America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.) Chapter 31 The Rise of a New Conservatism, 1969-1988

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America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.)

Chapter 31 The Rise of a New Conservatism, 1969-1988
31.1 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) In two terms as governor of California, Ronald Reagan

A) displayed a natural ability as a political leader.

B) insisted on implementing all of his conservative policies.

C) dealt with a Republican legislature.

D) favored walling out illegal aliens.

E) was opposed by middle class voters.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 774 [Factual]

2) President Nixon supported each of the following liberal programs EXCEPT

A) affirmative action.

B) the Environmental Protection Agency.

C) national health care.

D) the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

E) the Clean Air Act.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 777 [Factual]

3) Nixon called his shifting of responsibility for many social programs from the federal to the state and local levels the

A) New Nationalism.

B) New Deal.

C) Great Society.

D) New Federalism.

E) New Frontier

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 777 [Factual]

4) Which of the following was NOT a domestic goal of the Nixon administration?

A) a focus on making the federal bureaucracy more efficient

B) a commitment to shift social problems to the federal government

C) governmental utilization of minorities and women in the work force

D) shifting responsibility for school desegregation to the courts

E) increased revenue sharing between federal, state, county and city governments

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 777 [Factual]

5) Which of the following individuals served as Nixon's attorney general?

A) Warren Burger

B) G. Gordon Liddy

C) Henry Kissinger

D) William Rehnquist

E) John Mitchell

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 777 [Factual]

6) What was the main focus of the Nixon presidency?

A) foreign policy

B) economics

C) civil rights

D) education

E) military build-up

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 777 [Factual]

7) Which of the following individuals served as Nixon's national security adviser during his first term?

A) Warren Burger

B) G. Gordon Liddy

C) Henry Kissinger

D) William Rehnquist

E) John Mitchell

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 777 [Factual]

8) Nixon's program to improve relations with the Soviet Union was known as

A) containment.

B) detente.

C) Arc Light.

D) counterinsurgency.

E) de-escalation.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 777 [Factual]

9) What was the MAIN reason the United States wanted to resume relations with China?

A) The United States believed China could become an important ally.

B) China had asked that diplomatic relations resume.

C) The United States believed it would force better relations with the Soviet Union.

D) The United States wanted to thwart the growing economic power of Japan.

E) China's large population represented an important economic market.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 777 [Factual]

10) The SALT treaties involved

A) the United States' withdrawal from Vietnam.

B) reductions in the number of offensive ballistic missiles.

C) removal of Soviet nuclear weapons from Cuba.

D) preventing war in the Middle East.

E) the collapse of the former Soviet Union.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 777 [Factual]

11) The SALT I agreements

A) were more important as symbols than concrete events.

B) forced the United States to take a secondary position in the arms race.

C) were never accepted by the Soviet and American governments.

D) provided China with military support along its border with the Soviet Union.

E) limited the two superpowers to one thousand anti-ballistic missiles each.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 778) [Factual]

12) Which component was NOT part of Nixon's plan to end the war in Vietnam?

A) a gradual withdrawal of American troops

B) training of South Vietnamese forces to take the combat role

C) renewed bombing

D) increased military spending

E) taking a hard line in negotiations with Hanoi

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 778) [Factual]

13) The incident at Kent State was precipitated by the

A) bombing of Hanoi.

B) U.S. invasion of Cambodia.

C) assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.

D) withdrawal of U.S. troops from Vietnam.

E) the military draft.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 778) [Factual]

14) With respect to the anti-war demonstrators, Richard Nixon

A) secretly supported their objectives.

B) ordered violent actions to be taken against them.

C) had very little sympathy for them.

D) generally just ignored them.

E) prosecuted many for draft evasion.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 778) [Factual]

15) As the 1972 Democratic presidential nominee, ________ was perceived as an anti-establishment candidate.

A) Hubert Humphrey

B) George McGovern

C) Edmund Muskie

D) George Wallace

E) Barry Goldwater

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 780[Factual]

16) Which of the following men served as a special prosecutor investigating the Watergate incident?

A) Archibald Cox.

B) Leon Jaworski

C) John Sirica

D) both A and B

E) both B and C

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 780 [Factual]

17) Which of the following individuals were close Nixon associates?

A) H. R. Haldeman

B) John Ehrlichman

C) Edmund Muskie

D) A and B

E) B and C

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 779-780 [Factual]

Nixon Releases Transcripts of Oval Office Tapes, April 24, 1972

In an effort to deflect growing criticism, Richard Nixon released

edited transcripts of his Oval Office tape recordings in April 1974.

With their suspicious gaps and the frequent invoking of "expletive deleted,

"the transcripts failed to win the president public sympathy.

(National Archives)

18) The actions of President Nixon in the White House photo shown above were directly connected to which of the following?

A) one of Nixon's desperate gambles to avoid impeachment for the events of "Watergate"

B) an attempt to raise his public approval polls following the disastrous Abscam scandal

C) part of Nixon's efforts to disassociate himself from the forced resignation of Vice President Spiro Agnew

D) Nixon attempting to balance the damage done his reputation by the Iran-Contra scandal

E) an effort to prove that the White House had no involvement in the Kent State massacre

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 780 [Factual]

19) The Watergate Scandal

A) demonstrated the strength of America's basic governmental institutions.

B) allowed unchecked presidential authority.

C) involved a lust for money.

D) was conceived by Richard Nixon.

E) uncovered vast corruption in the U.S. Congress.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 780 [Factual]

20) The greatest economic challenge faced by the Nixon administration involved

A) the collapse of the dollar.

B) dramatically increasing international oil prices.

C) the bankruptcy of the Federal Reserve System.

D) the crisis in American farming.

E) rampant unemployment.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 781 [Factual]

21) The Arab oil boycott of 1973-1974 was precipitated by

A) the depression in China.

B) the U.S. invasion of Iran.


D) the SALT treaty.

E) the Yom Kippur War.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 781 [Factual]

22) The international oil organization most responsible for raising petroleum prices in the 1970s was






Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 781 [Factual]

23) The most grave consequence of the 1970s oil shock was

A) the collapse of several Arab states.

B) a glut of food world wide.

C) increased industrial growth.

D) initial failure of the fledgling computer industry.

E) inflation throughout America.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 781-782 [Factual]

24) In the spring of 1980, the prime rate reached ________ percent.

A) 10

B) 12

C) 14

D) 17

E) 20

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 782 [Factual]

25) Each of the following statements about alternative energy sources is true EXCEPT

A) solar power is expensive and unreliable.

B) hydropower is reliable but already fully utilized.

C) the areas where wind power works tend to be lightly populated.

D) coal is proven and reliable but a heavy polluter.

E) nuclear power is clean and inexpensive.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 783-784 [Factual]

26) The Equal Rights Amendment

A) was ratified in 1982.

B) required unisex restrooms.

C) was opposed by the National Organization for Women.

D) feel three states short of being ratified.

E) guaranteed abortion on demand.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 786 [Factual]

27) The birth of the gay liberation movement was

A) the founding of ACT UP.

B) at the Stonewall Inn.

C) the founding of the Gay Liberation Front.

D) the founding of the Gay Activist Alliance.

E) the Outing.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 786 [Factual]

28) The AIDS epidemic was first observed among

A) Hispanics.

B) Blacks.

C) hemophiliacs.

D) gay men.

E) intravenous drug users.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 788 [Factual]

29) Which one of the following served as vice president under Richard Nixon?

A) George Jones

B) Spiro Agnew

C) John Mitchell

D) John Sirica

E) Tex Colson

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 789 [Factual]

30) Gerald Ford

A) prosecuted former president Nixon to the full extent of the law.

B) was a graceful and articulate speaker.

C) endorsed control over federal strip mining.

D) was ultimately far more liberal than Nixon in the White House.

E) was the first president not elected to the office of either president or vice president.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 789 [Factual]

31) To end criticism of the CIA, Gerald Ford appointed ________ to head the agency.

A) Spiro Agnew

B) Ronald Reagan

C) George H.W. Bush

D) Tom Hayden

E) William Casey

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 789 [Factual]

32) In the election of 1976, Jimmy Carter defeated

A) Ronald Reagan.

B) Gerald Ford.

C) Richard Nixon.

D) Spiro Agnew.

E) George H.W. Bush.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 790 [Factual]

33) The Camp David Accords provided a framework for peace negotiations between

A) the U.S. and the Soviet Union.

B) NATO and the Warsaw Pact.

C) Iran and Iraq.

D) Israel and Egypt.

E) the Soviet Union and China.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 790 [Factual]

34) In 1979 revolutionaries in ________ took U.S. diplomats hostage.

A) Iraq

B) Israel

C) Pakistan

D) Iran

E) Afghanistan

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 790-791 [Factual]

35) President Carter's national security advisor was

A) Henry Kissinger.

B) Spiro Agnew.

C) Zbigniew Brzezinski.

D) Leonid Brezhnev.

E) Herb Lance.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 792 [Factual]

36) The Cold War remained dormant throughout the 1970s until

A) the United States invaded North Vietnam.

B) the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan.

C) the Chinese invaded South Korea.

D) the Soviet Union invaded China.

E) the Chinese invaded Pakistan.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 792 [Factual]

37) The independent candidacy of ________ hurt Jimmy Carter's reelection chances in 1980.

A) John Anderson

B) H. Ross Perot

C) Jerry Falwall

D) Pat Robertson

E) George Wallace

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 792 [Factual]

38) Reagan's controversial Secretary of the Interior was

A) James Watt.

B) Pat Robertson.

C) Jody Powell.

D) David Stockman.

E) Linus Pauling.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 794 [Factual]

39) The most effective cabinet member in the Reagan administration's first two years was

A) Drew Lewis.

B) James Watt.

C) Paul Volcker.

D) David Stockman.

E) Robert McFarlane.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 794 [Factual]

40) President Reagan's tax compromise with Congress called for an income tax cut of

A) ten percent for three consecutive years.

B) fifteen percent over two years.

C) five percent the first year and ten percent for the second and third years.

D) thirty percent over two years.

E) five percent each year for four years.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 793-794 [Factual]

41) In his efforts to restrict government activity and reduce federal regulation of the economy, Reagan met with

A) huge success.

B) mixed success.

C) little success.

D) no success.

E) indifference.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 794 [Factual]

42) In 1981, the Reagan administration crushed a strike by the

A) truck drivers.

B) air traffic controllers.

C) airline pilots.

D) coal miners.

E) automobile assembly workers.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 794 [Factual]

43) The entitlement program regarded as the greatest offender of the growing budget deficits was

A) Medicare.

B) Medicaid.

C) Unemployment Compensation.

D) Social Security.

E) Workers' Compensation.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 794 [Factual]

44) Reagan was able to please feminists with his appointment of ________ to the Supreme Court.

A) Anita Hill

B) Madeline O'Hara

C) Sandra Day O'Connor

D) Clarence Thomas

E) Ruth Bader Ginsberg

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 794 [Factual]

45) Jerry Falwell invited Catholics, Jews, Protestants, Mormons, and other conservatives to join his

A) Christian Coalition.

B) Anti-Gay Crusade.

C) Religious Right.

D) Moral Majority.

E) New Right Coalition.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 796-797 [Factual]

46) The central tenet of Reagan's approach to foreign policy was the belief that

A) the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) represented a serious threat to the United States.

B) trading arms for hostages was an effective way to quietly negotiate with terrorists.

C) the Soviet Union was a deadly enemy that threatened the United States.

D) the Middle East needed United States intervention to achieve freedom.

E) Israel could not be trusted.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 795 [Factual]

President Reagan, German Chancellor Schmidt,

Berlin Mayor von Weizxsacker , 1982

(Reagan Presidential Library)

47) At the occasion of his 1982 visit to Berlin, shown in the photo above, a major issue of concern to Reagan and the German leaders pictured here would have been the

A) recent formation of the Warsaw Pact military defense organization (Soviet).

B) French exit from NATO.

C) Berlin Wall and the division of Germany.

D) Soviet blockade of Berlin and the Berlin Airlift.

E) Russian nuclear testing program.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 795 [Conceptual]

48) The antimissile system based on the use of lasers and particle beams to destroy incoming missiles in outer space was called






Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 798 [Factual]

49) In 1979, the Sandanista Coalition succeeded on overthrowing the repressive Somoza regime in

A) Lebanon.

B) Afghanistan.

C) Costa Rica.

D) El Salvador.

E) Nicaragua.

Answer: E

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 798-799 [Factual]

50) The Reagan administration's policies in the Middle East and Central America reached a tragic convergence in

A) Nicaragua.

B) El Salvador.

C) Grenada.

D) the Iran-Contra affair.

E) the Iranian hostage crisis.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 799-801 [Factual]

51) In 1984, ________ became the first woman ever nominated for the vice presidency by a major party.

A) Sandra Day O'Connor

B) Paula Jones

C) Barbara Jordan

D) Geraldine Ferraro

E) Madeleine Albright

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 799 [Factual]

52) Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's new policies included

A) perestroika.

B) glasnost.

C) kalyshnikov.

D) dos vedanya.

E) Both A and B.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 801 [Factual]

31.2 True/False Questions
1) Richard Nixon opposed liberal social programs and halted the growth of the federal bureaucracy.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 777 [Factual]
2) The invasion of Cambodia in 1970 precipitated widespread antiwar protests.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 778 [Factual]
3 Nixon and Kissinger saw the Cold War not as a death struggle to be won but as a long-term rivalry to be managed.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 777 [Factual]
4) President Richard Nixon readily admitted soon after the Watergate break-in that his administration had obstructed justice.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 779-780 [Factual]
5) One of the major reasons for Jimmy Carter's political problems in 1980 was his failure to resolve the foreign policy crisis in Iran.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 791-792 [Factual]
6) Under Jimmy Carter, Cold War tensions increased.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 792 [Factual]
7) By the end of the 1970s, Ronald Reagan was recognized as the nation's most effective spokesman for the conservative resurgence.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 776 [Factual]
8) A major goal of the Reagan administration was to reduce the interference of the federal government in business affairs.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 794 [Factual]

9) Just as he promised during the presidential election campaign of 1980, Ronald Reagan achieved significant cuts in federal spending during his administration.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 793-794 [Factual]

10 Jerry Falwell led the pro-choice fight to guarantee a woman's right to have an abortion.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 796-797 [Factual]
31.3 Essay Questions
1) Describe the reasons why most Americans voted against President Jimmy Carter in the election of 1980.

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 792-793 [Factual and Conceptual]

2) Compare the foreign policy of Richard Nixon to those of Kennedy and Johnson. Was Nixon better able to lessen tensions with the Soviet Union? If so, why?

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 777-778 + previous chapter [Factual and Conceptual]

3) Explain how the Watergate scandal demonstrated the vitality of a democratic society.

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 779-780 [Factual]

4) Compare the foreign policy views of Henry Kissinger with those of Zbigniew Brzezinski.

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 777-778, 790-792 [Factual]

5) Describe Reagan's economic policies and the trends of the economy during the 1980s.

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 793-794 [Factual]

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