America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.) Chapter 21 Toward Empire



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America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.)

Chapter 21 Toward Empire
21.1 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) Theodore Roosevelt resigned from his position as ________ to organize the Rough Riders.

A) vice president

B) secretary of defense

C) assistant secretary of defense

D) secretary of the navy

E) assistant secretary of the navy

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 520 [Factual]


2) Why was American expansion of the 1890s different from earlier expansionist moves?

A) It was intended for settlement.

B) It was primarily for agricultural objectives.

C) It would create economic and military colonies overseas.

D) It would venture into uninhabited areas.

E) It was the result of war.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 521-522 [Factual]


3) Which of the following was NOT a factor in fostering a change in American foreign policy by 1890?

A) the census report of 1890

B) concern over lack of natural resources

C) oversaturation of domestic markets

D) the rise of evolution-inspired notions of racial superiority

E) the perceived need for more foreign markets

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 522-523 [Factual]


4) By 1900, American exports of merchandise totaled ________ per year.

A) $1.4 million

B) $1 million

C) $1.4 billion

D) $1 billion

E) $2.4 billion

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 523 [Factual]

5) For many political and religious leaders, expansionism

A) meant the demise of the American system.

B) would threaten the purity of the Anglo-Saxon race.

C) would put the United States into direct conflict with western European nations.

D) would mean the triumph of American civilization around the globe.

E) went against American ideals.

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 523 [Factual]


6) Josiah Strong

A) fostered the concept of the righteousness of American expansion.

B) believed that only missionary work should be done overseas.

C) had little regard for the theories of Charles Darwin.

D) hindered American expansion through his religious teachings.

E) thought foreign trade was unimportant.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 523 [Conceptual]


7) Which one of the following individuals supported the concept of Anglo-Saxon superiority?

A) John Fiske

B) William Jennings Bryan

C) John Burgess

D) William Seward

E) Josiah Strong

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 523 [Factual]


8) William Seward's foreign policy emphasized

A) avoiding entangling foreign alliances.

B) concentrating on promoting trade and commerce.

C) alliances with major European powers.

D) United States domination of the Americas.

E) Mexico but excluded Canada.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 523-524 [Factual]


9) The Treaty of Washington in 1871

A) created a breach in Anglo-American relations.

B) showed the diplomatic skills of Hamilton Fish.

C) allowed Grant to extend American influence in Asia.

D) provided for the arbitration of the Alabama claims against Great Britain.

E) B and D

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 524 [Factual]

10) Where were the greatest diplomatic successes for James G. Blaine?

A) Asia


B) western Europe

C) Latin America

D) Hawaii and Guam

E) Mexico

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 524 [Factual]


11) In 1867, Secretary of State William Seward had the United States purchase Alaska from

A) Spain.

B) Britain.

C) Russia.

D) China.

E) Canada.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 524 [Factual]


12) The first territory outside the North American continent acquired by the United States was

A) Alaska.

B) Hawaii.

C) the Philippines.

D) the Midway Islands.

E) Puerto Rico.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 524 [Factual]


13) In 1895, the United States and Great Britain came perilously close to war over a boundary dispute involving

A) Puerto Rico.

B) Venezuela.

C) Cuba.

D) British Honduras.

E) the Virgin Islands.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 524 [Factual]

14) During the Cleveland administration, which nation did the United States replace as the major power in Latin America?

A) Germany

B) Great Britain

C) Venezuela

D) Mexico

E) Spain

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 524 [Factual]


15) Why did American interest in Hawaii increase in the 1890s?

A) There was intense pressure by American missionaries.

B) There was a fear of German influence in the region.

C) The economic and military value of the islands increased.

D) American political leaders believed the islands could be a model for expansionism.

E) Native Hawaiians appealed to the United States for help.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 525-526 [Factual]


16) Which of the following was NOT a difficulty in annexing the Hawaiian Islands?

A) no clear motives for annexation

B) the threat of Japanese military actions

C) the opposition to annexing non-Anglo-Saxons

D) the lack of political consensus for annexation in Washington

E) the fear of provoking "colonial problems"

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 525-526 [Factual]


17) In response to the successful American revolt in Hawaii in 1893, Grover Cleveland

A) immediately annexed the islands.

B) restored the queen to power.

C) apologized to the Hawaiian people.

D) refused to recognize the new government.

E) tried, but failed, to restore the queen to power.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 526 [Factual]

18) The Samoan Islands

A) evoked brutal American aggression.

B) provided the United States with its initial outpost in the South Pacific.

C) were completely insignificant to American interests.

D) forced the United States into a military alliance with Germany.

E) belonged exclusively to the United States by 1899.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 526 [Factual]


19) The leading advocate of a powerful navy in late nineteenth-century America was

A) Alfred Thayer Mahan.

B) James G. Blaine.

C) Thomas Platt.

D) William McKinley.

E) William Jennings Bryan.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 527 [Factual]


20) According to the theories of Alfred Thayer Mahan,

A) large armies would protect American interests around the globe.

B) American greatness would be recognized through industrial output.

C) little would be gained from American expansion abroad.

D) a strong navy was an integral part of America's wealth and power.

E) standing armies were dangerous.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 527 [Conceptual]


21) In their approaches to the Cuban rebellion against Spain,

A) President Cleveland was generally neutral while President McKinley favored the insurgents.

B) President Cleveland wanted to intervene on behalf of the insurgents but McKinley wanted neutrality.

C) both Presidents Cleveland and McKinley wanted war with Spain.

D) both Presidents Cleveland and McKinley were totally neutral.

E) both Presidents Cleveland and McKinley opposed any involvement with Spain or Cuba.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 528-529 [Factual]

22) Which of the following did NOT play any role in bringing on the Spanish-American War in 1898?

A) the annexation of Hawaii

B) the de Lome letter

C) the sinking of the Maine

D) yellow journalism

E) officer-led riots in Havana in January

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 528-529 [Factual]


23) Which policy of General Weyler in Spain was intended to destroy the Cuban rebellion?

A) reservation system

B) internment policy

C) reconcentration plan

D) Lamlet system

E) zero tolerance

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 528 [Factual]


24) One consequence of General Weyler's policy in Cuba was

A) to generate public sympathy for the Cuban people among Americans.

B) that it ended the Cuban rebellion.

C) strong support from the American government.

D) an alliance between the Cuban rebels and the American government.

E) the end of "reconcentration."

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 528 [Factual]


25) To the publishers of yellow journalism,

A) quality articles were of primary importance in publishing.

B) newspapers should be the standard-bearers for the nation.

C) sensationalism was to be avoided.

D) sensational news articles would increase sales.

E) women should not be journalists.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 528 [Factual]

26) By 1897, Spain

A) was unwilling to meet any American demands.

B) made concessions to avoid a confrontation with the United States.

C) supported the polices of General Weyler.

D) seemed determined to maintain control of Cuba at all costs.

E) agreed to give up Cuba rather than go to war.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 529-530 [Factual]


27) Why did President McKinley ask for a declaration of war against Spain?

A) He was weak and indecisive and forced into war.

B) The conflicting national interests of Spain and the United States left few alternatives.

C) He hoped that a war would bring him political power and imperial gains.

D) Spain was unwilling to accede to any of the demands of the United States.

E) The Cuban people appealed to him directly.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 529-530 [Conceptual]


28) At the outset of the Spanish-American War,

A) there was little public support for the war in the U.S.

B) the American military was well-prepared to fight a war.

C) it was difficult to find the necessary volunteers for the American military.

D) the American army was composed of soldiers well-trained in quelling Native American uprisings.

E) the American army was 200,000 strong.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 530 [Factual]


29) The term smoked Yankee in the Spanish-American War referred to

A) northern artillery units.

B) the United States' African American infantry regiments.

C) guerrilla fighters in Cuba.

D) Theodore Roosevelt's Rough Riders.

E) members of integrated units.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 531 [Factual]

30) During the Spanish-American War, African Americans in the military

A) found segregation and discrimination similar to civilian life.

B) were treated as equals and given opportunities for advancements.

C) had little opportunity to distinguish themselves in battle.

D) were able to pressure the government for civil rights reforms.

E) were never allowed command positions.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 531-532 [Conceptual]


31) In what city did African-American soldiers, stationed in training camps throughout the South, refuse to ride in segregated trolleys?

A) Chickamauga, Tennessee

B) Chattanooga, Tennessee

C) Tampa, Florida

D) Lakeland, Florida

E) Macon, Georgia

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 531 [Factual]


32) The actions of Commodore Dewey in the Philippines

A) had little effect on the outcome of the war.

B) disproved Mahan's theories regarding naval supremacy.

C) provided the United States with an unexpected prize of war.

D) showed the strength of the Spanish fleet.

E) were undeniably illegal.

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 532 [Factual]




Bill of Fare "Well, I Hardly Know Which to Take First!"

(Menu reads Cuba, Puerto Rico, Philippines, and other Islands)

Uncle Sam is the diner who makes the comment; President McKinley is the waiter.

(Library of Congress)


33) Examine the ideas presented in the political cartoon shown above. Which of the following concepts most closely describes the ideas presented in the cartoon?

A) popular sovereignty

B) isolationism

C) imperialism

D) nativism

E) nationalism

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 533 [Conceptual]


34) Which of the following individuals is incorrectly matched with the area of his greatest foreign policy success?

A) James G. Blaine/Latin America

B) George Dewey/Russia

C) William Seward/Alaska

D) John Hay/China

E) John W. Foster/Hawaii

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 524, 526, 540 [Factual]

35) Which of the following territories caused the most debate about the merits of acquiring an empire for the United States?

A) Guam


B) Hawaii

C) Puerto Rico

D) the Philippines

E) the Dominican Republic

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 534 [Factual]


36) Which of the following was NOT an argument opposing annexation of the Philippines?

A) The natives could not be Christianized.

B) Colonization was anti-American.

C) The Filipinos could never become Americans.

D) Cheap labor could be imported from the Philippines.

E) Trade could continue without annexation.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 534 [Factual]


37) Which of the following individuals favored the annexation of the Philippines?

A) Jane Addams

B) Andrew Carnegie

C) Mark Twain

D) William McKinley

E) Samuel Gompers

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 534 [Factual]


38) The Philippine-American War was

A) a minor event for Americans.

B) more costly than the Spanish-American War.

C) fought in a traditional manner.

D) never completely resolved.

E) over even before the Spanish-American War.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 535 [Factual]

39) Which of the following groups was most likely to support the anti-imperialists in 1898?

A) New England Democrats

B) midwestern Republicans

C) southern Democrats

D) western Republicans

E) northern Republicans

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 534 [Factual]


40) The leader of the Filipino resistance movement against the U.S. occupation of the Philippines was

A) Emilio Aguinaldo.

B) Andres Samoza.

C) William Howard Taft.

D) Ferdinand Marcos.

E) Jose Marti.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 535 [Factual]


41) Under the terms of the Taft Commission, the United States

A) would control the Philippines in perpetuity.

B) gave the Filipinos complete independence.

C) provided funds but did not interfere with local government.

D) gave the army complete control of the Philippines.

E) guaranteed future independence for the Philippines.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 536 [Factual]


42) According to the Supreme Court,

A) U.S. possessions should be given formal privileges.

B) U.S. possessions should be given fundamental rights.

C) no rights should be given to U.S. possessions.

D) Congress should determine the rights of U.S. possessions.

E) "the Constitution followed the flag."

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 537 [Factual]

43) In which of the following territories did the native inhabitants receive United States citizenship in 1900?

A) Guam


B) Hawaii

C) Puerto Rico

D) the Philippines

E) Alaska

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 537 [Factual]


44) The Foraker Act

A) extended independence to Hawaii.

B) established the Taft Commission in the Philippines.

C) gave citizenship to Alaskans.

D) denied Great Britain access to Filipino markets.

E) established civil government in Puerto Rico.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 537 [Factual]


45) American rule found the quickest acceptance in

A) Cuba.

B) the Philippines.

C) Puerto Rico.

D) Hawaii.

E) Guam.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 537 [Factual]


46) What document provided the terms for U.S. intervention in Cuba?

A) Platt Amendment

B) Teller Amendment

C) the Foraker Act

D) Taft Commission

E) the Intervention Act

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 540 [Factual]

47) By 1900, China

A) had succeeded in resisting European influence.

B) was the leading Asian power.

C) had succumbed to European imperialism.

D) had closed the door to the outside world.

E) welcomed U.S. intervention.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 540 [Factual]


48) The author of the Open Door diplomatic notes was

A) Theodore Roosevelt.

B) George Dewey.

C) William McKinley.

D) John Hay.

E) William Jennings Bryan.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 540 [Factual]


49) The Open Door notes

A) provided the United States with economic rights in China.

B) met with the approval of western Europe.

C) had little effect on American policy in the Far East.

D) provided the United States with a sphere of influence in China.

E) were publicly denounced in China.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 540 [Factual]


50) The Boxer Rebellion took place in

A) the Philippines.

B) China.

C) Hawaii.

D) Cuba.

E) Puerto Rico.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 540 [Factual]




As President McKinley studies a map of the Philippines, Lady Liberty pulls back

curtains to reveal a landscape of lynched and murdered African Americans

with the comment: "Civilization Begins at Home."

(Library Digest)


51) Which of the following observations would most closely and accurately describe the point of view of the artist who drew the cartoon shown above?

A) Reconstruction had been an embarrassing failure for the United States and Radical Republicans.

B) President McKinley should turn his attention from foreign adventures and imperialism to much more important and pressing issues at home.

C) Racism and groups like the Ku Klux Klan were littering the nation with crimes against African American citizens.

D) Imperialism and colonial expansion were the central focus of the McKinley administration.

E) The United States should turn back toward the tried and true position of isolationism as proposed by George Washington in his "Farewell Address."

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 534 [Conceptual]

52) By 1900, the United States

A) had become a major world power.

B) seemed unclear in its foreign policy.

C) was not an equal of the European powers.

D) had little success in Asia.

E) dominated the Western Hemisphere but had yet to become a major world power.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 528, 541 [Factual]


21.2 True/False Questions
1) In the last half of the nineteenth century, American foreign policy was consistent throughout the world.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 522 [Factual]
2) In 1898, Theodore Roosevelt was one of the prominent Americans opposed to the war with Spain.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 520 [Factual]
3) During his presidency, Grover Cleveland aggressively pursued the annexation of Hawaii.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 525-526 [Factual]
4) In the 1890s, Spain continued to maintain a far-flung empire.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 528 [Factual]
5) The Spanish-American War provided the United States with the opportunity to become a world power.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 528 [Factual]
6) The American military was unified in the war effort.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 530-531 [Factual]
7) Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines were all Spanish colonies before the Spanish-American War.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 528 [Factual]

8) At the outset of the war with Spain in 1898, the United States enjoyed a state of advanced readiness and organization.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 530 [Factual]


9) Walter Reed was the army surgeon responsible for wiping out yellow fever in Cuba.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 540 [Factual]
10) The Boxer Rebellion affirmed the need for the Open Door Notes.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 540 [Factual]
21.3 Essay Questions
1) By 1900, the United States had created an overseas empire. Was this empire a natural culmination of its expansionist path at home? Explain, using specific examples of the type of territories that became part of this empire. Explain why these territories were important to the American government and society.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 521-526 [Conceptual]


2) Why was the Spanish-American War "a splendid little war" for the United States? What effect did it have on American society?

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 530-531 [Conceptual]


3) You are writing your congressional representative a letter regarding the annexation of the Philippines. Explain why you believe he or she should vote either for or against this decision.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 534 [Conceptual]


4) Describe why the American war in the Philippines after the Spanish-American War was so costly and so controversial.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 535-536 [Factual]


5) Explain why the United States developed the Open Door policy.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 540-541 [Factual]



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