America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.) Chapter 18 The Industrial Society



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America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.)

Chapter 18 The Industrial Society
18.1 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) The aging American poet who most feared the impact of new industrial technologies on American life was

A) William Dean Howells.

B) Andrew Carnegie.

C) Walt Whitman.

D) Williams Simms.

E) John Greenleaf Whittier.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 442 [Factual]


2) The most important advances in industrialization

A) came in the last third of the nineteenth century.

B) were made during the Civil War.

C) had come in western Europe by 1900.

D) had little effect on the American economy.

E) began with the dawn of the twentieth century.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 442 [Factual]


3) How did the American government affect industrial growth?

A) It followed a policy of laissez faire.

B) It closely regulated the pace of the growth.

C) It provided incentives for growth.

D) It balanced agrarian and industrial demands.

E) It increased taxes on industry.

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 444 [Conceptual]


4) Which of the following was NOT a factor in American industrial development?

A) an abundance of natural resources

B) a heavy influx of immigrants

C) new technological innovations

D) industrialization of the South

E) an abundance of labor

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 444 [Factual]

5) Industrial growth was concentrated in the

A) Southwest.

B) Northeast.

C) Pacific.

D) Southeast.

E) Midwest.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 444 [Factual]


6) In 1900, the population of the United States was approximately

A) 10,000,000 people.

B) 76,000,000 people.

C) 111,000,000 people.

D) 150,000,000 people.

E) 260,000,000 people.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 444 [Factual]


7) The most significant technical innovation of the nineteenth century was

A) Kodak cameras.

B) oil.

C) automobiles.

D) railroads.

E) the Bessemer process.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 444 [Factual]


8) Which industry was considered the nation's "first big business"?

A) agriculture

B) textiles

C) steel

D) communications

E) railroads

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 445 [Factual]


9) The development of a national railway system

A) provided needed jobs for an overabundant labor supply.

B) had little effect on the economic changes of the late nineteenth century.

C) led to an integrated national economic system.

D) had little help from the political system.

E) was not completed until the early twentieth century.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 445 [Factual]

10) Rapid rail construction after the Civil War was possible because

A) there was little competition between the builders.

B) the rail companies managed their money and land wisely.

C) federal and state governments provided important incentives.

D) the western half of the nation was uninhabitable.

E) the South was eager to participate.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 446 [Factual]


11) A major change in the railroad industry after the Civil War was the development of

A) major railroad trunk lines.

B) competition between owners for local markets.

C) regional marketplaces.

D) international rail systems.

E) a greater number of small rail companies.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 447 [Factual]



(Library of Congress)


12) The political cartoon shown above most likely protests the business activities of which of the following individuals?

A) Cornelius Vanderbilt, railroads

B) J.P. Morgan, U.S. Steel Corp.

C) Andrew Carnegie, Carnegie Steel

D) John D. Rockefeller, oil production and transport

E) Henry Ford, automobiles

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 447 [Factual]


13) The two transcontinental railroad lines met at

A) Sacramento, California.

B) Reno, Nevada.

C) Promontory, Utah.

D) Santa Fe, New Mexico.

E) Salt Lake City, Utah.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 449 [Factual]

14) By 1894, American railroads

A) had difficulty finding the capital to expand.

B) suffered from competition and overexpansion.

C) had consolidated into four major lines.

D) had eliminated competition.

E) were at the peak of their bargaining power.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 450 [Factual]


15) The most important figure in American finance was

A) J. P. Morgan.

B) Andrew Carnegie.

C) Andrew Mellon.

D) Albert Fink.

E) E. F. Hutton.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 450 [Factual]


16) For J.P. Morgan,

A) competition was the essence of industrial growth.

B) orderly consolidation brought stability to the economy.

C) the American economy should expand as rapidly as possible.

D) the hurly-burly of the marketplace brought order and stability to the economy.

E) railroads were a bad investment.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 450 [Factual]


17) Which of the following individuals is INCORRECTLY associated with the industry he helped to found?

A) Andrew Carnegie/steel

B) J. P. Morgan/finance

C) Henry Bessemer/railroads

D) John D. Rockefeller/oil

E) William Kelly/steel

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 451 [Factual]


18) After 1870, the measure of a nation's industrial progress was determined by

A) the production of steel.

B) the production of iron.

C) the number of railroad lines.

D) agricultural output.

E) per capita exports.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 451 [Factual]

19) In which type of organization does a company own all elements from raw material to finished product?

A) horizontal integration

B) conglomerate

C) vertical integration

D) corporate management

E) trust

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 451 [Factual]


20) Which of the following was NOT a characteristic of the industrial magnates of the late nineteenth century?

A) ability to consolidate an industry

B) ability to produce high-quality goods at a low cost

C) ability to attract quality subordinates

D) understanding of the rights of workers

E) managerial ability

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 452 [Factual]


21) Andrew Carnegie's success could be attributed to the fact that he

A) inherited a large family fortune.

B) understood how to organize steel industry management, and its financial structure, to his best advantage.

C) shared profits with subordinates.

D) had no competition from other producers.

E) had worked in the steel industry since childhood.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 452 [Conceptual]


22) This company became the first billion-dollar company.

A) Thomson Steel Works

B) Standard Oil

C) Westinghouse

D) U.S. Steel

E) American Telephone and Telegraph

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 452 [Factual]

23) The first modern trust was

A) United States Steel.

B) the Northern Securities Company.

C) Standard Oil.

D) Carnegie Steel.

E) the Pennsylvania Railroad.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 454 [Factual]


24) As a result of the proliferation of patents in the late nineteenth century,

A) the country imported its technology.

B) the marketplace was oversaturated with goods.

C) American life radically changed.

D) few Americans participated in the economic changes.

E) Americans began to fear technology.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 454 [Factual]


25) The individual most closely associated with innovations in photographic equipment was

A) Thomas Edison.

B) John D. Rockefeller.

C) George Eastman.

D) Cyrus Field.

E) Sam Kodak.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 454 [Factual]


26) The most important development in the communications system in nineteenth-century America was the

A) telephone.

B) post office.

C) telegraph.

D) radio.

E) transatlantic cable.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 454 [Factual]


27) Which of the following were the most important inventions of the late nineteenth century?

A) typewriter and calculating machine

B) telephone and electricity

C) spindles and sewing machines

D) telegraph and processed meat

E) automobiles and the assembly line

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 454 [Factual]

28) The greatest inventor of late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century America was

A) Cyrus Field.

B) Thomas Edison.

C) Henry Bessemer.

D) J.P. Morgan.

E) George Westinghouse.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 455 [Factual]


29) Long-distance transmission of electricity was made possible by the use of alternating current, developed by

A) Thomas Edison.

B) Benjamin Franklin.

C) Nikola Tesla.

D) Guglielmo Marconi.

E) Alexander Graham Bell.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 455 [Factual]


30) Which of the following was NOT a consequence of the advent of advertising and large scale retailing?

A) Americans became consumers.

B) The demand for goods increased.

C) The national market was joined in all parts of the nation.

D) Most consumers felt threatened by the new industrial goods.

E) Americans became aware of needs they didn't know they had before.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 458-459 [Factual]


31) Each of the following companies was a large scale retailer in the late nineteenth century EXCEPT

A) A & P.

B) Woolworth's.

C) Sears, Roebuck.

D) Wal-Mart.

E) Montgomery Ward.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 458 [Factual]

32) Which of the following individuals was NOT an innovator in department store retailing in the late nineteenth century?

A) R. H. Macy

B) Cyrus Field

C) John Wanamaker

D) Richard W. Sears

E) Alvah C. Roebuck

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 454, 458 [Factual]


33) The development of brand names, chain stores, and mail order houses

A) drove the prices of goods upward.

B) confused consumers.

C) had little effect on the buying public.

D) created a gulf between consumer and producer.

E) provided convenience and standardization.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 458-459 [Factual]


34) Most working women

A) were young and single.

B) were married with children.

C) were African American.

D) had many professional opportunities.

E) were widows or single mothers.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 459 [Factual]


35) In comparison to male workers, female workers

A) found equal pay for equal work.

B) were relegated to traditional "feminine" jobs.

C) reaped the rewards of the industrial system.

D) were respected as important income earners.

E) generally had female managers.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 460 [Factual]


36) The process of feminization took place in which of the following professions in the late nineteenth century?

A) law


B) accounting

C) the ministry

D) teaching

E) telegraph operation

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 460 [Factual]

37) Which of the following groups received the greatest rewards from industrialization?

A) white, native-born females

B) foreign-born males

C) African-American males

D) white, native-born males

E) skilled workers in all categories

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 460 [Factual]


38) Most industrial workers found

A) old work routines to be applicable in the work place.

B) their work environment fluid and unstable.

C) that their work place became personalized.

D) little difficulty in adjusting to the work place.

E) they enjoyed their new jobs.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 461 [Factual]


39) The principles on which the Knights of Labor were founded included

A) fostering a revolution to overthrow the American political system.

B) ensuring all Americans received equal benefits from the system.

C) creating a nationalized economic system, run by the government.

D) unifying producers and nonproducers in one union.

E) lobbying for a federal health insurance program.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 461 [Factual]


40) The leader of the Knights of Labor was

A) Jay Gould.

B) Samuel Gompers.

C) Terence Powderly.

D) John L. Lewis.

E) Eugene Debs.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 461 [Factual]


41) The ________ invited women and minorities to join.

A) American Federation of Labor

B) Teamsters Union

C) Congress of Industrial Organizations

D) Knights of Labor

E) National Labor Union

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 462 [Factual]

42) Why did the Knights of Labor fail?

A) It could not provide effective national leadership.

B) It was unable to organize the workers.

C) It had no successful strikes.

D) It was unable to develop a set of objectives.

E) Terence Powderly was imprisoned.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 461-462 [Factual]


43) By the 1890s, the most important labor organization in the country was the

A) Teamsters Union.

B) Congress of Industrial Organizations.

C) American Federation of Labor.

D) Union of Iron and Steel Workers.

E) Union of Sleeping Car Porters.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 462 [Factual]


44) Unlike the Knights of Labor, the American Federation of Labor

A) believed workers would rise in stature.

B) organized skilled and unskilled workers.

C) emphasized economic goals for workers.

D) organized a majority of the workers.

E) hoped all workers could eventually become self-employed.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 462 [Factual]


45) As the leader of the American Federation of Labor, he tried to achieve pragmatic goals for his workers.

A) Terence Powderly

B) Samuel Gompers

C) John L. Lewis

D) Uriah S. Stephens

E) Eugene Debs

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 462 [Factual]


46) For women workers, the American Federation of Labor

A) enthusiastically supported their needs.

B) either ignored or opposed them as members.

C) brought important changes in the work place.

D) allowed them into leadership positions.

E) encouraged all producing women to join.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 462 [Factual]





Chicago, 1886
47) All of the following observations can be made from the information provided in the labor union handbill that appears in the above EXCEPT:

A) It was to be a mass meeting of workers organized by an anarchist group to protest the shooting of workers the previous day by Chicago police.

B) Agents of the Soviet Union infiltrated the meeting to cause violence that resulted in the arrest of several anarchist leaders, their trial for murder, and the execution of some of those leaders.

C) All types of working men were invited including foreign-born immigrants.

D) Definite organizational skills and the ability to respond immediately to situations is demonstrated in this poster.

E) The mass meeting called for in this poster resulted in the Haymarket Bombing Incident and the death or injury of several in the Chicago police force.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 462 [Factual]


48) The principle of the "iron law of wages" stated that

A) the welfare of the workers dictated wages.

B) supply and demand regulated wages.

C) all workers should be treated the same.

D) the quality of work should be determined by the managers.

E) wages should remain unchanged as long as possible.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 463 [Factual]

49) The great strike of 1877, in which more than a hundred people died, involved

A) steel workers.

B) cowboys.

C) railroad workers.

D) oil workers.

E) textile workers.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 463, 465 [Factual]


50) In the 1905 decision of Lochner v. New York, the Supreme Court

A) upheld workers' rights.

B) struck down a state law limiting the number of hours workers work each week.

C) outlawed the use of injunctions in labor disputes.

D) formally recognized the American Federation of Labor as the nation's labor union.

E) upheld a law limiting working hours for miners.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 463 [Factual]


51) The Haymarket Square riot

A) brought public sympathy to the plight of the workers.

B) strengthened the national labor movement.

C) weakened the national labor movement.

D) forced government regulation of unions.

E) took place in New York City.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref:464 [Factual]


52) The Homestead Strike

A) forced management to meet the workers' demands.

B) was resolved through negotiation and bargaining.

C) had little interference from the government.

D) emphasized the cost of industrialization.

E) was peaceful compared to Haymarket.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 465 [Factual]


18.2 True/False Questions
1) By 1900, American society had radically changed from its Civil War days.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 459 [Factual]
2) Immigration had little impact on economic development in the late nineteenth century.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 444 [Factual]

3) State and local governments played only a small role in financing construction in late nineteenth-century America.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 446 [Factual]


4) The American railway system of the late nineteenth century was well organized.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 447 [Factual]
5) The American Railway Association was largely responsible for dividing the United States into the time zones that exist today.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 448 [Factual]
6) A great series of mergers occurred in American industry in the late nineteenth century.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 454 [Factual]
7) The first telephone exchange opened in 1878, the same year a phone was installed in the White House.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 455 [Factual]
8) In most jobs, status and pay were divided unequally between men and women.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 460 [Factual]
9) The Knights of Labor was the first really successful labor union in American history.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 462 [Factual]
10) The court injunction was used to stop labor strikes.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 463 [Factual]
18.3 Essay Questions
1) Why did industrial development occur at such a rapid pace after the Civil War?

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 444,446 [Factual]


2) How did the railroad industry pioneer the economic developments of the late nineteenth century?

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 447-449 [Factual]

3) Could American industrial growth have occurred without the industrial giants of the period? Explain.

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 451-454 [Conceptual]


4) Had the definition of work changed by 1900? How did workers respond to the change? Were they successful?

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 461-462, 465 [Factual]


5) You are a steel worker in Pennsylvania. What reasons would you have for joining a union? Describe your hopes and aspirations for yourself and your family.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 461-464 [Conceptual]




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