Amendment: 13 th

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Basic EOC Study Guide


13th Amendment made slavery illegal

14th Amendment made former slaves citizens (included equal protection and due process clauses)

15th Amendment granted black males the right to vote

16th Amendment allowed for a federal income tax

17th Amendment allowed for direct election of Senators

18th Amendment established national prohibition of alcohol

19th Amendment granted women the right to vote

21st Amendment reversed the 18th Amendment

24th Amendment Outlawed Poll Taxes

26th Amendment granted people the right to vote at the age of 18

Court Cases:

Dred Scott v. Sanford established that slaves were not people, but property

Plessy v. Ferguson established that segregation was legal as long as things were separate but equal

Brown v. Topeka BOE reversed Plessy v. Ferguson, and outlawed segregation, specifically in schools

Swann v. Charlotte Mecklenburg BOE dealt with bussing kids into schools to integrate them

Regions of University of California v. Bakke dealt established the legal use of affirmative action

Roe v. Wade allowed women the right to choose to have an abortion based off of the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment

Miranda v. Arizona established that all persons under arrest must be read their rights so as to not violate their 5th Amendment rights of freedom from self-incrimination






Treaty/ Important Info

Civil War

Union (Lincoln) vs. Confederates (Jefferson Davis)

1861- 1865

Fort Sumter (Naval Battle)

Bull Run (Land Battle)

Battle of Vicksburg and Battle of Gettysburg

Appomattox Court House

Antietam bloodiest 1 day battle

Bloodiest War in US History

Spanish American War

US vs. Spain


Battle of San Juan Hill (Teddy Roosevelt and the Rough Riders)

Yellow Journalism

Treaty of Paris

Explosion of the USS Maine

Platt Amendment (Gives US land on Cuba), US gains Guam, Philippines, Puerto Rico

World War I

1914- 1918

Allies (Great Britain, France, Russia, US later on) vs. Central powers(Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire)

US gets involved because of:

Sinking of Lusitania (1915), Zimmerman Note (1917), and unrestricted submarine warfare

1917 Russia drops out of the war because a communist revolution breaks out in their country

Major Battles: Battle of Somme, Battle of Verdun

Armistice Day November 11th

Treaty of Versailles

Wilson introduces the 14 Points which included the League of nations (US never ratifies treaty with the hope of remaining neutral)

World War II

1939- 1945

Allied Powers (Great Britain, France, eventually United States and USSR) vs. Central Powers (Germany, Italy, Japan)

-German takeover of the Sudetenland and Poland

- Britain and France pushed back

US gets involved with the Lend Lease Act and attack on Pearl Harbor (Dec. 7th, 1941)

D-Day (US forces land on the beaches of Normandy France)

Battle of the Bulge (ends Germany offense in Europe)

Battle of Midway (ended Japan offense in the Pacific)

Dropping of two atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

-Nuremburg Trials charge Germans for war crimes

- Berlin is occupied by the Allies and USSR following the war

- Holocaust survivors have nowhere to go, Japanese bomb victims battle cancer problems for generations

Cold War



Arms race and trying to stop the spread of Communism

Berlin Blockade, USSR takes over East Germany and makes it Communist

Korean War (containment)

Vietnam War (Containment)

Bay of Pigs Invasion (Kennedy tries to take down Castro)

Cuban missile Crisis

Fall of the Berlin Wall under Reagan administration

-USSR falls apart, no longer soviet threat of communism

- New war on terrorism

First Iraq War

Operation Desert Storm

US vs. Iraq

Iraq invades Kuwait

US blows the crap out of Iraq and they leave Kuwait

Other Military Events:

Iran Hostage Crisis: US citizens taken hostage for over a year under Carter administration

Iran Contra affair: US sells guns for release of hostages, and uses the money to fund rebels in Nicaragua

Invasion of Grenada (1983)

War in Kosovo (1998-1999) caused by ethnic cleansing

Attack on Oklahoma City Building (1995, domestic terrorist)

Attack on the USS Cole (2000)

World Trade Center Bombing (9/11/2001)


Pacific Railway Act was passed in 1862 series of acts of Congress that promoted the construction of a "transcontinental railroad"

Transcontinental railway completed in 1869 at Promontory Point, Utah

The Interstate Commerce Act 1877 was passed as a result of public concern with the growing power and wealth of corporations, particularly railroads, during the late nineteenth century. Railroads had become the principal form of transportation for people and goods, and the prices they charged and the practices they adopted greatly influenced individuals and businesses. In some cases, the railroads abused their power as a result of too little competition, as when they charged scandalously high fares in places where they exerted monopoly control. Railroads also grouped together to form trusts that fixed rates at artificially high levels

Panama Canal opens in 1914, links Atlantic and Pacific Oceans

Interstate Highway Act is passed under Eisenhower; contributes to suburbanization

Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955: protesting segregated busing in AL.

Famous People:

John D. Rockefeller- Standard Oil tycoon

JP Morgan- Banker, owned first million dollar corporation

Henry Flagler- part owner of Standard Oil, built railroad all the way through Florida

Andrew Carnegie- US Steel

Cornelius Vanderbilt- Railroads

Harriet Tubman: abolitionist who helped conduct the Underground Railroad

John Wilkes Booth: Assassinated Lincoln (southern sympathizer)

Susan B. Anthony: women’s suffragist

Elizabeth Cady Stanton: women’s rights activist

Jane Addams: started Hull house for poor women and children in Chicago

Clara Barton: started the American Red Cross

Amelia Earhart: first women to fly solo across the Atlantic

Mary McLeod Bethune: advisor to FDR, helped the black youth

Rosa Parks: Figurehead for the Montgomery Bus Boycott

Lee Harvey Oswald: assassinated Kennedy (communist sympathizer)


Notable Foreign Policy

Notable Domestic Policy

Scandal/ Major Events


Sectionalism, Keeping the Union together


Andrew Johnson


First president impeached for violating the Tenure of Office act

Ulysses S. Grant


Battle of Little Big Horn (Indian Wars)

Rutherford B. Hayes

James A. Garfield


Chest A. Arthur

Grover Cleveland

Benjamin Harrison

Grover Cleveland

William McKinley

Open Door Policy With

Spanish American War

Theodore Roosevelt

Big Stick Policy

Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine


Square Deal (benefits for soldiers)


Started the National parks System

William Howard Taft

Dollar Diplomacy


Woodrow Wilson

Moral Diplomacy

14 Points including the League of Nations

World War I

Warren G. Harding

Fordney- McCumber Tariff Act

Established immigration quota system

Hung out with the scandalous “Ohio Gang”

Teapot Dome Scandal

Calvin Coolidge

Tax Cuts, Limited government spending

19th Amendment Passed

Herbert Hoover


Start of the Great Depression

Franklin Roosevelt

Neutrality during WWII until attack on Pearl Harbor, Lend- Lease Act with Britain, United Nations, NATO

New Deal, Relief Recovery Reform,

Got US out of Great Depression, elected to 4 terms

Harry S. Truman

Ended WII by dropping 2 atomic bombs, Truman Doctrine (aid any country resisting Communism)

Fair Deal (included the GI Bill)

President during end of WWII and start of Cold War

Dwight D. Eisenhower

Interstate Highway System, Discredited Joseph McCarthy

Ended Korean War

John F. Kennedy

Bay of Pigs Invasion, Cuban Missile Crisis

Began Peace Corps, and vowed US would have a person walk on the moon

Assassinated in November 1963 in Dallas, TX

Lyndon B. Johnson

Expanded the War in Vietnam

Great Society (war on poverty… Medicare, Head Start, etc.)

Seen as murderer of 1000s of American boys due to the war

Richard Nixon

Vietnamization, eased communist tensions with China by visiting there

Watergate Scandal

Gerald Ford

Watched Vietnam fall to communism

Pardoned Nixon

Energy crisis

Jimmy Carter

Iran Hostage Crisis, Major Energy Crisis

Ronald Reagan

Containment, Called for USSR to tear down Berlin Wall,

War on Drugs

Iran Contra Affair

George H.W. Bush

Operation Desert Storm

Vowed to keep taxes low

Raised Taxes

Bill Clinton

Took no military action after attacks on World Trade Center, USS Cole. Kosovo War

Balanced the budget

Monica Lewinsky Affair, White Water Real-estate Scandal,

George W. Bush

War on terror against the Axis of Evil, Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan to create peace in the Middle East

No Child Left Behind

9/11, Hurricane Katrina

Barack Obama

Killed Osama Bin Laden, Continued War on Terror

Publicized Healthcare, War on Childhood Obesity

Ebola Outbreak

Booker T. Washington: Believed in vocational training, Established Tuskegee Institute, Believed in gradual equality for Blacks

WEB DuBois: Wanted immediate equality, wrong to expect blacks to “earn” equality,

Martin Luther King: Practiced the teaching of Gandhi, Non-violent civil disobedience

Malcolm X: believed in violence as necessary, started Nation of Islam

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