America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.) Chapter 12 The Pursuit of Perfection



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America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.)

Chapter 12 The Pursuit of Perfection
12.1 Multiple-Choice Questions

Shaker Religious Ceremony, Pleasantville, Kentucky

(Shakertown at Pleasantville, KY)


1) The religious group shown above was one of the several new faith-based communal societies that emerged in the 1830s from which of the following?

A) Protestant Reformation

B) First Great Awakening

C) Catholic Inquisition

D) Popular Sovereignty

E) Second Great Awakening

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 282 [Factual]


2) The approach viewed by many American religious leaders as the best way to extend religious values was called

A) orthodoxy.

B) secularism.

C) revivalism.

D) spiritualism.

E) "spreading the Gospel."

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 281 [Factual]

3) The Second Great Awakening began

A) in the Congregationalist churches of New England.

B) along the Ohio River.

C) among dissenters in the cities.

D) as a result of the activities of English missionaries.

E) on the southern frontier.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 282 [Factual]


4) Most of those who became evangelical Protestants during the Second Great Awakening had previously been

A) Catholics.

B) freethinkers.

C) Unitarians.

D) indifferent to religion.

E) atheists.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 281 [Factual]


5) On the frontier, camp meetings

A) served only religious purposes.

B) were primarily social events.

C) had little long-range impact.

D) played an important social and religious role.

E) often became violent.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 282 [Factual]


6) Which of the following individuals was NOT an important religious leader in America during the 1820s and 1830s?

A) Timothy Dwight

B) Charles Finney

C) Lyman Beecher

D) Herman Melville

E) Nathaniel Taylor

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 282-284 [Factual]


7) The reform movement in New England began as

A) an effort to defend Calvinism against Enlightenment ideas.

B) an attempt to maintain the status quo in religion.

C) a result of the actions of social radicals in religion.

D) an outgrowth of deism.

E) a rejection of Catholicism.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 282 [Factual]

8) Which of the following groups denied the doctrine of the Trinity and the idea of an all-powerful, mysterious God?

A) Presbyterians

B) Congregationalists

C) Unitarians

D) Methodists

E) Mormons

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 282 [Factual]


9) The first great practitioner of evangelical Calvinism was

A) Timothy Dwight.

B) Lyman Beecher.

C) Nathaniel Taylor.

D) John Wesley.

E) Cotton Mather.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 283 [Factual]


10) In his sermons, Charles G. Finney appealed mainly to

A) emotion.

B) doctrine.

C) reason.

D) theological issues.

E) economic issues.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 283 [Factual]


11) Which one of the following was NOT a prominent reform cause of the Antebellum era?

A) abolition

B) temperance

C) removal of Native Americans

D) public schools

E) "proper" behavior

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 284-291 [Factual]


12) Most of the converts of northern revivalism were

A) fervent churchgoers.

B) theology students dismayed by orthodox theology.

C) citizens looking for a way to withdraw from a sinful world.

D) middle-class citizens active in their communities.

E) anti-papists.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 284 [Factual]

13) Lyman Beecher was most closely associated with which one of the following reform movements?

A) temperance

B) abolition

C) mental asylum reform

D) prison reform

E) public school reform

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 284 [Factual]


14) The Second Great Awakening did NOT inspire

A) the establishment of missionary societies.

B) the publication of religious tracts.

C) withdrawal from the secular world.

D) the founding of moral reform societies.

E) aid for the redemption of "abandoned women."

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 284 [Factual]


15) As a reform effort, the temperance movement

A) was only moderately successful.

B) was directed at a serious social problem.

C) had little impact outside religious circles.

D) emphasized religion more than social concerns.

E) was enormously popular.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 285 [Factual]


16) Each of the following was a result of the temperance campaign of the 1830s EXCEPT

A) thousands of local temperance organizations were set up.

B) large numbers of confirmed drunkards were cured.

C) temperance became a mark of respectability.

D) per capita consumption of hard liquor declined by over 50 percent.

E) the drinking habits of middle class American males were significantly altered.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 298-299 [Factual]

17) Which of the following was NOT a major change in family life during the nineteenth century?

A) Relationships between parents and children became more intimate.

B) The "cult of domesticity" gained ground.

C) Mothers assumed a more central role in child-rearing.

D) More and more women were forced to work outside the home.

E) Marriages based on romantic love became popular.

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 285 [Factual]


18) The sociological basis for the "Cult of True Womanhood" was

A) the growing urban population of the nation.

B) the accepted use of child labor.

C) a growing division of labor between men and women.

D) the increasing acceptance of careers for women.

E) the staggering number of women dying during childbirth.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 286 [Factual]


19) The "proper" sphere for middle-class white women in the nineteenth century was

A) home and family.

B) education.

C) family and career.

D) labor outside the home.

E) business or art schools.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 286 [Factual]


20) As a result of changes in the middle-class family, nineteenth-century children

A) left home sooner.

B) became more available for labor.

C) received more physical punishment than earlier generations.

D) increasingly became viewed as individuals.

E) were often offered up for adoption.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 287 [Factual]


21) The most important function of the school in 1850 was seen as

A) intellectual training.

B) vocational training.

C) moral indoctrination.

D) child care.

E) physical conditioning.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 288 [Factual]

22) Public education was most highly developed in states like ________ where towns were required to support elementary schools.

A) New York.

B) South Carolina.

C) Massachusetts.

D) Kentucky.

E) Ohio.


Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 288 [Factual]


23) The most influential spokesman for the common school movement was

A) John Harward.

B) Lyman Beecher.

C) Henry James.

D) Horace Mann.

E) Terrance Knox.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 288 [Factual]


24) In practice, working-class families viewed the new public schools

A) as depriving them of needed wage earners.

B) as essential to the improvement of their economic situation.

C) indifferently.

D) as an indication of the helpful concern of the upper classes.

E) as a welcome learning opportunity for themselves and their children.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 289 [Factual]


25) The neighborly way of dealing with deviants broke down

A) as their numbers increased dramatically.

B) because of a growing lack of concern.

C) as urbanization made communities less cohesive.

D) as state law mandated state care.

E) as polite refusal turned increasingly violent.

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 290 [Factual]


26) In theory, prisons and asylums

A) were based on the "out of sight, out of mind" principle.

B) were designed for punishment.

C) were simply to confine the disorderly.

D) should focus on "breaking down the ego."

E) were to substitute for the family.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 290 [Factual]

27) In the final analysis, prisons and asylums

A) provided effective remedies for the problem of deviants.

B) won widespread popular support.

C) did not achieve the aims of their founders.

D) completely lacked government support.

E) were nurturing retreats of redemption.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 290 [Factual]


28) The leader of the movement to reform asylums and prisons was

A) Dorothea Dix.

B) Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

C) Henry C. Wright.

D) Frederick Douglass.

E) Mary McLeod-Bethune.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 290 [Factual]


29) The changes in the reform movement in the mid-1830s demonstrated

A) the waning of the reform impulse.

B) the failure of the movement.

C) a lessening of intensity and interest.

D) a new mood of impatience and perfectionism.

E) changes brought to bear by the federal government.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 291 [Factual]


30) Which one of the following individuals was NOT a major figure in the nineteenth-century reform movements?

A) Dorothea Dix

B) Horace Mann

C) William Lloyd Garrison

D) Alexis de Tocqueville

E) Lyman Beecher

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 283-291 [Factual]


31) Which of the following individuals is incorrectly matched with his or her reform movement?

A) Lyman Beecher? Temperance

B) Horace Mann? Public Schools

C) Dorothea Dix? Abolition

D) Elizabeth Cady Stanton? Women's Rights

E) All of the above are correctly matched.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 285-295 [Factual]

32) In 1821, the American Colonization Society established which colony as a refuge for former slaves returned to Africa?

A) Zambia

B) Senegal

C) Chad


D) Namibia

E) Liberia

Answer: E

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 291 [Factual]


33) The actions of the American Colonization Society indicated

A) its realization of the economic realities of slavery.

B) the power of racial prejudice.

C) its desire to help freed slaves return to what it thought was the right cultural environment.

D) its fears of race wars in the South.

E) all of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 291 [Factual]


34) The colonization movement failed as a solution to eliminate slavery mainly because

A) African countries did not want the freed slaves.

B) freed slaves did not wish to return to Africa.

C) few slaves were actually freed for the purpose of colonization.

D) government intervention hampered its efforts.

E) insufficient numbers of passenger ships existed.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 291 [Factual]


35) The founder of the radical anti-slavery movement was

A) William Lloyd Garrison.

B) William Whipper.

C) Frederick Douglass.

D) Harriet Beecher Stowe.

E) Harriet Tubman.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 291 [Factual]




A Slave Whipping - A Fugitive Slave on the Run

"Southern Scenes in 1846 - Facts for the People of the Free States"William Hared,

American Anti-Slavery Society, New York, 1847

(Library of Congress)


36) All of the following statements concerning the drawings that appear above are correct EXCEPT:

A) Drawings were part of a national campaign by the American Anti-Slavery Society to sway northern public opinion against slavery.

B) Southerners cited pamphlets such as the tract in which these drawings appeared as evidence of a national conspiracy to destroy slavery in the south and would use that as justification for secession in 1861.

C) In 1847, although most northerners did not support slavery, most did not support the idea of emancipation.

D) The actions shown in the drawings were actually rare on southern plantations and forbidden by law in many southern states.

E) Drawings such as those shown would be useful to abolitionists in fighting the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 and turning large portions of the northern public against slavery.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 291-293 [Factual]


37) The chief example of the tie between revivalism and abolitionism was the career of

A) Theodore Weld.

B) Charles G. Finney.

C) Lyman Beecher.

D) Lewis Tappan.

E) Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 292 [Factual]


38) In the large cities of the North, abolitionism

A) was wholeheartedly supported.

B) received little attention.

C) garnered thousands of supporters.

D) was often violently opposed.

E) was a foregone conclusion.

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 292 [Factual]


39) Abolitionism received its greatest support in the

A) border states.

B) small to medium-sized towns of the upper North.

C) large cities.

D) frontier territories.

E) northern state legislatures.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 292 [Factual]


40) The stand of ________ on women's rights led to an open break in the abolitionist movement in the 1840s.

A) William Lloyd Garrison

B) Ralph Waldo Emerson

C) Henry Thoreau

D) Charles G. Finney

E) Timothy Dwight

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 293 [Factual]


41) Historians have evaluated abolitionism as

A) successfully turning most Americans against slavery.

B) having little effect on the South.

C) successfully bringing slavery to the forefront of the American consciousness.

D) winning powerful supporters throughout the country.

E) a peaceful solution to the problem of slavery.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 294 [Factual]


42) An important consequence of the abolitionist movement was

A) the American Colonization Society.

B) the development of the women's rights movement.

C) the birth of socialism in America.

D) the death of slavery.

E) the end of the states' rights movement.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 295 [Factual]

43) The belief that one could communicate with the dead was called

A) transcendentalism.

B) spiritualism.

C) evangelicalism.

D) utopian socialism.

E) Unitarianism.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 295 [Factual]


44) ________ became one of the most significant leaders of the women's rights movement.

A) Elizabeth Cady Stanton

B) Angela Grimke

C) Dorothea Dix

D) Harriet Beecher Stowe

E) Louisa May Alcott

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 295 [Factual]


45) The utopian socialist community at New Harmony, Indiana, was founded by

A) Robert Owen.

B) Charles Fourier.

C) the Shakers.

D) Karl Marx.

E) Ralph Waldo Emerson.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 296 [Factual]


46) What religion advocated sexual equality, communal ownership, and strict celibacy?

A) Mormon

B) Shaker

C) Protestant

D) Mennonite

E) Quaker

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 296 [Factual]


47) ________ believed herself to be the female incarnation of Christ.

A) Elizabeth Cady Stanton

B) Frances Wright

C) Mother Ann Lee

D) Mary Baker Eddy

E) Sojourner Truth

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 296 [Factual]

48) Abolitionism served as a catalyst for the ________ movement.

A) temperance

B) women's rights

C) utopian socialist

D) transcendentalist

E) prison reform

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 349, 352 [Factual]

49) Transcendentalism was the American version of

A) anarchism.

B) socialism.

C) utopianism.

D) romanticism.

E) agrarianism.

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 295 [Factual]


50) Utopian communities established in early 19th century America included each of the following EXCEPT

A) Brook Farm.

B) Oneida.

C) Fourierist "phalanxes."

D) Heaven's Gate.

E) New Harmony.

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 296-297 [Factual]


51) Henry David Thoreau pushed the idea of ________ to its logical conclusion in his sojourn at Walden Pond between 1845 and 1847.

A) "self-culture"

B) utopianism

C) abolitionism

D) socialism

E) agrarianism

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 300 [Factual]

52) The prominent American literary figure who cast doubt on the reform impulse and denied the perfectibility of society was

A) Sylvester Graham.

B) Nicholas Biddle.

C) Upton Sinclair.

D) Edgar Allen Poe.

E) Nathaniel Hawthorne.

Answer: E

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 300 [Factual]


12.2 True/False Questions
1) Because of primitive, rough conditions on the frontier, revivals were rarely held there.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 282 [Factual]
2) Like the northern wing of the evangelical movement, the southern wing also inspired a broad social reform movement.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 282 [Factual]
3) Most of the early converts in the Second Great Awakening were from the middle class.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 284 [Factual]
4) An important social change in the early nineteenth-century United States was the growing popularity of the idea of marrying for love.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 285 [Factual]
5) By 1900, the typical American family had changed very little from its 1820 counterpart.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 285-288 [Factual]
6) One benefit of the new domestic ideology for women in the first half of the nineteenth century was more leisure time to devote to reading and developing friendships with other women.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 286 287 [Factual]
7) Although Americans praised the need for education in the nineteenth century, public schools really did not have their beginning until the twentieth century.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 288 [Factual]

8) The reformed prisons and asylums of the nineteenth century failed because they were too effective at reforming deviants and releasing them into the community.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 290 [Factual]


9) Abolitionism was primarily an activity of social reformers; merchants and businessmen had little to do with the effort to abolish slavery.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 292 [Factual]
10) The Shakers were one of the most successful and long-lived of the utopian movements.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 296 [Factual]
12.3 Essay Questions
1) Discuss how the American social reform movement evolved out of the Second Great Awakening.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 284 [Conceptual]


2) Why did social reformers view alcohol as the greatest threat to public morality in the United States?

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 284-285, 298-299 [Conceptual]


3) In what ways could American women of the first half of the nineteenth century be said to have benefited from changes that resulted from the social reform movement?

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 295,302-305 [Factual]


4) What were the major goals of the expanded and improved public education system of the 1830s and 1840s?

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 288-289 [Factual]


5) Discuss the different approaches tried by American reformers to deal with the problem of slavery in the United States.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 291-295 [Conceptual]



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