Ambiguity semantic syntactic



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AMBIGUITY

SEMANTIC SYNTACTIC ____
One word or phrase has The ambiguity results from

more than one possible. the location of phrases or meaning, affecting the words in the passage.

entire sentence.
He flung the bat into the air. No smoking rooms available


  1. The wizard made a pig of himself.



  1. George made a pig of himself at the buffet table.



  1. He went to the store, but was held up in the process.



  1. She looks more like her mother than her father.



  1. The team was upset.



  1. If properly frosted, a person shouldn’t notice lumps in a cake.



  1. He passed out and was later found by a group of stray sheep



  1. All snakes are not poisonous.



  1. People who go shopping often go broke.

GROUPING AMBIGUITY

There are two ways of referring to a collection of people,




  • as a group (The Lakers are the best team in the West)

  • as a collection of individuals, each of whom possess a certain trait (Doctors make more money than secretaries.).



  1. Eighteen people have slept in the new hotel’s most expensive suite.



  1. Residents of the United States have more pets than residents of Canada.



  1. Our tires can stand up to millions of miles.



  1. Flight attendants from the United States travel more miles than flight attendants from Canada.



  1. There is a job for everyone.


  1. Heart surgeons make more money than neurologists.

FALLACY OF COMPOSITION

A passage contains the fallacy of composition if the speaker makes the mistake of attributing a feature to a whole group because it can be attributed to an individual in the group.


Having cell phones in the class isn’t very distracting. How often does a telephone ring?

Having kids doesn’t cost too much money. How much food can a kid eat?



FALLACY OF DIVISION

A passage contains a fallacy of division if you attribute a feature of the whole to a part.


Their baseball team is terrible.

Therefore, Joe Smith, a team member, is terrible too.


That family is law-abiding. Therefore, their oldest son cannot be guilty of the crime of which he is accused.




IDENTIFYING TYPE OF FALLACY
They are a terrible band. Therefore, Jack, their drummer, must be a terrible drummer.


Caroline really can play baseball. Her team must be a great team.


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