America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.) Chapter 13 An Age of Expansionism



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America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.)

Chapter 13 An Age of Expansionism
13.1 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) Which of the following was NOT a characteristic of the Young America movement?

A) a weak foreign policy

B) territorial expansion

C) economic expansion and growth

D) technological progress

E) a celebration of American virtue

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 306 [Factual]


2) One of the first to use the phrase "Young America" was

A) Herman Melville.

B) Nathaniel Hawthorne.

C) Henry David Thoreau.

D) Walt Whitman.

E) Ralph Waldo Emerson.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 306 [Factual]


3) In ________, Herman Melville produced a novel, original in form and conception, to fulfill the demand of Young Americans for a New Literature.

A) Moby Dick

B) Tristram Shandy

C) The Scarlet Letter

D) Uncle Tom's Cabin

E) Ulysses

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 307 [Factual]


4) The American population moved westward in the 1830s and 1840s for all of the following reasons, EXCEPT

A) fertile land.

B) economic opportunity.

C) religious freedom.

D) loyalty to Mexico and Great Britain.

E) a sense of adventure.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 307-308 [Factual]


5) The Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842 settled a boundary dispute between ________ over ________.

A) the United States and Mexico; Arizona and Sonora

B) England and the United States; British Honduras

C) the United States and Canada; Maine and New Brunswick

D) the United States and Spain; Cuba and Puerto Rico

E) England and the United States; the Virgin Islands

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 308 [Factual]


6) Which of the following was NOT Mexican territory in 1825?

A) California

B) Oregon

C) Texas

D) New Mexico

E) Arizona

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 309 [Factual]


7) Delaying the equitable division of the Oregon Country was the reluctance of both the United States and Britain to surrender access to

A) the Pacific Coast.

B) the Columbia River basin.

C) the Mesabi iron ore range.

D) California.

E) Alaska.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 308 [Factual]


8) In 1830, California, Texas, and New Mexico were under the sovereignty of

A) Spain.

B) the United States.

C) Mexico.

D) Great Britain.

E) France.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 308-309 [Factual]


9) California in the 1820s and 1830s

A) was the most populated territory held by Mexico.

B) had a dramatic increase in its Native American population.

C) saw a harmonious relationship between the rancheros and the Native Americans.

D) was controlled by wealthy rancheros.

E) was already a mecca for entertainers.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 309 [Factual]

10) The most plausible reason for the Texas Revolution was

A) the harsh oppression of the Catholic Church.

B) the discovery of fertile cottonlands in east Texas.

C) the unwillingness of Anglo-Americans to accept Mexican rule.

D) the Texans' desire to create an independent nation.

E) the inability of Texans to settle their land disputes.

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 309 [Factual]


11) Which of the following Mexican policies irritated the Anglo-American settlers of Texas in the early 1830s?

A) Mexico's protection of the institution of slavery

B) the dominance of Protestant churches in Mexico

C) the refusal of the Mexican government to recognize Anglo land boundaries

D) all of the above

E) none of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 309 [Factual]


12) Which one of the following states actually existed for ten years as an independent nation before its admission to the Union?

A) California

B) New Mexico

C) Colorado

D) Texas

E) Arizona

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 310-311 [Factual]


13) ________, the hero of San Jacinto, became the first president of the Texas Republic.

A) Stephen F. Austin

B) W. B. Travis

C) Sam Houston

D) William Becknell

E) Frank Dallas

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 311 [Factual]


14) The most important overland route for American migration to the far West was

A) the Sante Fe Trail.

B) the Chisholm Trail.

C) the Cumberland Road.

D) the Oregon Trail.

E) the California Trail.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 312 [Factual]




John Bemmerly Family Wagon, 1849

(National Archives)


15) Based upon what you see in the photo shown above, all of the following assumptions are probably valid EXCEPT:

A) Family possessions contained in wagons indicate a desire to settle permanently in the location to which they were destined to reach.

B) John Bemmerly is carrying everything deemed necessary for family survival and prosperity once they settle in a new home.

C) Some luxury items are included in the contents of the wagon.

D) Space is limited and storage areas are constrained, so what the family can carry is likewise limited.

E) The wagon was drawn by teams of horses.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 313 [Factual]


16) The founder of the Mormon Church was

A) Lee Roberts.

B) Brigham Young.

C) Sam Houston.

D) Joseph Smith.

E) Josiah Deseret.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 312 [Factual]

17) The Mormon community, established in Utah,

A) was as disorderly as other frontier communities.

B) failed as a permanent settlement.

C) survived in hiding for years.

D) barely survived in the desert lands.

E) was a model of a planned and efficient settlement.

Answer: E

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 313 [Factual]


18) The leader of the Mormon trek to Utah was

A) Moses Austin.

B) Brigham Young.

C) Joseph Smith.

D) John C. Fremont.

E) Josiah Deseret.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 313 [Factual]


19) John Tyler initiated the politics of Manifest Destiny

A) to win the support of his fellow Whigs.

B) to bring together the Whig and Democratic parties.

C) with the aid of Henry Clay.

D) to build a base for his re-election in 1844.

E) in hopes of identifying himself with James Monroe.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 314 [Factual]


20) Opposition to Tyler's plan for the annexation of Texas came, primarily, from

A) southern agricultural interests.

B) Great Britain.

C) northern antislavery Whigs.

D) New England merchants.

E) Mexican Catholics.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 315 [Factual]


21) The winner of the election of 1844 was

A) James K. Polk.

B) John Tyler.

C) Martin Van Buren.

D) William Henry Harrison.

E) Zachary Taylor.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 315 [Factual]


22) In the presidential election of 1844,

A) James Polk identified himself with the most popular cause of the times.

B) Martin Van Buren supported the annexation of Texas.

C) Henry Clay actively campaigned against annexation.

D) James Polk received a mandate to implement his campaign promises.

E) James Polk seemed to exemplify the Young America movement.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 315 [Conceptual]


23) Manifest Destiny was based, in part, on

A) the belief that God was on the side of American expansionism.

B) the political needs of the Democratic party.

C) the desire for new territory for slavery.

D) the desire to drive Spain out of North America.

E) simple greed.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 316 [Factual]


24) The rallying cry "Fifty-Four Forty or Fight" referred to which desired territory?

A) Oregon

B) California

C) Texas

D) New Mexico

E) Arizona

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 316 [Factual]


25) Which one of the following was an important premise of Manifest Destiny?

A) God supported American expansion

B) the "area of freedom" should be expanded

C) population growth required new territories

D) all of the above

E) none of the above

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 316 [Factual]


26) The possibility of war with Great Britain over Oregon was increased by

A) James Polk's aggressive foreign policy.

B) the actions of American agents in the territory.

C) American economic interests.

D) the actions of Great Britain.

E) direct pleas to Polk from the people who were living in Oregon.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 316 [Factual]

27) James Polk went to war with Mexico

A) to retaliate for the harsh Mexican treatment of Texans.

B) to protect the southern border of the United States.

C) to force the cession of New Mexico and California.

D) to prevent a Mexican attempt to reacquire Texas.

E) to distract Americans from other domestic issues.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 317 [Factual]


28) The United States expected the Mexican-American War

A) to be a long and costly affair.

B) to be of a relatively short duration.

C) to involve a possible confrontation with Great Britain.

D) to win widespread popular support.

E) to be costly but worth it.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 317 [Factual]


29) Each of the following occurred during the Mexican-American War EXCEPT

A) Zachary Taylor's troops defeated a large Mexican army at Buena Vista.

B) Winfield Scott's forces captured Mexico City.

C) the Kearny expedition secured control of Santa Fe.

D) William B. Travis and his men were annihilated at the Alamo.

E) the presence of John C. Fremont's forces in California gave the U.S. an excuse to claim that area.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 318 [Factual]


30) The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo provided each of the following EXCEPT

A) it confirmed the Rio Grande as the southern border of Texas.

B) the U.S. paid Mexico $15 million in cash, plus other considerations.

C) Mexico ceded New Mexico and California to the U.S.

D) guaranteed that slavery would not be allowed west of the Rio Grande.

E) agreed that Mexican residents of the ceded areas would become American citizens.

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 319 [Factual]


31) Iron rails needed for the development of U.S. railroads initially came from

A) England.

B) Pennsylvania.

C) Germany.

D) Maryland.

E) France.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 321 [Factual]

32) Shippers did not immediately shift to the railroads because

A) they distrusted the safety of the steam engine.

B) they received financial incentives to stay with canal routes.

C) canal boats were cheaper.

D) they were not convinced of their reliability.

E) they were satisfied with the service they were getting using the canals.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 321 [Factual]


33) By the end of the 1850s, railroads had

A) run the canals completely out of business.

B) enabled nationwide marketing of almost anything.

C) tied the North and the South together.

D) transformed the American economy.

E) been extended all the way to the Pacific Coast.

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 321 [Factual]


34) Local and state governments in the United States

A) were an important source of funding for railroads.

B) had little interest in railroads.

C) originally opposed railroad expansion.

D) expected the federal government to sponsor railroad expansion.

E) wanted to own the railroads themselves.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 321 [Factual]


35) The growth of American industry in the 1830s and 1840s was NOT influenced by

A) the transition to a factory setting.

B) the development of mass production.

C) the discovery of new natural resources.

D) the use of interchangeable parts.

E) the payment of cash wages to workers.

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 322 [Factual]


36) Which of the following was NOT an essential feature of the factory system?

A) a supervised work force

B) the use of interchangeable parts

C) payment of cash wages

D) each product being produced by one worker

E) the work force being located in one place

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 322 [Factual]


37) One of the most important effects of the American industrial revolution was

A) a great wave of immigration.

B) the growth of socialism.

C) the automation of factories.

D) a decline in the need for labor.

E) unionization.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 323 [Factual]


38) Between the 1830s and 1840s, most of the immigrants to the United States came from

A) the Far East.

B) eastern Europe.

C) western Europe.

D) Latin America.

E) China.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 323 [Factual]


39) The major factor that pushed the Irish immigrant to the United States in the 1840s and 1850s was

A) the oppression of the British government.

B) the decline in the number of jobs in Ireland.

C) the overpopulation of Ireland.

D) the great potato famine.

E) the persecution of Catholics.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 323 [Factual]


40) The majority of Irish immigrants settled in the

A) South.

B) Midwest.

C) Far West.

D) Northeast.

E) Gulf Coast region.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 323 [Factual]


41) Most German immigrants came to the United States to escape

A) European wars.

B) hard times.

C) famine.

D) political oppression.

E) religious persecution.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 323 [Factual]

42) German immigrants

A) suffered less prejudice than the Irish.

B) suffered more prejudice than the Irish.

C) could not be assimilated easily into American society.

D) possessed few agricultural or other skills.

E) had a difficult time learning English.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 326 [Factual]



Illustrations from the Boston Report of the Committee on Internal Health on the Asiatic Cholera, 1849
43) The residential area of Boston shown in this drawing from the 1950s would be inhabited by which of the following groups?

A) Italians

B) Polish Jews

C) Irish

D) Lebanese

E) Greeks

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 323 [Factual]


44) The evidence that shows that economics was a major motivation for immigration was found in the

A) occupations of the immigrants.

B) kinds of labor needed in the United States.

C) peaks in immigration and the demand for labor.

D) wages paid to immigrants.

E) forms that immigrants filled out when they reached Ellis Island.

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 323 [Factual]

45) The inventor of the mechanical reaper was

A) John Deere.

B) Robert Lowell.

C) Charles Goodyear.

D) Cyrus McCormick.

E) Henry Bessemer.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 326 [Factual]


46) President Polk provoked the Mexican-American War by

A) seizing the Mexican port of Vera Cruz.

B) sending John C. Fremont to invade California.

C) ordering Zachary Taylor's army into the disputed area south of the Nueces River.

D) insulting Mexico by using ethnic slurs in a state speech.

E) annexing Texas.

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 317 [Factual]


47) The arrival of large numbers of immigrants

A) was a positive development for American cities.

B) did not contribute measurably to city developments.

C) worsened the already serious problems of the cities.

D) did not worsen living conditions in the cities.

E) forced the development of more sanitary waste systems.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 327 [Conceptual]


48) The majority of immigrants became

A) farmers.

B) businessmen.

C) wage workers in factories.

D) skilled craftsmen.

E) sharecroppers.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 327 [Factual]


49) For former rural folk, the transition to industrial wage labor

A) allowed most of them to realize the American dream.

B) raised few serious problems.

C) was not made easily.

D) was facilitated by their past work habits.

E) represented a step up on the social scale.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 323, 326-327 [Conceptual]

50) The increasing employment of immigrants in the 1840s and 1850s

A) had little effect on worker organization.

B) tended to force wages up.

C) had little effect on wages.

D) made it difficult to organize industrial workers.

E) encouraged immigrants to assimilate as soon as possible in hopes of getting better paying positions.

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 328 [Factual]


51) Characteristic of the change in labor in the 1830s and 1840s was

A) an increase in the proportion of women employed.

B) an overall improvement in working conditions.

C) the decline in child labor.

D) the decline in working conditions.

E) that fewer family members had to work to support the family unit.

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 327-328 [Factual]


52) An important result of the changing character of labor was

A) greater cooperation between employer and employee.

B) an increasing reliance on religion for comfort.

C) the paternalistic employer-employee relationship.

D) more emphasis on skilled labor.

E) an upsurge of labor militancy.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 328 [Factual]


13.2 True/False Questions
1) The term Young Americans most applies to younger Democrats who wanted to purge their party of its traditional fear of commerce and industry.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 307 [Factual]

2) The Webster-Ashburton Treaty settled the boundary between Oregon and British Columbia.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 308 [Factual]


3) The Native Americans living in the Spanish borderlands were actually worse off after the Mexican law of 1833 that freed them from the control of the Catholic Church.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 309 [Factual]
4) The decisive battle of the Texas Revolution was fought at the Alamo.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 311 [Factual]
5) The Mexican War ended quickly because Mexico surrendered immediately after its first military defeat.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 319 [Factual]
6) The United States did not really achieve a military victory in the Mexican War.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 318 [Factual]
7) The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo made citizens of Mexicans living in the new territories.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 319 [Factual]
8) The Wilmot Proviso was a proposal to prohibit slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 319 [Factual]
9) By the mid-nineteenth century, the United States had developed the most sophisticated and reliable machine tools.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 322 [Factual]
10) Of the European immigrants coming to the United States in the early 1800s, relatively few of them were from Germany.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 323 [Factual]

13.3 Essay Questions


1) What were the most important factors in pushing or pulling great waves of immigrants to the United States between 1820 and 1850?

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 323, 326-327 [Factual]


2) Compare the United States' foreign policy toward Mexico and Great Britain in the 1830s and 1840s. How do you account for the similarities and differences in America's actions toward these countries?

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 308-309, 314-319 [Conceptual]


3) Describe the factors that created dynamic, economic growth in the United States in the 1830s, 1840s, and 1850s.

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 320-323, 326-328 [Conceptual]


4) Describe the main concepts of the doctrine of Manifest Destiny. How effective was the United States in implementing this policy in the 1840s? Did all Americans support this doctrine? Explain.

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 314-316 [Conceptual]


5) Was the Mexican War inevitable? Could the United States have achieved its objectives in any other manner? How?

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 317-320 [Conceptual]



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