America In the 20th Century: wwi – Supporting the War Effort Video Notes



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America In the 20th Century: WWI – Supporting the War Effort

Video Notes

Military Preparation & Raise Money For War Effort

Re-Tool Industry

National Defense Act of 1916 – Money to recruit 175K army; 450K national reserve; $5M for the US Navy

Selective Service Act 1917


Revenue Act of 1916 – tax the rich to pay for the National Defense Act
Taxes on excess profits on corporate earning, higher taxes on rich

Taxes on tobacco, liquor and luxury items


Liberty Bond –loan money to gov’t to fight war

Estimated that every adult American gave 400 at the time




President Wilson given power to fix prices and regulate war industries
War Industry Board – Dr. Facts; Bernard Baruch

Steel for corsets used to build battleships

Mass production techniques to increase efficiency

Price Controls

Allocate raw materials

Told what to produce

Controlled transportation – RR

Mediate labor disputes to avoid strikes

Priority to build ships

Shipyard workers exempt or deferment



American’s Sacrifice for the War Effort

Propaganda To Support the War Effort

American Sacrifice

Food Administrative Board – Herbert Hoover

Publicity campaign to contribute to the war effort

Victory gardens

Meatless/wheatless meals so can send food to the troops
Conserve energy

Gasless Sundays

Lightless nights

Daylight Savings Time (Ben Franklin)



Government established The Committee on Public Information – George Creel – Propaganda Agency; made an unpopular war, popular

“Sell the War” – recruited all advertising agencies to support the war effort by putting out ads, posters, radio commercials, movie shorts to support the war effort



Under Four Flags – pro-war movie that made money for the war effort

4 Minute Men – men prepared to make speeches to support the war

Musicians – war songs, ‘Over There



America In The 20th Century: WWI – The Home Front: The Impact of War on Women, African Americans, & American Civil Liberties Video Notes

Women

African Americans

1M women sustained the wartime labor force in factories, shipyard, armed forces, etc

Wilson encouraged employers to pay women the same as men, few did

Volunteering – red cross, sold liberty bonds, victory gardens

Jane Adams – protest against the war

Brought about change in women’s civil liberties

Jan 10, 1917 – 19th Amendment: constitutional amendment granting women the right to vote, ratified in 1919 –r ole of women in WWI was a catalyst for women to vote




Split about Am. involvement in the war

WEB DuBois – NAACP urged African Am. to support the war

William Monroe Trotter – African American’s were victims of racism should not support a racist government

Need for workers, African Am. migrated to industrialized cities to the North

Immigration into Am. slowed and many returned to their homelands

Eager to leave the south, low pay and life threatening conditions – 3K killed by lynching in the South

Recruiting agents with RR tickets – urged African Am. to go to Chicago, NY and Philly

Whites in the South angry because African Am. tenant farmers leaving the South

Could earn up to $3- 5 a day

Problems: forced to live in crowed, segregated housing, rise of black ghettos, high rents; denied membership in labor unions so became replacement workers during strikes and scabs; resentment by white workers

Entrepreneurs opened stores, insurance, service industry, domestic servants – could earn 2X’s as much than in southern homes



Racial tension – race riots, July 1917 – East St. Louis MO munitions plant – 49 African Americans, 9 Whites killed – marched in silence to protest; Chicago – black teen drown boy causing 3 days of riots – 38 killed; 23 African Am 15 White; 500 injured

James Weldon Johnson – “The Red Summer of Hate” for the blood shed; Revealed that racial prejudice was an Am. problem, not just in the south



Fear on the Home Front

Espionage & Sedition Acts

Fine or imprisonment for those who opposed the war

Conformity, patriotism, complete support for war demanded of All Am – Freedom of speech and thought unacceptable; different language and customs became suspect

Change names of things

Anti-German violence – Collinsville, IL – Germn baker lynching

William Harding, Gov of Iowa – public conversations in the English language – jailed for speaking German over the phone
The spirit of 76 silent movie about the revolutionary war

Socialist targeted – Eugene V. Debs; jailed for speaking out against the war effort

Emma Goldman – fined 10K and 2years for denouncing the draft and then deported back to Russia

Haywood – encourage workers for fair pay and decent working conditions during the war – fined



June 1917 – Espionage Act – People who helped the enemy, interfered with the draft, or encouraged mutiny in the military would face 20 years in prison and a $10,000 fine. The postmaster general could also refuse to carry mail that might help the enemy

fined 10k and 20 Yrs for anti-war activities like interfering with government war efforts

May 1918 - Sedition Act – could not speak out against the government or the war

Discouraging the sale of war bonds and criticism of the U.S. government or military became illegal and could be punished by imprisonment or fine. More than 1,500 people were arrested under the act for criticizing the government.

Violated the First Amendment because clear and present danger during the war

Schneck v. U.S. - In this 1919 case, the Supreme Court ruled that the Sedition Acts were constitutional because the right of free speech was not always absolute. Schenck, who had been arrested for anti-draft leaflets, had challenged the law with the 1st Amendment. It was ruled that criticism that threatened the war effort should be suppresed.


Wilson repealed the Sedition Act on his last day in office



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