America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.) Chapter 14 The Sectional Crisis



Download 80.32 Kb.
Date conversion17.05.2016
Size80.32 Kb.
America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.)

Chapter 14 The Sectional Crisis
14.1 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) In 1856, Congressman Preston Brooks of South Carolina, on the floor of the U.S. Senate, almost beat Senator ________ of Massachusetts to death.

A) Thaddeus Stevens

B) John C. Calhoun

C) Charles Sumner

D) Zachary Taylor

E) William Graham Sumner

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 330 [Factual]


2) The term "second party system" describes

A) the splinter parties of the 1840s and 1850s.

B) the vigorous competition between Whigs and Democrats.

C) the creation of a new, third, political party.

D) the political party not in power in government.

E) a total shift in American politics.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 332 [Factual]


3) Northern attempts to attack slavery were limited by

A) the absence of federal authority to regulate slavery.

B) the apathy of most northerners regarding the question.

C) the presence of more important issues before Congress.

D) the absence of strong northern congressional leadership.

E) the amount of money slave industries contributed to the national economy.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 332 [Factual]


4) During the 1840s, most northerners

A) disliked slavery.

B) were not abolitionists.

C) supported abolitionism.

D) both A and B

E) both A and C

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 332 [Factual]

5) The Wilmot Proviso won support from northern Democrats who were upset about each of the following EXCEPT

A) Polk being nominated in 1844 instead of Van Buren.

B) Polk's support of a tariff reduction that hurt the northern economy.

C) Polk's lack of funding for an internal improvements bill.

D) Polk's insistence on claiming the entire Oregon Country in 1846.

E) Polk's waging war against Mexico to add Texas and the Southwest to the U.S.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 332-333 [Factual]


6) The Free Soil movement supported the exclusion of slavery from the territories because of

A) its belief in racial justice.

B) its belief in the immorality of slavery.

C) its desire to dominate the political process.

D) racial prejudice and fear of labor competition from slaves.

E) the abundance of land that was unsuited for plantation agriculture.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 333 [Factual]


7) Wilmot's Proviso would have

A) freed the slaves.

B) prohibited slavery in any territory gained from Mexico.

C) called for the shipment of blacks back to Africa.

D) abolished slavery in most northern states.

E) established the guidelines for popular sovereignty.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 333 [Factual]


8) Which one of the following individuals was most responsible for coming up with the idea of popular sovereignty?

A) David Wilmot

B) Lewis Cass

C) William Jennings Bryan

D) James Buchanan

E) Charles Sumner

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 333 [Factual]

9) According to the principle of popular sovereignty,

A) Congress would determine whether a territory would have slavery.

B) territorial legislatures would determine whether a territory would have slavery.

C) settlers would determine whether a territory would have slavery.

D) the Supreme Court would determine whether a territory would have slavery.

E) the House of Representatives would determine whether a territory would have slavery.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 333 [Factual]


10) The first significant effort to create a broadly based sectional party, addressing itself to voters' concerns about the extension of slavery, was the

A) Liberty Party.

B) Free Soil Party.

C) Whig Party.

D) Republican Party.

E) Know-Nothing Party.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 333 [Factual]


11) The winner of the election of 1848 was

A) Franklin Pierce.

B) Martin Van Buren.

C) James K. Polk.

D) Millard Fillmore.

E) Zachary Taylor.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 333 [Factual]


12) The key organizer of the Compromise of 1850 was

A) John C. Calhoun.

B) Henry Clay.

C) Lewis Cass.

D) Zachary Taylor.

E) Roger B. Taney.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 334 [Factual]

13) The Compromise of 1850

A) abolished the slave trade in the District of Columbia.

B) served as the basis for lasting sectional peace.

C) prohibited slavery in the New Mexico territory.

D) drove the South to a new extremist position.

E) was revised in 1851.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 334 [Factual]


14) The most outrageous component of the Compromise of 1850 was the

A) admission of California as a free state.

B) opening of New Mexico and Utah territories to slavery under popular sovereignty.

C) reduction of Texas to its present boundaries.

D) enactment of the new Fugitive Slave Law.

E) prohibition of slavery in the District of Columbia.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 335 [Factual]


15) President ________ was a staunch opponent of the key elements contained in the Compromise of 1850.

A) Millard Fillmore

B) Zachary Taylor

C) James Buchanan

D) Franklin Pierce

E) James K. Polk

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 335 [Factual]


16) The failure of the political parties to develop distinctive issues in the election of 1852

A) created sectional harmony.

B) strengthened the two-party system.

C) had little effect on the political system.

D) led to voter disenchantment with the major parties.

E) was not an unusual occurrence for the time.

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 336 [Factual]


17) The major reason for Winfield Scott's defeat in 1852 was his

A) alignment with the antislavery wing of the Whig Party.

B) decision to raise his daughters as Catholics.

C) undistinguished military record.

D) support of immigration.

E) overwhelming dullness.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 336 [Factual]

18) The political party known especially for its anti-immigrant, anti-Catholic philosophy was the

A) Free Soil Party.

B) Whig Party.

C) Know-Nothing Party.

D) Democratic Party.

E) Liberty Party.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 339 [Factual]


19) The anticipated economic stimulus which would help the development of Kansas and Nebraska was

A) new industry.

B) wheat.

C) the railroad.

D) the development of transportation on the Missouri River.

E) a new variety of cotton.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 337 [Factual]


20) In the Kansas-Nebraska Act, Stephen Douglas attempted to set up territorial government on the basis of

A) the Compromise of 1850.

B) Free Soil ideology.

C) Congressional approval or disapproval of slavery.

D) presidential approval or disapproval of slavery.

E) popular sovereignty.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 337 [Factual]


21) To gain southern support for the Kansas-Nebraska Act, Douglas had to support

A) lowering tariffs on agricultural equipment.

B) raising tariffs on agricultural commodities.

C) expansion of the railroads in the South.

D) the repeal of the Missouri Compromise.

E) cropping the policy of popular sovereignty.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 337 [Factual]

22) The Kansas-Nebraska Act

A) was a catastrophe for sectional harmony.

B) solved the problem of slavery in the territories.

C) smoothed out North-South differences over slavery.

D) had little impact on the growing, sectional bitterness.

E) never got the congressional support it needed for passage.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 337 [Factual]


23) What bothered nativists most about the Irish and German immigrants was that so many of them were

A) anti-American.

B) poor.

C) Roman Catholics.

D) Jews.

E) illiterate.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 338 [Factual]


24) Among the reasons why the Know-Nothings became popular was that

A) they appealed to native-born workers who feared competition from low-paid immigrants.

B) they developed a national platform that appealed to a broad cross-section of Americans.

C) they appealed to German and Irish immigrants.

D) they nominated well-known political figures to run for office.

E) they were unpretentious and not considered dishonest, like most politicians.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 340 [Factual]




American Patriot, Boston, 1852

(Library of Congress)


"IN FAVOR OF: The protection of American Mechanics Against Pauper Labor. Foreigners having residence in the country of 21 years before voting. Our present Free School System. . .OPPOSED TO: Papal Aggression and Roman Catholicism, Foreigners holding office, Raising Military Companies in the United States, Nunneries and Jesuits. . ."
25) Those people who would feel drawn to the positions described in this political pamphlet would also be drawn to support which of the following contemporary groups?

A) Know Nothing Party (American party) or "The Order of the Star Spangled Banner"

B) Ku Klux Klan or the Knights of the White Camellia

C) American Protective Association

D) America First Committee

E) John Birch Society

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 339-340 [Factual]


26) The Know-Nothing Party failed because of each of the following factors EXCEPT

A) its northern and southern wings split over slavery.

B) the rival Republicans had wider popular appeal.

C) immigration declined in the mid 1850s.

D) the conflict in Kansas heightened concerns over slavery.

E) most immigrants proved to be loyal Americans.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 339 [Factual]

27) Which of the following, more than anything else, gave birth to the Republican Party in the North?

A) the Missouri Compromise

B) the Liberty Party

C) the Kansas-Nebraska Act

D) John C. Calhoun's withdrawal from the Whig Party

E) the caning of Senator Charles Sumner on the floor of the U.S. Senate

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 339 [Factual]


28) Underlying the rapid growth of the Republican Party was its

A) appeal to anti-immigrant elements.

B) support of agricultural expansion.

C) position on slavery in the territories.

D) excellent candidates.

E) support of the railroad and federal subsidies to finance it.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 341 [Factual]


29) On the issue of slavery, Republicans defended the rights of

A) industrialists.

B) the South.

C) slaves.

D) free labor.

E) slave owners.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 341 [Factual]


30) Popular sovereignty failed in the 1854 Kansas elections because of

A) voter apathy.

B) illegal voting by Missouri residents.

C) the failure to clearly identify the key issues.

D) vote fraud by Free Soil elements.

E) political scandals that had embarrassed its major supporters.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 341 [Factual]

31) The "free-state" capital of Kansas was at

A) Lecompton.

B) Salina.

C) Lawrence.

D) Wichita.

E) Kansas City.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 341 [Factual]


32) The Republican Party

A) received broad-based support throughout the nation.

B) was primarily a sectional party.

C) was a party of farmers and laborers.

D) was the party of northern industrialists.

E) struggled in its first years of existence.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 341 [Conceptual]


33) A smaller civil war, which was a rehearsal for the later political disaster in the United States, was fought in which state during the late 1850s?

A) Missouri

B) Kansas

C) South Carolina

D) Tennessee

E) Texas

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 341 [Factual]


34) Southerners viewed the election of James Buchanan in 1856

A) with a temporary sense of relief.

B) as a long-term victory for the southern cause.

C) as a victory for Free Soil supporters.

D) with little concern.

E) with great concern.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 343 [Factual]


35) The growing division between North and South during the 1840s and 1850s

A) was primarily expressed in political terms.

B) was entirely expressed in legal-constitutional terms.

C) had little impact on the common man.

D) was increasingly seen in cultural and intellectual terms.

E) reached an uncomfortable stalemate by 1860.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 343 [Factual]

36) Between 1856 and 1860, the sectional quarrel

A) ceased to be a serious problem.

B) was moderated by national political figures.

C) became virtually irreconcilable.

D) remained, primarily, an economic problem.

E) was secondary to foreign policy concerns.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 343 [Factual]


37) In the 1850s, the most important example of literary abolitionism was

A) Uncle Tom's Cabin

B) Moby Dick

C) Walden

D) The Raven

E) Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 343 [Factual]


38) The author of Uncle Tom's Cabin was

A) Simon Legree.

B) Harriet Tubman.

C) Edgar Allan Poe.

D) James Russell Lowell.

E) Harriet Beecher Stowe.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 343 [Factual]


39) In the Dred Scott case, the first question faced by the Supreme Court was

A) whether or not Scott was a citizen.

B) the legality of slavery in Missouri.

C) the constitutionality of inheritance laws involving slaves.

D) whether slaves could be taken across state lines.

E) whether Scott's owner had the right to free him.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 344 [Factual]


40) The Dred Scott decision

A) supported the gradual emancipation of slaves.

B) reinforced the principles of the Missouri Compromise.

C) was looked upon favorably by the South.

D) helped reduce sectional tensions.

E) was looked upon favorably by abolitionists.

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 344 [Factual]

41) The Supreme Court decision in the Dred Scott case was largely the work of

A) Roger Taney.

B) John Marshall.

C) Stephen Douglas.

D) William Marbury.

E) Thurgood Marshall.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 344 [Factual]


42) The Lecompton constitution

A) represented the interests of most Kansans.

B) was an antislavery statement.

C) had few problems being accepted by Congress.

D) evoked bitter debates in Congress.

E) helped settle the sectional quarrel, if only for a short time.

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 344 [Factual]


43) The controversy in Kansas suggested that popular sovereignty

A) offered an effective solution to the problem of slavery.

B) was an invitation to civil war.

C) was wholeheartedly accepted by the South.

D) was a solution supported by both North and South.

E) was not so popular after all.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 345 [Factual]


44) In his debates with Stephen Douglas, Abraham Lincoln

A) took a conservative position on slavery.

B) took a position similar to Douglas on the issue of slavery.

C) avoided discussing the issue of slavery.

D) took a radical position on the issue of sectional conflict.

E) restated his belief in popular sovereignty.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 345 [Factual]


45) John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry

A) increased southern fears of northern hostility.

B) was condemned by most northerners.

C) had little effect on sectional tensions.

D) was intended as a statement against the government of the United States.

E) has been exaggerated by historians.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 348 [Factual]

46) The U.S. Army colonel who defeated John Brown and his raiders was

A) Thaddeus Stevens.

B) Preston Brooks.

C) Andrew Johnson.

D) Robert E. Lee.

E) Ulysses S. Grant.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 347 [Factual]




State

Date of Secession

Percent of Free Families Holding Slaves

South Carolina

December 20, 1860

46%

Mississippi

January 9, 1861

49%

Florida

January 10, 1861

34%

Alabama

January 11, 1861

35%

Georgia

January 19, 1861

37%

Louisiana

January 26, 1861

29%

Texas

March 2, 1861

28%

Confederate Forces Five on Fort Sumter







Virginia

April 17, 1861

26%

Arkansas

May 6, 1861

20%

Southern or Border States Where Secession Failed







North Carolina




28%

Tennessee




25%

Kentucky




23%

Missouri




13%

Maryland




12%

Delaware




3%

47) Examine the data given in the chart shown above. Which of the following statements is strongly supported by that data?

A) Later seceding states were more concerned about tariffs and states rights than slavery.

B) Firing upon Fort Sumter prevented or halted border states from joining the Confederacy.

C) States with larger percentages of free families holding slaves were more likely to secede earlier than those with smaller percentages.

D) States with smaller percentages of free families holding slaves were just as likely to secede as states with larger percentages of free families who held slaves.

E) Western states of the south were faster to secede than southern states on the Atlantic coastline.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 348 [Factual]

48) Hinton R. Helper's The Impending Crisis of the South

A) supported slavery.

B) called for lower-class whites to abolish slavery.

C) reduced southern fears about the future of slavery.

D) had little impact on the sectional crisis.

E) voiced the opinion of a majority of southerners.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 349 [Factual]
49) The Republican Party platform in 1860

A) dealt exclusively with slavery.

B) ignored the issue of slavery.

C) presented a moderate position on slavery.

D) attempted to broaden the party's appeal in the South.

E) attempted to broaden the party's appeal in the North.

Answer: E

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 349-350 [Factual]


50) The Republicans were successful in the election of 1860 because

A) they compromised on the issue of slavery.

B) they were able to win decisively in the North.

C) they won significant, southern support.

D) Abraham Lincoln offered the potential for sectional harmony.

E) the Democrats ran a sloppy campaign.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 351 [Factual]


51) Which of the following political parties did not run a presidential candidate in the election of 1860?

A) the Republican Party

B) the Whig Party

C) the Douglas Democrats Party

D) the “Southern Rights” Democratic Party

E) the Constitutional Union Party

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 350 [Factual]


52) Which of the following was not a presidential candidate in the 1860 election?

A) Millard Fillmore

B) Abraham Lincoln

C) Stephen Douglas

D) John Breckinridge

E) John Bell

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 349 [Factual]

14.2 True/False Questions
1) The source of political controversy in the 1850s was the fact that the Constitution had not predetermined the status of slavery in future states.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 332 [Factual]
2) David Wilmot was one of the earliest of the Free Soilers.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 333 [Factual]
3) The Compromise of 1850 provided long-term solutions for the problem of slavery and expansionism.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 334-335 [Factual]
4) Most Free Soilers eventually ended up in the Democratic Party.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 338 [Factual]
5) The Republican Party first appeared in the election of 1852.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 339 [Factual]
6) The weakening of the two-party system in the 1850s contributed to a worsening of sectional tensions.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 351

[AP 10.3] [Conceptual]


7) Political nativism was an insignificant factor in the politics of the 1850s.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 338-340 [Conceptual]
8) American literature accurately reflected the growing division between North and South in the 1840s and 1850s.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 343 [Factual]
9) The Dred Scott decision of 1857 declared the Missouri Compromise of 1820 unconstitutional and denied that African Americans were citizens of the United States.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 344 [Factual]

10) In the final analysis, Stephen Douglas can be evaluated as an advocate of slavery in the territories.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 345, 348 [Factual]


14.3 Essay Questions
1) Discuss the major elements of the Compromise of 1850 and how they were an attempt to balance the requirements of pro- and antislavery factions in the United States.

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 334-335 [Factual]


2) Why did the traditional two-party system fail in the 1850s? What role did third-party movements play in heightening sectional tensions during this period?

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 336-343, 351-353 [Conceptual]


3) Evaluate the causes of the sectional crisis of the 1850s. Could anything have been done to resolve the issues of the period? Explain.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 343-345, 351-353 [Conceptual]


4) Was the conflict over the settlement of Kansas a rehearsal for the Civil War? In what ways did popular sovereignty stir up sectional tensions in the 1850s?

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 339-341 [Conceptual]


5) What incidents and events increased southern fears concerning growing northern hostility toward the southern way of life? How correct was the South in these fears?

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 346-349 [Factual]



Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.





The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016
send message

    Main page