America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.) Chapter 22 The Progressive Era



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America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.)

Chapter 22 The Progressive Era
22.1 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) What was the term for journalists who investigated American life and sought to expose corruption and questionable practices?

A) muckrakers

B) yellow journalists

C) sensationalists

D) rationalists

E) the New Journalists

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 542 [Factual]


2) Which one of the following individuals was NOT a prominent muckraker?

A) Ida Tarbell

B) Lincoln Steffens

C) James G. Blaine

D) Upton Sinclair

E) Samuel McClure

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 542 [Factual]


3) The focus of Lincoln Steffens' research and writing was

A) corruption in city government.

B) filth in meatpacking plants.

C) monopolies.

D) conservation.

E) unhealthy working conditions.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 542 [Factual]


4) Which one of the following individuals wrote The Jungle?

A) Booker T. Washington

B) Upton Sinclair

C) W. E. B. Du Bois

D) Samuel Gompers

E) John Dos Passos

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 542 [Factual]

5) The best example of a mass-produced consumer product in the early 1900s was

A) the air conditioner.

B) the McCormick reaper.

C) the Model T of Henry Ford.

D) Edison's motion pictures.

E) the radio.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 544 [Factual]


6) Henry Ford showed that enormous revenues could come from

A) cheap, low-quality goods.

B) an emphasis on craft methods of production.

C) low-volume, high-quality production.

D) small unit profit on a large volume of sales.

E) high-priced luxury goods.

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 544 [Factual]


7) Ford got the idea for the moving assembly line by observing

A) a July 4 parade.

B) a bakery.

C) a meat packing plant.

D) a farmer plowing a series of parallel furrows.

E) a wheat harvest on a bonanza farm.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 545 [Factual]


8) The law requiring every state desiring federal funds to establish a highway department to plan routes, oversee construction, and maintain roads was the

A) Street Transportation Act of 1915.

B) Federal Aid Roads Act of 1916.

C) Interstate Highway Act of 1922.

D) Road Construction Act of 1913.

E) Thoroughfare Act of 1914.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 545 [Factual]

9) In 1909, just ________ percent of industrial firms produced nearly half of all manufactured goods.

A) 1


B) 10

C) 25


D) 33

E) 35


Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 545 [Factual]


10) The control of a commodity or service by a small number of large, powerful companies is called

A) a trust.

B) an oligopoly.

C) a monopoly.

D) a holding company.

E) a consortium.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 545 [Factual]


11) Between 1898 and 1903, the American economy saw

A) an increase in the number of smaller businesses.

B) greater competition among all businesses.

C) a wave of mergers and consolidations.

D) the outlawing of trusts.

E) meager overall business growth.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 545 [Factual]


12) In the first decade of the twentieth century, the economic trend

A) was toward a greater number of industrialists.

B) was a replacement of industrial capitalists by financial capitalists.

C) was a decline in the dominance of large corporations.

D) indicated the triumph of the small firm.

E) favored the small businessman.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 545 [Factual]

13) The leading financier in the United States in the early 1900s was

A) Lincoln Steffens.

B) Upton Sinclair.

C) J. P. Morgan.

D) John Theodoric.

E) George Vanderbilt.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 545 [Factual]


14) New methods of production in the first years of the twentieth century

A) were large-scale and mechanized.

B) relied heavily on keeping workers satisfied.

C) depended on the workers' willingness to work.

D) depended almost totally on automation.

E) emphasized a unique product that would be better than the one before.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 546 [Factual]


15) In 1900, ________ founded the first industrial research laboratory.

A) Du Pont

B) General Electric

C) Standard Oil

D) Eastman Kodak

E) Westinghouse

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 546 [Factual]


16) Frederick W. Taylor's management methods emphasized

A) keeping the employee happy.

B) creating a comfortable working environment.

C) trusting the employee's willingness to work.

D) the enforcement of work standards and cooperation.

E) allowing the worker to develop the best solutions to problems.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 547 [Factual]


17) In the new industrial system, workers

A) found a safer working environment.

B) took greater pride in their workmanship.

C) frequently faced repetitive and boring work tasks.

D) noticed little change in their work environment.

E) found many choices.

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 547 [Factual]

18) This disaster forced state and national attention on working conditions in factories and stores.

A) Homestead mining strike

B) Farmington fire

C) Ludlow disaster

D) Triangle Shirtwaist fire

E) Hormel stampede

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 554, 556-557 [Factual]


19) In general, farmers

A) were hurt by the increasing urbanization of American society.

B) received some benefit from the effects of urbanization.

C) totally opposed urbanization.

D) were only slightly affected by urbanization.

E) aggressively rejected urbanization.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 547 [Factual]




Woman's Sphere, c. 1900

(Library of Congress)


20) The cartoon shown above argues what position?

A) Women are not properly suited for a public role in society and should confine their activities to the home and family.

B) Given the right to vote, women would move from backyard gossips to responsible citizens.

C) Women should be given a full and complete academic education to prepare them for their roles in society.

D) Divorce and birth control threatens the heart and structure of the American family.

E) A "Woman's Sphere" properly lays in the church, the home, and the family.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 548-549 [Conceptual]


21) Between 1900 and 1920, women

A) increasingly found medical careers open to them.

B) increasingly found professional careers closed to them.

C) received considerable support in their quest for careers.

D) found opportunities for careers equal to those of men.

E) taught in colleges and universities in increasing numbers.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 548 [Factual]

22) In the early 1900s, the majority of "new" immigrants commonly included people from any of the following countries EXCEPT

A) Poland.

B) Italy.

C) Russia.

D) Germany.

E) Greece.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 551 [Factual]




"Breaker Boys," Western Pennsylvania, 1911

(Records of the Children's Bureau, The National Archives,

Office of the Chief Signal Officer)
23) In the early part of the 20th century, deep concern among middle-class Americans about the evil that was portrayed in the photograph shown above was on the list of "must do" reforms pushed by which of the following groups?

A) Radical Republicans

B) Populists

C) Women’s Trade Union League

D) American Protective Society

E) New Deal Democrats

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 549 [Factual]


24) At the beginning of the twentieth century, many African Americans

A) found their situation improved substantially.

B) received equal opportunities for quality education.

C) worked in the South under conditions of peonage.

D) had little reason to protest.

E) often banded together to start businesses.

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 550 [Conceptual]


25) The Niagara Movement was headed by

A) W. E. B. Du Bois.

B) Booker T. Washington.

C) William Walling.

D) Marcus Garvey.

E) William Lloyd Garrison.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 550 [Factual]


26) The main focus of the Niagara Movement was

A) conservation of natural resources.

B) African American rights.

C) the achievement of lower tariffs.

D) Mexican American civil rights.

E) women's rights.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 550 [Factual]


27) Which one of the following individuals took a gradualist approach to African American concerns?

A) Booker T. Washington

B) Upton Sinclair

C) W. E. B. Du Bois

D) Samuel Gompers

E) Raymond Robins

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 550 [Factual]

28) Which organization led the fight for equal rights and education?

A) WCTCU

B) NAACP

C) Wobblies

D) ACTUC

E) SNCC


Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 550 [Factual]


29) Padroni were

A) temporary immigrants who planned to return to Europe.

B) priests who ministered to immigrants from southern Europe.

C) labor agents who recruited immigrant workers.

D) employers who held immigrant workers in a form of peonage.

E) the first Mafia crime bosses.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 551 [Factual]


30) As a bird of passage, an immigrant

A) stayed in the United States.

B) quickly became an American citizen.

C) quickly moved west to farm.

D) was detained, or "caged," indefinitely.

E) did not stay permanently in the United States.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 551 [Factual]


31) In the first decades of the twentieth century, Mexican immigration

A) occurred at a steady rate.

B) increased dramatically.

C) had little impact on the United States.

D) was encouraged by the United States government.

E) rarely occurred.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 551-552 [Factual]


32) Immigrants to the United States in the early 1900s

A) were generally received with open arms.

B) were easily assimilated into American society.

C) encountered considerable hostility from American nativists.

D) faced few problems adapting to their new environment.

E) prospered financially.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 553 [Factual]

33) The "science" of eugenics held that

A) population growth among "inferior" peoples should be limited.

B) the bumps on a person's scalp could be used to generate a character profile.

C) people should avoid red meat and consume only dairy products and cereal grains.

D) peace could be attained if the peoples of the world could just get along.

E) environment was more important than heredity in shaping the human character.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 553 [Factual]


34) In the first decade of the twentieth century, the American Federation of Labor

A) became increasingly radical.

B) remained devoted to the interests of skilled craftsmen.

C) included more and more unskilled workers.

D) lost its place as the largest American union.

E) aligned itself with management of America's largest corporations.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 554 [Factual]


35) Which one of the following individuals headed the American Federation of Labor?

A) Booker T. Washington

B) Upton Sinclair

C) W. E. B. Du Bois

D) "Big Bill" Heywood

E) Samuel Gompers

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 554 [Factual]


36) Which of the following labor leaders advocated social revolution?

A) Terence V. Powderly

B) "Big Bill" Haywood

C) Samuel Gompers

D) Eugene V. Debs

E) Margaret Dreier Robins

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 554-555 [Factual]


37) Which of the following individuals was a founder of the Industrial Workers of the World?

A) Booker T. Washington

B) Upton Sinclair

C) "Big Bill" Haywood

D) Samuel Gompers

E) Mary McDowell

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 554-555 [Factual]

38) The Industrial Workers of the World

A) was the most radical American labor union.

B) sought to parallel the American Federation of Labor.

C) had little impact on immigrant workers.

D) was readily accepted by the American business establishment.

E) greatly restricted its membership.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 554-555 [Factual]


39) Concerned about labor unrest, business leaders

A) placed armed guards in the factories.

B) encouraged union activism.

C) turned to applied psychology for answers.

D) felt they could do little to solve the problem.

E) adopted a policy of limited force and coercion.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 555 [Factual]


40) The leading figure in the development of corporate public relations was

A) Ivy L. Lee.

B) Henry Ford.

C) Frederick Taylor.

D) J. P. Morgan.

E) Elizabeth Flynn.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 555 [Factual]


41) In terms of worker relations, Henry Ford

A) was generally behind the times.

B) showed little concern for his workers.

C) used trickery and brute force to achieve his aims.

D) developed a poor image that limited his choice of workers.

E) tried many innovations.

Answer: E

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 558 [Factual]


42) The great textile plant and community located in Manchester, New Hampshire, in the early 1900s was known as

A) Five Points.

B) Tinseltown.

C) Amoskeag.

D) Packingtown.

E) Eddington.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 558 [Factual]


43) By 1920,

A) the quality of life had improved for many Americans.

B) the number of available jobs had decreased.

C) the quality of life had improved only for the upper class.

D) few Americans received the benefits of the new industrial technology.

E) most aspects of life had remained unchanged for a couple of generations.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 559 [Factual]


44) The drop in the median age of the American population was NOT a result of

A) immigration.

B) advances in medical treatment.

C) better living conditions.

D) lower infant mortality rates.

E) higher birth rates.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 559 [Factual]


45) The greater leisure time available to workers resulted from

A) less flexible work schedules.

B) a decrease in the length of the work week.

C) a rise in unemployment.

D) longer work breaks.

E) a decrease in the use of machines and automation.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 560 [Factual]

46) D. W. Griffith was the

A) musician who developed ragtime.

B) famous marching band director.

C) father of scientific management.

D) director of the first movie spectacular, The Birth of a Nation.

E) inventor of the saxophone.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 560 [Factual]


47) The violence of ________ led to the establishment of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA).

A) hockey

B) football

C) lacrosse

D) basketball

E) baseball

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 560 [Factual]


48) Music in the Progressive period

A) was strongly influenced by the African American experience.

B) experienced little change.

C) became more classical in its orientation.

D) originated in the northern urban environment.

E) traced its roots to western Europe.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 560-561 [Factual]


49) A popular form of entertainment that drew from the immigrant experience was

A) the band concert.

B) ragtime.

C) vaudeville.

D) jazz.

E) the minstrel show.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 560 [Factual]

50) Which of the following pioneered improvisational dance?

A) Bessie Smith

B) Kate Douglas Higgins

C) Isadora Duncan

D) "Jelly Roll" Morton

E) Lucretia Mott

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 561 [Factual]


51) New York's ________ attracted avant garde artists, writers, and poets.

A) Harlem district

B) Bowery

C) Manhattan Island

D) Five Points

E) Greenwich Village

Answer: E

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 561 [Factual]


52) The Ashcan school of artists

A) turned against realistic portrayals of life.

B) shared with the reformers a feel for the environment.

C) were abstract artists.

D) were influenced by European artists.

E) believed that "less is more."

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 561 [Factual]


22.2 True/False Questions
1) By 1909, one percent of the industrial firms in the U.S. produced more than half of all manufactured goods.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 545 [Factual]
2) Most American workers had little control over the products they produced.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 547 [Factual]
3) By 1920, fewer than one-third of Americans lived on farms.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 547 [Factual]

4) There were more women in medical school in 1890 than in 1920.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 548 [Factual]


5) By 1900, children were entering the work force in increasing numbers.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 549 [Factual]
6) Child labor all but disappeared in the United States in the early 1900s.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 549 [Factual]
7) The new immigrants had an easy time assimilating into American society.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 551 [Factual]
8) During the early 1900s, tensions decreased between workers and their employers.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 553 [Factual]
9) By 1900, the American middle class was increasing in size.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 559 [Factual]
10) Americans actually had less leisure time in the cities than they enjoyed in the rural areas.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 560 [Factual]
22.3 Essay Questions
1) How did increasing urbanization between 1900 and 1920 change American society?

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 559-560 [Factual and Conceptual]


2) How did new twentieth-century concepts of organization and management change the life of the American worker?

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 546-547, 555, 558 [Factual and Conceptual]


3) What were the characteristics of the "new immigrant" between 1900 and 1920? How did this wave of immigration differ from early ones?

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 551-553) [Factual]


4) Describe Henry Ford's theory of production, profit, and labor relations.

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 544-547, 558 [Factual]

5) In what ways did popular entertainment change during the Progressive period?

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 560-562 [Factual]



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