America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.) Chapter 1 New World Encounters

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America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.)

Chapter 1 New World Encounters
1.1 Multiple-Choice Questions

How the Savages Roast Their Enemies, 1575

This 16th-century drawing depicts Native Americans

(described as "savages" by European observers reporting this

event) roasting their enemies after killing and dismembering them.

(Andre Thevet, La cosmographie universelle)
1) The way in which Native Americans were portrayed in the 16th-century drawing shown above was a clear argument supporting which of the following?

A) to justify European attempts to force their own religious, social, and cultural values upon Native American societies

B) to support the position of those who argued for the mass extermination of all native societies found in the New World

C) to undercut a papal injunction requiring all European colonization attempts to cease in the New World as recognition of the rights of Native Americans to possess their own cultural values

D) to supply arguments in support of massive diplomatic efforts to negotiate cultural exchanges with Native American cultures

E) to support the British argument that all colonial powers should ally together against the brutality of Native American tribes

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 3-4 [Conceptual]

2) The most significant factor that allowed large numbers of nomadic hunters to enter the heart of North America was

A) the domestication of horses.

B) global warming.

C) population growth.

D) the search for new food supplies.

E) the growing diversity of people.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 5 [Factual]

3) Which of the following revolutionized early Native American cultures?

A) the discovery of hunting

B) the development of agriculture

C) tribal political alliances

D) emergence of a written language

E) the domestication of the horse

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 5 [Factual]

4) Cahokia, a large Indian city in what is now Illinois, was built by

A) the Mississippians.

B) the Anasazs.

C) the Adena and Hopewell cultures.

D) the Aztecs.

E) the Comanches.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 6 [Factual]

5) The most advanced Native American cultures appeared in which region of North America?

A) Canada

B) Mexico and Central America

C) the Southwest

D) the Mississippi Valley

E) the Southeast

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 6 [Factual]

6) The aggressive Native American people who occupied the valley of Mexico when the Spanish arrived were the

A) Mayas.

B) Apaches.

C) Aztecs.

D) Incas.

E) Toltecs.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 7 [Factual]

7) By the time Europeans arrived, the peoples of central Mexico had each of the following EXCEPT

A) large cities ruled by effective bureaucracies.

B) tools and weapons made of iron and bronze.

C) hieroglyphic writing.

D) an accurate solar calendar.

E) a religion which involved human sacrifice.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 6 [Factual]

8) The Atlantic tribal group with whom the English had the most contact was called

A) Algonquian.

B) Mayan.

C) Apache.

D) Sioux.

E) Cherokee.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 7 [Factual]

9) The tribes of eastern North America defined their place in society through

A) patricide.

B) monotheism.

C) kinship.

D) intertribal marriages.

E) land ownership.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 7 [Factual]

10) What Indians desired most, upon encountering Europeans, was

A) cultural enlightenment.

B) peaceful trade.

C) religious instruction.

D) allies to help them defeat their enemies.

E) victims for human sacrifice rituals.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 8 [Factual]

11) The single greatest factor that caused the destruction of Native Americans after contact with Europeans was

A) warfare.

B) planned genocide.

C) disease.

D) forced conversions to Christianity.

E) forced removal from tribal lands.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 10 [Factual]

12) In the Columbian Exchange, the Old World and the New exchanged

A) animal, plant, and microbial life forms.

B) technologies.

C) religious beliefs.

D) political systems.

E) scientific theories.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 10 [Factual]

13) Which of the following statements about West Africa during the era of the European slave trade is true?

A) Africans were quite isolated from the rest of the world.

B) Africans had a simple, self-sufficient economy.

C) A single monolithic culture covered most of the African continent.

D) Muslim missionaries were having some success in making converts there.

E) Africans were united by a single language.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 10 [Factual]

14) The first European nation to establish contact with sub-Saharan Africa was

A) France.

B) Italy.

C) the Netherlands.

D) Portugal.

E) Germany.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 11 [Factual]

Early Botanical Illustration - New World Plants (c. 1492)

The Old World dandelion stepped off invaders' ships in the crusted mud of English

and Spanish boots and spread far beyond the newcomers' initial cultural dominions,

becoming today's most familiar "weed."

15) The commentator in this illustration of the dandelion is also portraying a classical example of the two directional functioning of the

A) Encomienda.

B) Mestizo.

C) Columbian Exchange.

D) Inquisition.

E) Conquesta.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 12-13 [Factual]

16) The Portuguese explored West Africa searching for

A) slaves.

B) gold.

C) ancient artifacts.

D) both A and B

E) both B and C

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 11 [Factual]

17) All of the following contributed to the rise of nation-states in Europe in the fifteenth century EXCEPT

A) population growth.

B) a general prosperity.

C) the centralization of political authority under a monarchy.

D) feudalism.

E) the effects of the Renaissance.

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 16 [Factual]

18) Columbus originally was determined to prove that

A) a westward water route to China existed.

B) the world was not flat.

C) the continents of North and South America existed.

D) the lost continent of Atlantis was actually part of South America.

E) the world was smaller than scientists believed at the time.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 17 [Factual]

19) At the time of Columbus's first voyage in 1492,

A) most educated Europeans believed the earth was flat.

B) no European nation had any interest in exploration.

C) most educated Europeans did not believe the earth was flat.

D) no one thought he would find anything.

E) the Catholic Church condemned this kind of exploration.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 17 [Factual]

20) The Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494 resulted in

A) war between Spain and Portugal.

B) Portuguese control of Brazil.

C) English control of Canada.

D) French control of Martinique.

E) the withdrawal of the Spanish from the New World.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 18 [Factual]

21) The men largely responsible for Spain's conquest of the New World were known as

A) conquistadores.

B) coureurs de bois.

C) "Sea Dogs."

D) condottiere.

E) comerciante.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 19 [Factual]

22) The conquistador of Mexico was

A) Bernal Diaz del Castillo.

B) Hernan Cortes.

C) Vasco de Gama.

D) Hernando de Soto.

E) Christopher Columbus.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 19 [Factual]

23) In order to better control the conquistadores in the New World, the Spanish government created

A) the Inquisition.

B) the hacienda.

C) the encomienda.

D) the missions.

E) colonial governments.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 19-20 [Factual]

24) Most Spanish colonists were

A) wealthy families.

B) more racially tolerant than their English counterparts.

C) unconcerned about economic opportunities.

D) unwilling to have contact with native groups.

E) incredibly racist.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 20 [Factual]

25) From the beginning of colonization, Spain regarded her New World domain as primarily

A) a source of precious metal.

B) a place to send exiled Moors and Jews.

C) an opportunity to further promote the Catholic faith.

D) a supplier of cheap Native American labor to be used on Spanish estates.

E) a place to establish penal colonies.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 20 [Factual]

26) Which of the following terms is CORRECTLY matched with a definition?

A) encomendero–a Spaniard who controlled Native American labor

B) mestizo–an individual of mixed Native American and African ancestry

C) criollo–a person of Spanish parentage who was born in Spain

D) peninsulare–a person of Spanish parentage who was born in the New World

E) mulatto–an individual of mixed Spanish and Native American ancestry

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 20 [Factual]

27) Spain became the number-one power in the world during the sixteenth century because

A) the Pope favored Spain's efforts.

B) of the vast amounts of gold and silver it imported from the New World

C) Spain had extensive natural resources and many deep water ports.

D) the people had lived in peace and tranquility for centuries.

E) the Spanish were the best shipbuilders of the day.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 20-21 [Factual]

28) The first French explorers were

A) interested in finding the mythical "northwest passage" to China.

B) determined to find gold and silver.

C) eager to Christianize the Native Americans.

D) ruthless and exploitive of the native peoples.

E) considered stupid by the Native Americans.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 21 [Factual]

29) In their relations with the Native Americans, the French

A) were as obsessed with Christian conversion as the Spanish.

B) tended to cultivate good relations because of the Native Americans' knowledge of fur trapping.

C) were ruthless in their treatment of the Native Americans.

D) drove them from their land in order to set up plantations.

E) were at a distinct disadvantage.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 21 [Factual]

30) The financial success of the French empire in North America depended upon the

A) fur trade.

B) complete annihilation of the Native American tribes in Canada.

C) discovery of huge amounts of gold.

D) Armada.

E) withdrawal of the Spanish.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 21 [Factual]

31) The Frenchmen who travelled deep into the North American interior in search of furs were known as

A) encomenderos.

B) coureurs de bois.

C) mulattos.

D) conquistadores.

E) envahir.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 21 [Factual]

32) Geographically, the French claimed and settled

A) the Southwest.

B) the Atlantic seaboard.

C) the Mississippi Valley and Canada.

D) Brazil.

E) the Southeast.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 21 [Factual]

33) Which of the following is NOT related to the French experience in the New World?

A) the fur trade

B) Samuel de Champlain

C) encomiendas

D) coureurs de bois

E) lack of royal support for colonizing efforts

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 21 [Factual]

34) Whose voyages established English claims in North America?

A) Richard Hakluyt

B) Sir Walter Raleigh

C) John Cabot

D) Henry VII

E) Jacques Cartier

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 22 [Factual]

35) What sixteenth-century European upheaval had a profound impact upon England's settlement of the New World?

A) the Crusades

B) the War of the Roses

C) the Reformation

D) the Hundred Years' War

E) the experience of the Marian exiles

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 22 [Factual]

36) All of the following provided a basis for the Reformation in England EXCEPT

A) popular disaffection for the Catholic Church.

B) intense anticlericalism.

C) a literate and devout clergy.

D) Henry VIII's desire for total control of state and church.

E) resentment of paying money to Rome.

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 22 [Conceptual]

37) The first Bible written in English was published in

A) 1520.

B) 1529.

C) 1530.

D) 1539.

E) 1540.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 23 [Factual]

38) After the death of Henry VIII,

A) his son ruled wisely and fairly.

B) militant Protestants pushed for further reforms.

C) Mary Tudor continued leading the Reformation.

D) little change occurred for the people.

E) there were no Catholics in England.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 23 [Factual]

39) Elizabeth I was the daughter of Henry VIII and

A) Catherine of Aragon

B) Jane Seymour.

C) Elizabeth of York.

D) Lady Jane Grey.

E) Anne Boleyn.

Answer: E

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 22 [Factual]

40) Which of the following individuals was responsible for starting the Protestant Revolt in Europe?

A) Henry Tudor

B) Martin Luther

C) John Calvin

D) John Foxe

E) Elizabeth I

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 23 [Factual]

41) The most influential early Protestant thinker was

A) Henry VIII.

B) Oliver Cromwell.

C) John Calvin.

D) Mary Tudor.

E) Elizabeth I.

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 24 [Factual]

42) According to the religious philosophy of John Calvin and his followers,

A) women and men were saved by a combination of faith and works.

B) humans had total control over their destinies.

C) God controlled who would receive salvation.

D) humans should accept their faith and merely exist on earth.

E) Hell did not exist.

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 24 [Conceptual]

43) Calvinists in Scotland founded the

A) Lutheran Church.

B) Methodist Church.

C) Presbyterian Church.

D) Baptist Church.

E) Unitarian Church.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 24 [Factual]

44) The English monarch responsible for consolidating the Protestant Reformation and restoring English nationalism was

A) Henry VII.

B) Henry VIII.

C) Elizabeth I.

D) Mary Tudor.

E) James I.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 24 [Factual]

45) The mission of the Spanish Armada was to

A) suppress a revolt in the Netherlands

B) defend Queen Elizabeth I of England against challenges to her rule

C) eliminate Queen Elizabeth I and make England a Catholic country

D) replace Queen Elizabeth I with Mary Queen of Scots

E) get revenge against the English for their seizure of Spanish treasure galleons

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 25 [Factual]

46) The English rehearsed for settlement in the New World by colonizing

A) Scotland.

B) Jamaica.

C) Ireland.

D) Wales.

E) the Virgin Islands.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 25 [Factual]

47) English territory in the New World was initially named after

A) Walter Raleigh.

B) Henry VIII.

C) Elizabeth I.

D) Richard Hakluyt.

E) Richard Grenville.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 26 [Factual]

48) The first colonization efforts undertaken by the English in the New World were largely the schemes of

A) the Crown.

B) wealthy gentlemen.

C) Italians acting on behalf of the English monarch.

D) Parliament.

E) fleeing Catholics.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 25 [Factual]

49) In the 1580s, the English attempted to make a settlement at

A) Jamestown.

B) Newfoundland.

C) Roanoke.

D) Plymouth.

E) Hatteras.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 25-26 [Factual]

50) The sponsor of the failed Roanoke colony was

A) Walter Raleigh.

B) Francis Drake.

C) Humphrey Gilbert.

D) Richard Hakluyt.

E) Richard Grenville.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 26 [Factual]

51) Who developed strong arguments for England's continued efforts at colonizing the New World, despite early failures?

A) Humphrey Gilbert

B) Walter Raleigh

C) Richard Hakluyt

D) Francis Drake

E) Arthur Barlow

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 26 [Factual]

52) Which of the following countries is incorrectly matched with one of its colonies?

A) France–Canada

B) Portugal–Brazil

C) Spain–Puerto Rico

D) England–Cuba

E) Spain–Mexico

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 18 [Factual]

1.2 True/False Questions
1) The cultures of the different groups of Native Americans in North America were remarkably similar.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 7 [Factual]
2) When Spanish soldiers first encountered the Aztec community in the Valley of Mexico, they were astonished at its sophistication.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 6 [Factual]
3) Native American women were more likely than men to join Christian churches during the colonial period.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 9 [Factual]
4) African and Native American cultures had little in common.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 11 [Factual]
5) No diseases native to the New World affected European society as a result of exploration and colonization.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 12 [Factual]
6) More Africans than Europeans came to the Americas in the seventeenth century.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 14 [Factual]
7) Christopher Columbus was probably the first European to set foot in the New World.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 15 [Factual]
8) The Spanish Armada established Spain's dominance in the New World.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 25 [Factual]

9) For Spain, the American colonies were a source of great economic wealth.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 20-21 [Factual]

10) The English treated their Irish subjects as equals.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 17 [Factual]
1.3 Essay Questions
1) Compare the cultures that could be found in the New World prior to the Europeans. Why were some groups more advanced than others throughout the same region?

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 4-8 [Factual and Conceptual]

2) Describe the process by which early Portuguese traders acquired slaves in West Africa.

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 11, 14-15 [Factual]

3) Describe the social, economic, and political changes which occurred in Europe and led to exploration and colonization of the New World.

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 15-17 [Factual]

4) Why did England colonize the New World later than the rest of Europe? What political and religious conditions had created a century of conflict in England? What factors finally pushed the English west, across the ocean?

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 22-26 [Conceptual]

5) Compare the experience of the French, Spanish, and English in colonizing the New World. What common perception of the region did they share? Discuss the differences in their relationship with Native Americans.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 16-27 [Factual and Conceptual]

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