America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.) Chapter 29 Affluence and Anxiety



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America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.)

Chapter 29 Affluence and Anxiety
29.1 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) The individual who invented the concept of mass construction of suburban homes was

A) William Levitt.

B) C. Wright Mills.

C) William Douglas.

D) William Whyte.

E) Charles Newcastle.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 726 [Factual]


2) The most significant social trend in the postwar era in America was

A) the decline of the nuclear family.

B) the flight to the suburbs.

C) a decline in the size of the family.

D) the emergence of the drug culture.

E) the growth of the "Sun Belt."

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 726 [Factual]


3) The 1950s in America were characterized by

A) a lower standard of living.

B) the maldistribution of wealth and income.

C) the appearance of much greater diversity in American life.

D) a new affluence and economic good times.

E) recession and inflation.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 726-727 [Factual]


4) Which of the following was NOT an important stimulus to American economic growth in the late 1940s and early 1950s?

A) direct government aid to industrial development

B) the pent-up demand for consumer goods

C) heavy government spending during the Cold War

D) $37 billion in American savings

E) the Korean War

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 728-729 [Factual]

5) The economic abundance of the 1950s

A) benefited all sections of the country equally.

B) erased unemployment in the United States.

C) was not shared by older industries or the farmer.

D) removed the economy as a source of concern for the government.

E) led to racial equality.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 729 [Factual]


6) The new American suburbs of the 1950s

A) showed a surprising occupational diversity among inhabitants.

B) were inhabited, primarily, by the middle class.

C) allowed only upper-class inhabitants.

D) were mainly inhabited by lower-class families.

E) were open to all races and religions.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 729-730 [Factual]


7) Critical to life in the suburbs in the 1950s was

A) the automobile.

B) efficient mass transit.

C) the development of jobs close to the home sites.

D) the restructuring of American school systems.

E) air conditioning.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 730 [Factual]


8) Which one of the following is NOT true of America in the 1950s?

A) Annual defense spending by the United States exceeded $40 billion.

B) By 1960, more than 80% of women worked outside the home.

C) Critics of progressive education called for massive reforms.

D) Television became the most important form of entertainment.

E) Organized religion flourished.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 730 [Factual]




Desi-Lucy Love Story

(Library of Congress)


9) The cover story in Look Magazine for December 25, 1956 featured this photograph of Lucille Ball, Desi Arnaz, and their son Ricky. This photo demonstrates what strong cultural value of the 1950s?

A) significance of music in family cohesiveness

B) power of television and motion picture stars to influence society

C) rising influence of Hispanic culture in the United States

D) importance of the nuclear family unit to the parents of the baby boom generation

E) decline of marriage and families in the 1950s

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 730 [Conceptual]


10) In 1946, Dr. Benjamin Spock wrote a bestselling book on

A) infant and child care.

B) public education.

C) the Cold War.

D) marriage.

E) space travel.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 730 [Factual]

11) Between 1940 and 1960, American wives

A) dropped out of the workforce.

B) were increasingly required to take jobs outside the home.

C) continued to act almost entirely as homemakers.

D) had little interest in or need for jobs outside the home.

E) resisted the flight to the suburbs.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 730 [Factual]


12) The dominant social theme of the 1950s was

A) patriotism.

B) religion.

C) reform.

D) consumerism.

E) protest.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 730 [Factual]


13) People's attitudes toward organized religion in the 1950s was

A) incredibly positive and religious affiliation boomed.

B) seen mainly in the growing numbers of Protestants.

C) not as important in their lives as in previous generations.

D) the only way to deal with the emotional stress of the Cold War.

E) something there was no time for as life became more hectic.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 730) [Factual]


14) The sociologist who saw American society becoming divided into three groups—Protestant, Catholic, and Jewish--was

A) Reinhold Niebuhr.

B) Malvina Reynolds.

C) Will Herberg.

D) Rod Serling.

E) William H. Whyte.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 730) [Factual]

15) The Columbia University professor accused of cheating on the television quiz show Twenty-One was

A) Rod Serling.

B) Reginald Rose.

C) Paddy Chayefsky.

D) Charles Van Doren.

E) C. Wright Mills.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 734 [Factual]


16) A major point of agreement among those concerned with education in the 1950s was their belief in the need for

A) a college education.

B) local control of the educational system.

C) neighborhood schools.

D) instruction in values and ethics.

E) segregated schools.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 731 [Factual]


17) A major obstacle to the continuation of creative programming in 1950s television was the

A) disillusionment of advertisers with such programming.

B) predominance of sports shows.

C) absence of good writers.

D) failure of the major television networks.

E) dedication of the masses to "cornball" comedy and soap operas.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 731, 734 [Factual]


18) Which of the following individuals CANNOT be considered a prominent social critic of the 1950s?

A) William H. Whyte

B) Oveta Hobby

C) David Riesman

D) C. Wright Mills

E) Max Gunther

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 734, 737 [Factual]

19) A striking feature of the culture of the 1950s was

A) its tendency to avoid serious issues.

B) the abundance of self-criticism.

C) its focus almost entirely on serious, classical culture.

D) the absence of social criticism.

E) its almost universal suspicion of the new mass media.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 734 [Factual]


20) The most influential social critic of the 1950s was

A) Dean Acheson.

B) David Riesman.

C) Billy Graham.

D) Whittaker Chambers.

E) Ernie Kovacs.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 734 [Factual]


21) According to the social critic C. Wright Mills, the real villain in American society in the 1950s was

A) the Soviet Union.

B) the corporation.

C) the labor union.

D) the university.

E) the government.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 734 [Factual]


22) The tone for the so-called "beat" movement was set by the novelist

A) Tom Wolfe.

B) Ernest Hemingway.

C) J. D. Salinger.

D) John McDonald.

E) Jack Kerouac.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 734 [Factual]

23) The first U.S. satellite placed in Earth's orbit was

A) Explorer.

B) Vanguard.

C) Mercury.

D) Apollo.

E) Voyager.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 732 [Factual]


24) Sputnik, the earth satellite put into orbit by the Soviet Union in 1957, was capable of

A) launching a missile attack against the U.S.

B) transmitting a "beep...beep...beep" radio signal.

C) carrying out high-level photographic surveillance.

D) carrying a dog into space.

E) serving as a communications satellite.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 732 [Factual]


25) The National Defense Educational Act was passed in response to

A) the launching of Sputnik by the Soviet Union.

B) the discovery that the Soviets had nuclear weapons.

C) Truman's attempted nationalization of atomic energy.

D) Truman's call for educational reform.

E) a populace unsure of what to do in the event of nuclear war.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 733 [Factual]


26) The artistic counterpart of "beat" social protest literature was

A) realism.

B) postmodernism.

C) abstract expressionism.

D) cubism.

E) dadaism.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 735 [Factual]


27) Which of the following was NOT a component of President Truman's Fair Deal program?

A) federal aid to education

B) national medical insurance

C) an interstate highway system

D) a Fair Employment Practices Commission

E) an overhaul of the farm subsidy program

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 735 [Factual]

28) Harry Truman's Fair Deal

A) marked an attempt to undo New Deal reforms.

B) enjoyed Congressional support.

C) was never enacted.

D) was hampered by Truman's lack of any real ambition for reform.

E) was resoundingly accepted by America.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 735 [Factual]


29) The best description of President Dwight D. Eisenhower's political perspective was

A) the "Fair Deal."

B) the "New Deal."

C) "Moderate Republicanism."

D) "The New Frontier."

E) "A Chicken in Every Pot."

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 736 [Factual]


30) Which one of the following Eisenhower appointees is INCORRECTLY matched with his job?

A) Sherman Adams/Chief of Staff

B) George Humphrey/Secretary of the Treasury

C) Charles Wilson/Secretary of Defense

D) Richard Nixon/Secretary of State

E) Oveta Culp Hobby/Health, Education, and Welfare

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 736-737 [Factual]


31) During the Eisenhower administrations, Congress

A) was not subject to intensive lobbying by the president.

B) was forced into a limited role by Eisenhower.

C) was predominantly Republican and, therefore, supported the president.

D) fought frequently with the president over his programs.

E) worked closely with the president on every issue.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 736 [Factual]

32) In Congress, which of the following Democrats did President Eisenhower have to work most closely with during the 1950s?

A) John Dulles

B) Robert Taft

C) Sam Rayburn

D) Dean Acheson

E) John Carmichael

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 737 [Factual]


33) Eisenhower's legislative record could be characterized as

A) impressive, particularly in terms of social programs.

B) oriented toward much heavier government spending.

C) very modest.

D) in the tradition of Roosevelt and Truman.

E) radical.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 737 [Factual]


34) The one significant legislative achievement of the Eisenhower years was the

A) Social Security Act.

B) Highway Act of 1956.

C) Taft-Hartley Act.

D) Fair Employment Act.

E) Truth in Advertising Act.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 737 [Factual]


35) The first president to attempt seriously to alter the historic pattern of racial discrimination in the United States was

A) Harry Truman.

B) Franklin D. Roosevelt.

C) Theodore Roosevelt.

D) John F. Kennedy.

E) Herbert Hoover.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 738) [Factual]

36) Overall, the Eisenhower years could be characterized best as

A) a time of intense radicalism.

B) a period marked by confidence in America's greatness.

C) an era of political moderation.

D) a time of intense political factionalism.

E) turbulent.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 738 [Factual]


37) With respect to the New Deal, Eisenhower

A) actively sought to dismantle its key programs.

B) maintained its welfare programs but limited their expansion.

C) pushed for the creation of new, more radical programs.

D) was a firm believer in the effectiveness of its programs.

E) maintained all central structures except welfare.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 738 [Factual]


38) During the Truman administration

A) voting discrimination against African Americans came to an end.

B) public schools were desegregated.

C) an order for desegregation of the armed forces was issued.

D) Congress established a permanent civil rights commission.

E) the Civil Rights Division of the Justice Department was weakened.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 738 [Factual]


39) By 1960, the most racially integrated institution in American society was

A) the public high school system.

B) the private university system.

C) corporate America.

D) the military.

E) professional hockey.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 739 [Factual]


40) The NAACP lawyer who argued the Brown v. Board of Education decision before the Supreme Court was

A) Orville Faubus.

B) Martin Luther King.

C) Thurgood Marshall.

D) Malcolm X.

E) John Lewis.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 739 [Factual]

41) The case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka overturned the

A) Plessy v. Ferguson decision.

B) Sweatt v. Painter decision.

C) Sims v. Simpson decision.

D) Allwright v. United States decision.

E) Delacourt v. Alabama decision.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 739 [Factual]


42) In 1953, Eisenhower appointed ________ as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.

A) Thurgood Marshall

B) Earl Warren

C) Charles E. Wilson

D) Oveta Culp Hobby

E) Joseph McCarthy

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 739 [Factual]


43) In its decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, the Supreme Court

A) refused to rule on the question of segregation.

B) declared separate educational facilities to be inherently unequal.

C) continued to support the doctrine of separate but equal.

D) ruled that the NAACP's case had no merit.

E) ordered federal funding of new schools and universities to meet growing needs.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 739 [Factual]


44) As a result of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka,

A) segregation in the South ended almost immediately.

B) segregation was allowed to continue for ten years.

C) the slow process of desegregating schools was begun.

D) African American protests against discrimination began to decline in number.

E) martial law was immediately imposed in most southern states.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 739 [Factual]


45) The Deep South responded to court-ordered desegregation

A) with massive resistance.

B) by moving immediately to end discrimination in schools.

C) with grudging acceptance of the decisions.

D) by closing all of its schools.

E) with bloody race riots.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 739 [Factual]


46) With respect to desegregation efforts, Dwight D. Eisenhower

A) actively fought to halt them.

B) wholeheartedly supported them.

C) called for further action in the courts.

D) worked behind the scenes to support them.

E) was history's greatest presidential advocate.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 739 [Factual]


47) The Arkansas governor who defied U.S. Supreme Court orders to integrate public schools was

A) Bill Clinton.

B) George Wallace.

C) Orval Faubus.

D) Thurgood Marshall.

E) Roger Thornton.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 739-740 [Factual]


48) President Eisenhower had to send in federal troops in 1957 to enforce the desegregation of the public schools in

A) Chicago, Illinois.

B) Los Angeles, California.

C) Tallahassee, Florida.

D) Little Rock, Arkansas.

E) Topeka, Kansas.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 739-740 [Factual]

49) The beginning of active African-American protest against discrimination occurred in

A) Washington, D. C.

B) Little Rock, Arkansas.

C) Montgomery, Alabama.

D) Memphis, Tennessee.

E) Topeka, Kansas.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 740 [Factual]


50) An organization founded by Martin Luther King, Jr. to promote civil rights was the

A) Southern Christian Leadership Conference.

B) National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.

C) Urban League.

D) Fair Employment Practices Committee.

E) Black Panther Party for Self-Defense.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 741 [Factual]


51) Martin Luther King, Jr.'s philosophy of protest stressed

A) massive protest in the streets.

B) acceptance of discrimination until the courts could act.

C) acceptance of discrimination until African Americans could form a more solid economic base.

D) intensive, radical action.

E) nonviolent, passive resistance.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 741-742 [Factual]


29.2 True/False Questions
1) During the 1950s, city populations actually grew more rapidly than suburban populations.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 726 [Factual]
2) The growth of suburban populations in the 1950s was inextricably linked to the boom in automobile sales.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 730 [Factual]
3) One striking feature of the 1950s was the abundance of self-criticism.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 734 [Factual]
4) Truman's Fair Deal was a resounding success.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 735-736 [Factual]

5) Harry Truman's attempts to carry on the traditions of Franklin D. Roosevelt were hampered by his tendency to seek too much too soon.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 736 [Factual]


6) One of the few successes of President Truman's Fair Deal program was repeal of the Taft-Hartley Act.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 735-736 [Factual]
7) Dwight D. Eisenhower, because of his extensive military background, assumed the presidency with the idea of actively pursuing key programs and expanding the powers of his office.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 736 [Factual]
8) Dwight D. Eisenhower was the only president of the twentieth century to balance the federal budget during each of his eight years in office.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 738 [Factual]
9) Compared with previous presidents, Harry Truman was strongly committed to civil rights.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 738 [Factual]
10) The Supreme Court decisions declaring segregation illegal were readily and eagerly accepted by most Americans in the 1950s.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 739 [Factual]
29.3 Essay Questions
1) What were the key characteristics of American culture and society during the 1950s? Discuss each in detail.

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 726-731, 734 [Factual]


2) In the midst of the affluence and prosperity of the 1950s, considerable doubt existed about the character of American society. What were the most significant criticisms of the character and direction of American society during the 1950s?

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 734-735 [Conceptual]


3) Describe the arguments of social critics about American suburbia and consumerism in the 1950s.

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 734-735 [Factual]

4) Discuss the impact of Sputnik on the United States.

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 732-733 [Factual and Conceptual]


5) Explain the sources of the American economic boom in the 1950s.

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 726-730 [Factual]



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