America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.) Chapter 26 Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal

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America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.)

Chapter 26 Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal
26.1 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) The most striking characteristic of the stock market in 1929 was

A) investors' obsession with speculation.

B) the downward trend of its major stocks early in the year.

C) the government's desire to carefully regulate it.

D) the fact that the great majority of wage-earning Americans were so heavily involved in it.

E) its steady advancement through the decade, culminating in record levels in 1929.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 650 [Factual]

2) By 1932, what percentage of American workers were unemployed?

A) 10

B) 12

C) 25

D) 33

E) 50

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 651 [Factual]

3) The social and economic effects of the Depression

A) impacted only the wealthier classes.

B) hit the middle class especially hard.

C) lasted only a few months past 1929.

D) were harsh only in the case of the lower classes.

E) came to light only gradually.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 652 [Factual]

4) Hoover believed that efforts to relieve human suffering

A) would be in accord with previous government policies during economic crises.

B) would bring about inflation.

C) could promote domestic unrest.

D) should come from private charities.

E) would be a sign of weakness.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 653 [Factual]

5) The Reconstruction Finance Corporation was designed to

A) loan money to financial institutions to prevent bankruptcies.

B) stimulate the growth of new business.

C) give direct "doles" to the unemployed.

D) provide direct loans to homeowners.

E) fund the construction of cheap housing for the growing number of homeless Americans.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 654 [Factual]

6) Which of the following was NOT a program of the Hoover administration to ameliorate the Depression?

A) Reconstruction Finance Corporation

B) Federal Farm Board

C) Agricultural Adjustment Act

D) White House business conferences

E) Boulder Dam Project

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 653-654 [Factual]

7) Hoover's response to the Depression could best be described as

A) restrained and cautious.

B) innovative and adaptive.

C) humanitarian and pragmatic.

D) socialistically radical.

E) bumbling and uncertain.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 653-654 [Factual]

8) Which of the following individuals was blamed by Americans for the Depression?

A) Herbert Hoover

B) Calvin Coolidge

C) Franklin D. Roosevelt

D) Harry Hopkins

E) J. P. Morgan

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 653-654 [Factual]

9) In the presidential campaign of 1932, Hoover

A) announced that he had been irresponsible in his attitude toward the Depression.

B) conducted an upbeat, optimistic campaign.

C) announced his support for public relief.

D) was haunted by the public's memory of the Bonus March.

E) announced he would take more bold action in the future.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 654 [Factual]

9) The bonus army that came to Washington in 1932 was made up of

A) new volunteers.

B) young draftees.

C) WW I veterans who supported Hoover’s policies.

D) WW I veterans who lobbied Congress.

E) Civil War veterans seeking medical aid.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 654 [Factual]

10) The "Hundred Days" was

A) the period between Roosevelt's election and his inauguration.

B) the period immediately after Roosevelt's first inauguration.

C) the last three months of the 1932 campaign.

D) the final days of the Hoover administration.

E) the worst period of the Great Depression.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 655 [Factual]

11) Roosevelt's Hundred Days banking legislation was designed to

A) support strong banks and eliminate the weaker ones.

B) decrease government regulation of U.S. banks.

C) allow the government to take over the banking system.

D) give bankers a place in his government.

E) merge smaller banks with larger ones.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 655 [Factual]

12) During the Hundred Days, Roosevelt did all of the following, except

A) propose government ownership of major industries.

B) close all the banks.

C) institute the Tennessee Valley Authority.

D) create the Agricultural Adjustment Act.

E) call a special session of Congress.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 655 [Factual]

13) Franklin D. Roosevelt's conduct between 1933 and 1935 could best be described as that of the

A) stern dictator.

B) moderate reformer.

C) radical socialist.

D) rigid doctrinaire.

E) liberal Democrat.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 655 [Factual]

14) The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) was designed to

A) bring modernization and jobs to desolate areas of the upper rural South.

B) help support the continued control of electrical power by private companies.

C) alienate conservationists.

D) test the authority of the Supreme Court.

E) win votes in a largely Republican area.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 655 [Factual]

15) The blue eagle was a symbol of the






Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 656 [Factual]

16) The National Recovery Administration sought to promote economic recovery by

A) reducing corporate taxes.

B) restoring competition.

C) promoting cooperation between business and labor.

D) implementing classical economic theory.

E) eliminating all taxes.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 656 [Factual]

17) The National Recovery Administration encountered each of the following problems EXCEPT

A) the trade codes were too complex to be enforced easily.

B) the trade codes favored big business over smaller competitors.

C) low minimum wages led to labor disenchantment.

D) companies could easily avoid the collective bargaining requirement.

E) the appeal for patriotic public support fell on deaf ears.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 656 [Factual]

18) Labor issues in Roosevelt's National Recovery Administration were addressed in

A) Section 14b.

B) the Wagner Act.

C) Section 7a.

D) Article 14.

E) Sub-Section 7.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 656 [Factual]

19) Which of the following New Deal programs did the Supreme Court declare unconstitutional?

A) Commodity Credit Corporation

B) Civilian Conservation Corps

C) National Recovery Administration

D) Tennessee Valley Authority

E) Civil Works Administration

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 656 [Factual]

20) As secretary of agriculture, ________ was in charge of farm relief.

A) Harry Hopkins

B) Henry A. Wallace

C) Hugh Johnson

D) Herbert Hoover

E) Huey Long

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 657 [Factual]

21) Franklin D. Roosevelt and his advisers believed that to restore purchasing power to farmers, production should be

A) cut.

B) increased.

C) redistributed.

D) expropriated.

E) monitored.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 657 [Factual]

22) Under the Agricultural Adjustment Act, the federal government paid subsidies to farmers who

A) reduced their crop production.

B) increased their output.

C) bought more efficient equipment and fertilizers.

D) donated their surplus to the urban unemployed.

E) ceased all production.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 657 [Factual]

23) Criticisms of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration included each of the following EXCEPT

A) its rushed implementation of farm products being destroyed while people in the cities were starving.

B) large farmers benefitting most.

C) millions of tenants and sharecroppers being forced off the land.

D) contributing to Dust Bowl conditions on the Great Plains.

E) hastening the decline of the family farm and the rise of large-scale agribusiness.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 657 [Factual]

24) The Farm Security Administration was designed to

A) keep large farmers in operation.

B) help tenant farmers and sharecroppers buy their own land.

C) export all American farm surplus.

D) protect large farmers from rioting sharecroppers.

E) help large farmers mechanize and become more efficient.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 657 [Factual]

25) The Agricultural Adjustment Act

A) tried to increase production.

B) was found unconstitutional in 1936.

C) reduced the amount of credit available to farmers.

D) eliminated sharecropping.

E) applied only to small farmers.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 657 [Factual]

26) The New Deal agency designed to assist sharecroppers in acquiring land of their own was the

A) Farm Security Administration.

B) Civilian Conservation Corps.

C) Rural Electrification Administration.

D) Tennessee Valley Authority.

E) Federal Emergency Relief Administration.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 657 [Factual]

27) A short-lived agency that employed 4 million people to build roads, schools, playgrounds, and athletic facilities was the






Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 658 [Factual]

28) Young men were hired to clear land, plant trees, build bridges, and fish ponds by the






Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 658 [Factual]

29) Franklin D. Roosevelt's initial New Deal legislation was surprisingly

A) radical.

B) liberal.

C) inflationary.

D) conservative.

E) unsuccessful.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 658 [Factual]

30) Which New Deal agency was designed to help American artists?






Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 659 [Factual]

31) Father Coughlin's radio sermons

A) contained blatant anti-Semitic references.

B) criticized the New Deal as being too socialistic.

C) never received much public attention.

D) were especially appealing to African Americans.

E) were heard live only in Michigan, but reprinted in national newspapers.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 660 [Factual]

32) By 1935, Roosevelt's severest critics were

A) members of the Supreme Court.

B) accusing him of turning the U.S. into a socialist state.

C) demanding more radical reforms.

D) accusing him of ignoring the rise of aggressive military dictatorships in Europe.

E) scolding him for not providing more aid to impoverished blacks.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 660 [Factual]

33) Francis Townsend advocated that the federal government pay $200 each month to

A) all Americans over the age of 60.

B) dispossessed farmers.

C) veterans of World War I.

D) widows with two or more children.

E) unemployed urban workers.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 660 [Factual]

34) Huey Long advocated

A) higher taxes for every income level.

B) "sharing the wealth."

C) more conservative measures to control the economy.

D) cutting the taxes of the wealthy.

E) nationalization of the banking system.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 660 [Factual]

35) ________ posed the most realistic threat to Roosevelt's re-election chances in 1936.

A) Francis Townsend

B) Harry Hopkins

C) Huey Long

D) Floyd Olson

E) Father Coughlin

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 660 [Factual]

36) Criticisms of the Social Security Act included each of the following EXCEPT

A) the pension payments were paltry and would not begin until 1942.

B) farmers and domestic servants were not covered.

C) the Social Security trust fund removed money from circulation.

D) it offered nothing to those already out of work.

E) it would transfer over half the national income to less than 10 percent of the population.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 661 [Factual]

37) The Social Security Act of 1935

A) was a fundamentally conservative measure.

B) provided immediate stimulus to the economy.

C) provided a guaranteed income for all Americans over the age of 65.

D) was financed by a special tax on corporations.

E) was strictly a federal program.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 662 [Factual]

38) The National Labor Relations (Wagner) Act

A) guaranteed that all workers would be paid a nationally established minimum wage.

B) granted workers the right to organize and collectively bargain.

C) gave management the right to forbid the "closed shop."

D) gave the president the power to end strikes that threatened the nation's welfare.

E) did not help workers who were not already unionized.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 662 [Factual]

39) Each of the following is true of the Fair Labor Standards Act EXCEPT

A) it established minimum wages for millions of workers.

B) organized labor gave it enthusiastic support.

C) it established maximum hours of work per week.

D) it threatened the low wages that had attracted northern industry to the South.

E) it drew conservative opposition because it meant greater government involvement in private enterprise.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 662 [Factual]

40) The industrial union movement of the 1930s

A) sought to organize skilled workers in a particular trade.

B) had long been championed by the American Federation of Labor.

C) was led by William Green.

D) was led by John L. Lewis and the UMW.

E) had been thriving for years before the Great Depression.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 663 [Factual]

41) In 1935, John L. Lewis organized the

A) Knights of Labor.

B) American Federation of Labor.

C) Congress of Industrial Organizations.

D) International Workers of the World.

E) Steel Workers' Organizing Committee.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 663 [Factual]

42) The Congress of Industrial Organizations

A) worked harmoniously with the American Federation of Labor in the 1930s.

B) was solely interested in trade unions.

C) fought hard to include women and African Americans.

D) was opposed by President Roosevelt.

E) promoted the organization of all workers, not just skilled labor, in a given industry.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 663 [Factual]

43) The sitdown strike

A) was first used against General Motors in 1936.

B) was only used by the United Auto Workers.

C) proved ineffective.

D) was first used against Ford Motor Company.

E) was a time-tested technique that was successful against General Motors during the Depression.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 663 [Factual]

44) The individual who was most responsible for promoting African-American rights during the New Deal was

A) Franklin D. Roosevelt.

B) John Collier.

C) Harry Hopkins.

D) Harold Ickes.

E) Mary McLeod-Bethune.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 664 [Factual]

45) After ________, the WPA denied employment to aliens, a decision that greatly affected Mexican Americans.

A) 1935

B) 1936

C) 1937

D) 1938

E) 1939

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 665 [Factual]

46) The individual who headed the Bureau of Indian Affairs during the New Deal was

A) John L. Lewis.

B) Harry Hopkins.

C) John Collier.

D) Marian Anderson.

E) Frances Perkins.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 665 [Factual]

47) The first woman Cabinet member was

A) Mary McLeod-Bethune.

B) Charlotte Perkins-Gillman.

C) Marion Anderson.

D) Hattie Caraway.

E) Frances Perkins.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 666 [Factual]

Giving Her a Lift to Town

Caption on car reads: "Mrs. F.R." Caption on individual reads "Forgotten Woman."

City in the distance is Washington D.C.

(Franklin D. Roosevelt Library)

48) The artist of this cartoon is commenting upon which of the following topics?

A) The First Lady's unusually active involvement in politics which included increasing the rights of women.

B) Eleanor Roosevelt's support for a solution to the serious public transportation problem in the city of Washington D.C.

C) The dangers faced by women drivers who are willing to pick up hitchhikers.

D) The Democratic party's failure to include women's issues in its political agenda.

E) Failure of Congress to pass the Equal Rights Amendment for women.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 666 [Conceptual]

49) By 1935, the New Deal coalition included support from all of the following EXCEPT

A) organized labor.

B) the urban masses.

C) big business.

D) African Americans.

E) Democrats in the South and West.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 667 [Factual]

50) Roosevelt's "court packing" proposal

A) was perfectly legal.

B) outraged both conservatives and liberals.

C) was effectively blocked by Democratic opposition.

D) badly strained Roosevelt's relations with Congress.

E) all of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 667 [Factual]

51) In his second term, Roosevelt was stung by each of the following EXCEPT

A) the failure of national health insurance and anti-lynching legislation.

B) the defeat of minimum wage and maximum hour legislation.

C) a very serious economic relapse known as the "Roosevelt recession."

D) a Republican resurgence in the 1938 elections.

E) the emergence of a conservative congressional coalition which blocked further New Deal legislation after 1938.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 671-672 [Factual]

26.2 True/False Questions
1) The major political impact of the Great Depression was to bring about a strengthening of the Republican Party.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 653-654 [Factual]
2) Federal Reserve monetary policies in the 1920s actually contributed to the speculative boom that led to the stock market crash of 1929.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 650 [Factual]
3) The fundamental cause of the Great Depression was that income had not been distributed evenly enough to give people the purchasing power to buy all the consumer goods being produced.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 651 [Factual]

4) The Supreme Court declared the National Recovery Administration unconstitutional.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 656 [Factual]

5) The only consistently healthy sector of the economy in the 1920s was agriculture.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 651, 657 [Factual]
6) The Townsend Plan was a forerunner of the National Labor Relations Act.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 662 [Factual]
7) The Social Security Act of 1935 included a program of national health insurance.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 660-661, 671[Factual]
8) The New Deal did less for Mexican Americans than for African Americans.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 665 [Factual]
9) The Indian Reorganization Act was designed to help Native Americans become self-sufficient farmers.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 665 [Factual]
10) During the Great Depression, the economic status of women declined dramatically.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 666 [Factual]
26.3 Essay Questions
1) Describe the bull market of the 1920s and explain the stock market crash of 1929.

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 649-651 [Factual]

2) What was the legacy of the New Deal? In what ways did the New Deal change Americans' attitudes toward the role of the federal government in their daily lives?

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 648, 658-660 [Factual and Conceptual]

3) Why is Franklin D. Roosevelt considered a "great" president? How did his political philosophy affect both his New Deal policies and executive conduct?

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 654-658, 672-673 [Conceptual]

4) Compare and contrast the respective approaches of Herbert Hoover and Franklin D. Roosevelt to the issues and problems of the Great Depression.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 653-655 [Factual]

5) What were the origins, stipulations, and weaknesses of the New Deal's major recovery programs, the Agricultural Adjustment Act and the National Recovery Administration? Why did the Supreme Court declare both measures unconstitutional?

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 656-657 [Factual and Conceptual]

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