individualism.

D) It fostered an optimistic view of the future among those touched by it.

E) It evoked a sense of "new birth" among believers.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 93-95 [Factual]


27) Each of the following colleges was established as a result of the Great Awakening EXCEPT

A) Princeton.

B) Columbia.

C) Rutgers.

D) Brown.

E) Dartmouth.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 95 [Factual]


28) In 1715,

A) virtually all men and women in England could vote.

B) virtually all men in England could vote.

C) approximately 20 percent of adult men in England could vote.

D) less than one percent of men in England could vote.

E) approximately 25 percent of adult men in England could vote.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 96 [Factual]


29) In eighteenth-century Great Britain, the constitution was

A) a rigid and static collection of laws and regulations.

B) a formal written document.

C) rarely the subject of thought and discussion.

D) an expanding body of laws, statutes, and decisions.

E) in desperate need of revision.

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 95-96 [Factual]


30) The most famous Commonwealthmen were

A) John Locke and Thomas Hobbes.

B) Benjamin Franklin and John Dickinson.

C) John Trenchard and Thomas Gordon.

D) Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield.

E) John Wesley and Sir William Blackstone.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 96 [Factual]


31) An author of Cato's Letters was

A) John Trenchard.

B) Jonathan Edwards.

C) John Locke.

D) George Whitefield.

E) Benjamin Franklin.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 96 [Factual]


32) Concerning royal governors in colonial America, which of the following is INCORRECT?

A) They had the power to dismiss judges.

B) They were military commanders-in-chief in each colony.

C) They had the power to appoint colonial officials.

D) They had the power to tax the colonies.

E) They had the right to veto legislation.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 97 [Factual]


33) Which one of the following was NOT a power possessed by royal governors in the American colonies?

A) the right to veto legislation passed by the colonial assemblies

B) the right to dismiss judges

C) the right to dismiss elected members of the colonial assemblies

D) the right to serve as commander-in-chief

E) the right to appoint colonial officials

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 97 [Factual]


34) Colonial legislators saw their primary function as

A) improving the lives of their constituents.

B) preventing encroachments on the people's rights.

C) implementing the governor's policies.

D) mediating between the royal governor and the people.

E) ingratiating themselves to the governor in hopes of attaining patronage appointments.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 97 [Factual]


35) A major source of political information in the colonies came in the form of

A) imported political treatises.

B) weekly journals.

C) pamphlets.

D) public debates.

E) daily newspapers.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 98 [Factual]


36) Royal governors frequently found colonial assemblies

A) uncooperative to the point of hostility.

B) totally acquiescent to the needs of the royal government.

C) stubborn concerning every issue, except money.

D) easily led and managed.

E) surprisingly comparable to the House of Commons in England.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 97 [Factual]


37) By the mid-1700s, the colonial assemblies

A) had surrendered most powers to royal assemblies.

B) were gaining steadily in power.

C) were able to elect the colonial governors.

D) were completely independent in their actions from the mother country.

E) were full of mid-level bureaucrats seeking better patronage jobs.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 98[Factual]


38) One of the most important factors binding Americans from different colonies into a single political culture was

A) the English common law.

B) cooperative royal governors.

C) similar social systems between the northern and southern colonies.

D) a respect for the sovereignty of Parliament.

E) fear of attack by Indians.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 98 [Factual]


39) What did the Great Awakening, intercolonial trade, and the rise of the colonial assemblies have in common?

A) They created disdain for England.

B) They created a rebellious spirit in America.

C) They all contributed to a growing sense of shared identity.

D) They helped create imperial rivalry between England and France.

E) They exacerbated the problems of an already divided citizenry.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 97 [Conceptual]


40) Which one of the following was not a colonial war between France and England?

A) King William's War

B) Queen Anne's War

C) King George's War

D) the War of the Austrian Succession

E) King Philip's War

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 102 [Factual]


41) Colonial involvement with imperial wars began with

A) the French and Indian War.

B) King William's War.

C) King Philip's War.

D) the Thirty Years' War.

E) Queen Anne's War.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 98 [Factual]


42) The major source of Anglo-French conflict in the colonies was

A) slavery.

B) international naval supremacy.

C) an ongoing argument about relations and treaties with Native Americans.

D) political grievances.

E) control of the Mississippi and Ohio Valleys.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 98-100 [Factual]


43) At the end of King George's War, colonists were stunned when ________ was given back to the French.

A) Fort Duquesne

B) New Orleans

C) Port Royal

D) Louisbourg

E) Quebec

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 99 [Factual]


44) The leading figure at the Albany Congress, and designer of the Albany Plan, was

A) Thomas Jefferson.

B) George Washington.

C) William Pitt.

D) John Adams.

E) Benjamin Franklin.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 101-102 [Factual]




Join or Die

Ben Franklin, Philadelphia Gazette, May 9, 1754


45) The colonial political cartoon shown above was printed by Ben Franklin in 1754. Which of the following statements most accurately describes its purpose?

A) an attempt to drum up colonial support for troops fighting in the French and Indian War

B) sought to emphasize the importance of the Albany Plan of Union which Franklin had offered at the Albany Congress

C) expressed anger over Grenville's taxes and encouraged colonial union against revenues in the thirteen North American colonies

D) encouraged the young nation to unify under the new Constitution which had been written at Philadelphia

E) suggested that events like Bacon's and Shays' Rebellions would destroy the young nation

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 101 [Conceptual]


46) The failure of the Albany Plan can be attributed, primarily, to the

A) opposition of British authorities.

B) fiscal jealousies of colonial assemblies.

C) beginning of the French and Indian War.

D) refusal of the Iroquois tribes to support it.

E) lack of interest from colonial representatives.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 101 [Factual]


47) Which of the following wars between England and France had the greatest political and economic impact on colonial America?

A) King William's War

B) Queen Anne's War

C) King George's War

D) the French and Indian War

E) King Philip's War

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 102-104 [Factual]


48) The man who led Great Britain to victory in the Seven Years' War was

A) Lord North.

B) John Trenchard.

C) Horatio Nelson.

D) King George II.

E) William Pitt.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 102-103 [Factual]


49) The British general responsible for the seizure of Quebec in 1759 was

A) William Pitt.

B) Jeffrey Amherst.

C) Edward Braddock.

D) William Sims.

E) James Wolfe.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 103 [Factual]


50) The Peace of Paris (1763), which ended the Seven Years' War, made each of the following territorial changes EXCEPT

A) Spain gained Louisiana.

B) Britain gained Florida.

C) France lost its entire land claim in continental North America.

D) Spain gained Guadelupe and Martinique in the Caribbean.

E) Britain gained Canada.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 103-104 [Factual]


51) Which of the following was NOT a consequence of the Seven Years' War?

A) It made colonists more aware of their land.

B) It led to the creation of several new English colonies.

C) It trained a corps of American officers.

D) It revealed British discontent with America's contribution to its own defense.

E) It forced the colonists to cooperate on an unprecedented scale.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 104 [Factual]


4.2 True/False Questions
1) By 1763, colonists assumed that Britain’s rulers regarded them as enemies.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 105 [Factual]
2) Americans contributed very little in the way of men and revenue to the conduct of the Seven Years' War.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 105 [Factual]
3) For several decades into the eighteenth century, American colonists continued to lead rather backward lives, isolated from British society and culture.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 81 [Factual]
4) In early America, royal governors exercised essentially dictatorial power over provincial assemblies.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 97 [Factual]
5) Eighteenth-century German immigrants to Pennsylvania never represented a significant or influential segment of that colony's cultural or economic life.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 83 [Factual]
6) In the first half of the seventeenth century, the population of the thirteen colonies doubled every twenty-five years.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 82 [Factual]
7) Most of the 50,000 convicts sent by England to the thirteen colonies in the eighteenth century were nonviolent petty criminals.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 84 [Factual]
8) By 1775, most Americans lived in cities.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 90 [Factual]
9) The main reason the Navigation Acts controlling American trade did not create much discontent in the colonies was because Britain did not effectively enforce the laws.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 92 [Factual]
10) One of the effects of the flood of British consumer goods in colonial America during the eighteenth century was to erode local and regional identities.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 93 [Factual]
4.3 Essay Questions
1) How did the Anglo-American economic relationship change during the eighteenth century? What impact did those changes have on the colonial economy?

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 92-93 [Factual and Conceptual]


2) Discuss the origins of the Seven Years' War and what effect the conflict had on the American colonies.

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 102-104 [Factual and Conceptual]


3) Describe the Great Awakening and the impact it had on colonial America.

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 93-95 [Conceptual]

4) Describe the meaning of the term "middle ground" as it referred to Native Americans in the eighteenth century.

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 84-88 [Conceptual]


5) Discuss the powers of colonial governors and assemblies. Give their strengths and weaknesses. Which were more powerful and why?

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 96-98 [Factual and Conceptual]



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