America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.) Chapter 15 Secession and the Civil War



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America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.)

Chapter 15 Secession and the Civil War
15.1 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) Which of the following southern states was the first to secede from the Union?

A) Kentucky

B) Virginia

C) Alabama

D) South Carolina

E) North Carolina

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 361 [Factual]


2) Cooperationists believed that

A) the slave states should act as a unit rather than secede one at a time.

B) the slave states should remain in the Union.

C) the slave states should form a new union after seceding.

D) the slave states and the free states should simply find a way to get along.

E) the slave states should cooperate with Britain and France.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 361 [Factual]


3) The Confederate constitution was

A) based on the model of the Articles of Confederation.

B) surprisingly similar to the U.S. Constitution.

C) based on the English Constitution.

D) a subject of ongoing debate throughout the war.

E) written by a radical faction and forced through by them.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 362 [Factual]


4) Which of the following was NOT a provision of the Confederate constitution?

A) prohibition of protective tariffs

B) guarantee of slavery

C) protection of slavery in the territories

D) a strong central government

E) restrictions on the finance of internal improvements

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 362 [Factual]

5) When Lincoln became president of the United States,

A) he had more political experience than previous presidents.

B) he was not able to command a leadership position in the Republican Party.

C) he was unable to convince congressional leaders to support his position on southern secession.

D) northerners were convinced that his position on southern secession was correct.

E) he identified wholeheartedly with the southern cause.

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 360 [Conceptual]


6) Lincoln's main concern when he entered the presidency was how to maintain federal authority

A) when Congress was controlled by the Democratic opposition.

B) without recognizing the Confederacy.

C) without provoking war with the seceded states.

D) when many believed the federal government would soon dissolve.

E) with an army that was splitting in half.

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 363 [Factual]


7) The Crittenden Plan

A) extended the Missouri Compromise to the Pacific.

B) did not guarantee the protection of slavery in new territories.

C) recommended that popular sovereignty determine the status of states created from new territories.

D) abolished the national fugitive slave law.

E) denied federal compensation to the owners of escaped slaves.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 363 [Factual]


8) The first shots of the Civil War were fired at

A) Richmond, Virginia.

B) Charleston, South Carolina.

C) New Orleans, Louisiana.

D) Montgomery, Alabama.

E) Savannah, Georgia.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 364 [Factual]


9) The attack on Fort Sumter

A) proved to be a decisive victory for the South.

B) weakened the secession movement.

C) caused increasing opposition to the war in the North.

D) united northern opinion against the rebellion.

E) was the first southern defeat of the war.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 364 [Factual]


10) Soon after the war began, the Confederacy moved its capital to

A) Washington, D. C.

B) Mobile, Alabama.

C) Richmond, Virginia.

D) Little Rock, Arkansas.

E) Knoxville, Tennessee.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 364 [Factual]


11) Which of the following does NOT apply to Lincoln's initial policy toward the Confederacy?

A) a cautious and limited use of force

B) a strategy of inactivity to buy time to resolve the conflict

C) a strategy designed to make the Confederacy look like the aggressor if war occurred

D) a strategy designed to avoid any "hostile" action toward the South by the North

E) the deployment of troops along the "border states" to demonstrate a Union resolve to fight

Answer: E

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 363-365 [Factual]


12) The border states

A) remained loyal by a combination of local Unionism and federal intervention.

B) divided amongst themselves and experienced several violent episodes.

C) experienced bitter, internal division because of loyalty to the North and the South.

D) all joined the Confederacy.

E) all denounced slavery.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 364 [Factual]


13) Which one of the following states was NOT part of the Confederacy?

A) Missouri

B) North Carolina

C) Texas

D) Tennessee

E) Florida

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 364 [Factual]

14) In the beginning, the Civil War was

A) a struggle to free the slaves.

B) a struggle to preserve the Union.

C) a contest of sectional supremacy.

D) a personal struggle between Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis.

E) a struggle to preserve "King Cotton."

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 365 [Factual]


15) The basic Confederate strategy was to

A) invade and conquer the North.

B) wage a defensive struggle.

C) fight only a guerrilla war.

D) blockade northern ports.

E) plan a series of limited, surgical offensive strikes.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 365 [Factual]


16) Southerners went to war in 1861 in a mood of

A) tension and anxiety.

B) pessimism and doubt.

C) optimism and jubilation.

D) passivity and resignation.

E) fear and loathing.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 365 [Factual]


17) Which of the following was NOT a Union military advantage during the Civil War?

A) larger population

B) superior generals

C) stronger industrial base

D) a superior railroad system

E) no blockades

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 365 [Factual]


18) Which one of the following individuals recommended an "anaconda policy" towards the South?

A) Ulysses S. Grant

B) George McClellan

C) Winfield Scott

D) Stonewall Jackson

E) Leonidas K. Polk

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 365 [Factual]

19) One significant difference between the North and the South as the war went on was that

A) northern civilians suffered more than their Southern counterparts.

B) the South became poorer while the North tended to prosper.

C) northern agriculture declined while Southern agriculture leapt ahead.

D) northern industrial capacity declined during the war years.

E) southern industry boomed during the war years.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 366-367 [Factual]


20) During the Civil War,

A) Confederate troops often lacked adequate supplies of weapons and ammunition.

B) Confederate troops had the advantage of superior weaponry.

C) the Confederate government kept its troops adequately supplied with arms and ammunition.

D) the British government made sure that the Confederates did not run out of ammunition.

E) Confederate troops had to make do with obsolete weapons left over from the War of 1812.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 366 [Factual]


21) One of the South's greatest challenges during the war was

A) the reluctance of southern farmers to shift from cotton to foodstuffs.

B) strengthening its own naval blockade of northern ports.

C) breaking the military alliance between the North and Great Britain.

D) trying to find even a few qualified generals.

E) to keep slaves from escaping.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 366 [Factual]


22) To secure the necessary troops for the war,

A) the South resorted to the draft.

B) the North resorted to the draft.

C) "press gangs," coercion and blackmail became the norm on both sides.

D) A and B

E) none of the above

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 366, 368-369 [Factual]


23) "Greenbacks" were

A) green-shirted Irish volunteers who served in the Confederate army.

B) inexperienced recruits who were not ready for combat.

C) deserters who hid out in the woods.

D) unsecured treasury notes issued as currency by the federal government.

E) Confederate troops who wore shirts made by sewing leaves together.

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 366 [Factual]


24) During the war, the Confederate economy

A) managed to produce a surplus of industrial goods.

B) easily evaded the effects of the northern blockade.

C) suffered from severe inflation.

D) actually benefited from the Emancipation Proclamation.

E) boomed, as most do during war.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 366-367 [Factual]


25) Lincoln and Davis learned early in the war that

A) successful conduct of the war required active executive leadership.

B) Congress should be allowed to conduct the war with minimal executive interference.

C) decentralization of power is most efficient in wartime.

D) the president is bound by the same constitutional restraints in war as in peace.

E) many of the decisions of the war were best left to popular vote.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 367 [Factual]


26) As a war leader, Jefferson Davis

A) was a brilliant military strategist.

B) had an excellent relationship with his generals.

C) proved incapable of handling the Confederacy's homefront problems.

D) had the full support of the southern people.

E) had the full support of southern governors.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 370 [Factual]


27) The Union general who replaced Winfield Scott as commander of Union forces was

A) Irvin McDowell.

B) Thomas J. Jackson.

C) David Farragut.

D) George McClellan.

E) Ulysses S. Grant.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 370 [Factual]

28) The first major battle of the war, at Bull Run, resulted in

A) a Union victory.

B) a Confederate victory.

C) a bloody stalemate.

D) the capture of Washington, D. C.

E) Sherman's capture of Savannah, Georgia.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 370 [Factual]


29) Which of the following individuals was NOT a Union general during the Civil War?

A) George McClellan

B) Ulysses S. Grant

C) Henry W. Halleck

D) Joseph E. Johnston

E) George Meade

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 370-372 [Factual]


30) The 1862 Confederate offensive that resulted in the Battle of Antietam

A) raised Confederate hopes of victory.

B) proved indecisive for both sides.

C) caused strong Union opposition to the war.

D) led Lincoln to consider peace negotiations.

E) further damaged the northern economy.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 372 [Factual]


31) The bloodiest one-day battle of the war was

A) Shiloh.

B) Bull Run.

C) Vicksburg.

D) Gettysburg.

E) Antietam.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 372 [Factual]


32) The diplomatic objective of the Confederacy was to

A) gain control of Cuba.

B) forge alliances with Britain and France.

C) gain access to Canadian iron supplies.

D) secure the support of Mexico.

E) lure the Spanish into the war.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 373 [Factual]

33) Confederate leaders were confident of British recognition, because

A) British textile mills were so dependent on southern cotton.

B) British financiers had invested in the South.

C) most members of Parliament were proslavery.

D) British capitalists stood to profit by selling war material to the South.

E) many of them had family ties to England.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 373 [Factual]


34) The diplomatic objective of the Union was

A) to encourage England to act as a mediator to end the conflict.

B) to keep the Latin Americans from trading with the Confederacy.

C) to prevent the Confederacy from importing military supplies through Mexico.

D) to prevent European nations from recognizing the Confederacy.

E) to prevent Canada, and thereby England, from entering the conflict.

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 373 [Factual]


35) The term used to describe Confederate foreign policy was

A) dollar diplomacy.

B) gunboat diplomacy.

C) King Cotton diplomacy.

D) sugar and slaves diplomacy.

E) corn cob diplomacy.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 374 [Factual]


36) In the fall of 1861, which two Confederates were seized by Union naval officers on board the British steamer Trent, creating a diplomatic crisis between the United States and Great Britain?

A) John Slidell and James Mason

B) John Havilecek and George Mikan

C) Ulysses S. Grant and George McClellan

D) Charles Sumner and Thaddeus Stevens

E) Willard Scott and Albert Michaels

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 373 [Factual]


37) The Emancipation Proclamation freed

A) all African Americans.

B) only slaves in the loyal border states.

C) only slaves in the Confederate-controlled areas.

D) only slaves in the military occupation zones of the Union army.

E) all slaves.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 375 [Factual]

38) During the Civil War, how many African Americans served in the Union Army?

A) 100,000

B) 200,000

C) 300,000

D) 400,000

E) 500,000

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 375 [Factual]


39) The Thirteenth Amendment

A) resulted from a popular mandate in a special election.

B) had little support from Lincoln and the Republican Party.

C) resulted from a decisive Union military victory.

D) was fostered by the actions of African-American troops fighting for the Union.

E) allowed special instances of involuntary servitude.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 376 [Factual]


40) Many wealthy northerners avoided military service in the war by

A) bribing a draft official.

B) claiming to be conscientious objectors.

C) furnishing hired substitutes.

D) emigrating, temporarily, to Canada.

E) feigning disability.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 377 [Factual]


41) During the war, the North

A) was plagued by the lack of manufactured goods.

B) had a weaker railroad system than that of the South.

C) was plagued by a series of violent, anti-draft riots.

D) finally overcame the problem of anti-African American racism.

E) slowly began to starve.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 377 [Factual]


42) In 1863, one of the bloodiest domestic riots in the United States occurred in ________ when 120 died as Irish-American laborers attacked African Americans and opposed the draft.

A) Boston

B) New York City

C) Cleveland

D) Chicago

E) Philadelphia

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 377 [Factual]

43) The Confederate victory at Chancellorsville cost them the life of

A) Jefferson Davis.

B) "Stonewall" Jackson.

C) Robert E. Lee.

D) Joseph E. Johnston.

E) Ulysses S. Grant.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 387 [Factual]


44) The victory at ________ gave the Union control of the Mississippi River.

A) Gettysburg

B) Vicksburg

C) Richmond

D) Shiloh

E) New Orleans

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 378 [Factual]


45) The most effective Union general was

A) George McClellan.

B) Winfield Scott.

C) Ulysses S. Grant.

D) James Halleck.

E) James Abrams.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 378 [Factual]


46) Congressional Republicans who opposed Lincoln's handling of the war and the slavery issue were called

A) liberals.

B) moderates.

C) Radicals.

D) Copperheads.

E) scalawags.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 374 [Factual]


47) Lincoln's opponent in the presidential election of 1864 was

A) Jefferson Davis.

B) George McClellan.

C) Stephen Douglas.

D) John Bell.

E) Ulysses S. Grant.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 380 [Factual]

48) Copperheads

A) strongly supported the Emancipation Proclamation.

B) supported the growth of the federal government.

C) were willing to have peace at any price.

D) narrowly won victory in the 1864 election.

E) were a group of wealthy industrialists who secretly financed the war.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 377 [Factual]



Workers in Federal Arsenal, c. 1860s

(Scott Foresman Addison Wesley)


49) As the pressures and demands of the Civil War made Union and Confederate officials more desperate, they began to abandon deeply ingrained social values and taboos. Which of the following might be attributed to the changes reflected in the lithograph drawing above?

A) women's suffrage

B) populism

C) goals of the Progressive movement

D) emancipation

E) prohibition

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 381, 383 [Factual]


50) As the nation emerged from the Civil War,

A) it had changed little from 1861.

B) it had paid an enormous human and economic cost for the war.

C) the impact of the war on northern workers was clear.

D) the federal government remained unclear about its relationship to the states.

E) newly freed slaves prospered.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 382 [Factual]

51) Approximately ________ soldiers died in the Civil War.

A) 50,000

B) 125,000

C) 620,000

D) 800,000

E) 1,000,000

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 381 [Factual]


15.2 True/False Questions
1) Abraham Lincoln rose to national political prominence as a staunch abolitionist, opposed to slavery everywhere in the nation.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 360 [Factual]
2) Before Abraham Lincoln became a Republican, he was a Whig.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 358 [Factual]
3) Generally, Abraham Lincoln was ineffective as a war leader.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 367, 370 [Factual]
4) In his inaugural address, Lincoln called for the immediate military conquest of the seceded states.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 368 [Factual]
5) Most of the Civil War was fought on Confederate soil.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 371 [Factual]
6) Throughout most of the war, southern forces suffered from a chronic shortage of food and supplies.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 366 [Factual]
7) George McClellan's main problem as general was his reluctance to fight unless he had overwhelming odds in his favor.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 373 [Conceptual]

8) Ultimately, the South failed to secure diplomatic recognition and political alliance with Great Britain.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 373-374 [Factual]


9) African Americans were permitted to fight only on the side of the North during the Civil War.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 375 [Factual]
10) The North won the war in spite of its inability to organize its society for the effort.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 383 [Factual]
15.3 Essay Questions
1) What arguments did secessionists develop to justify leaving the Union? What problems did secession create for both the Buchanan and Lincoln administrations?

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 361-363 [Factual]


2) Analyze the events that occurred from Lincoln's election to the attack on Fort Sumter. Could the war have been averted during those crucial months?

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 360-364 [Conceptual]


3) When the war started in 1861, both sides were confident that the conflict would be short. What conditions made the Civil War a prolonged, bloody conflict instead of the brief "skirmish" all had anticipated?

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 365-367, 370 [Factual]


4) Describe the effects of the war on the "home front" of the North and the South. Did one side benefit more than the other? Explain.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 381-383 [Conceptual]


5) Compare the advantages and disadvantages of the South and the North in the Civil War. Was a northern victory inevitable? Why?

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 365-367, 384 [Conceptual]



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