All the President’s Men Study guide- Chapter 2 and 3- Grace Jordan, Kelly Hurford and Jodi Lamborn
Chapter # 2
In the beginning of this chapter Bernstein wanted to find information on Charles W. Colson. He called a former worker of the Nixon administration and David Broder and talked about Colson and Chotiner. Excited by what he talked about with the, Bernstein told his editor Sussman , but he was put off the case because of lack of political reporters. Quickly, he was but back on the Watergate scandal by another editor by the name of Rosenfeld after writing a memo he called “Chotiner Theory”. The next day, President Nixon said the white house had no involvement in the particular incident, leaving Bernstein and Woodward to wonder if there is more to the story. It was also uncovered Robert Bennett organized 100 dummy campaign committees that funneled money to re-election campaign. Mitchell ordered an in-house investigation regarding to the burglary and resigned as manager of Nixon’s campaign a few days later. Bernstein called a women who worked for Colson’s assistant and said Colson and Hunt were both suspicious around the office. She commented on the trips Colson takes trip to California and Florida. Later, she said Hunt had been investigating Kennedy and the car accident at Chappaquiddick. Beirstein hung up with her and called the white house library to look for a book on Kennedy that Howard was reading. The librarian, Jane F Schleicher, said the name of book Mr. Hunt checked out but quickly became unhelpful and stubborn. Bernstein also came in contact with an official who said Hunt did an investigation on Kennedy's private life and Colson was familiar with the research. Bernstein and Woodward decided to go to the Library of Congress to look through slips of White House transactions. The two reporters thought they had a lot of information and wrote a story about Hunt investigating Kennedy. They took it to Benjamin Bradlee, an editor, who was not impressed. Howard Hunt went missing after talking to Woodward, but resurfaced. Bernstein talked to a friend of Hunt's lawyer, William Brittman. He said Brittman got $25,000 in an envelope to be Hunt’s lawyer. Shortly after the Watergate story went dry and both reporters took a break from the case. A little while later news released a story saying Gordon Liddy was fired by Mitchell for not answering the FBI’s questions about the Watergate. The New York Times printed a story about 15 phone calls from Barker’s phone (one of the burglars) to the CRP. It was also released that half or these calls were to a phone shared with Liddy. Bernstein looked into the story and was told that Barkers phone records had been subpoenaed by a local attorney named Richard Gerstein. He contacted the attorney and said Martin Dardis would cooperate with him about the information they had possessed. Bernstein flew to Miami to meet with him Dardis about the $89,000 that had gone through Barker’s hand and a Miami bank account. On the plane to Miami, Bernstein read story a written by Rugsber that $89,000 was traced to four cashier checks. After waiting all afternoon to meet with Dardis, Bernstein had an unproductive meeting with Gerstein. Soon after he realized Dardis was in his room the whole day and started yelling that he needed to meet with him now. The yelling worked and Dardis met with him. Dardis gave the reporter a sheet of telephone toll slips and read Barker’s bank statements. He discovered a fifth check that The New York Times did not know about for $25,000 with Kenneth Dahlberg’s name on it. Bernstein left the office and looked for information on Dahlberg. He took a stop at the Bank of Raton to look for a man named Thomas, who has signed the the fifth check. He was unable to find anyone that remembered the transaction. Bernstein then talked to bank president James Collin, who said Dahlberg was the head of the Midwestern campaign for President Nixon. Meanwhile, Woodward got ahold of Dahlberg and talked to him about the $25,000 check with his name on it. The impatient man said he does not know what happened to it since he turns all his money over to re-election committee. He also said the money was collected from earning he got as midwestern finance chairman for the Nixon campaign and did not know why it ended up in Barker’s bank account. Shockingly, Dahlberg said he turned it over to Hugh Sloan or Maurice Stans. Bernstein quickly got the article done to Sussman just by the deadline.
Bob Woodward: A reporter who works alongside Bernstein on the Watergate Scandal. In this chapter he goes to the Library of Congress to look for slips. He also co-wrote an article about Hunt investigating Kennedy. Her also found a story on Capitol Hill that a few Miami men bought photo equipment and got some processed film in a Cuban camera shop in Miami. He also found Dahlberg’s number and discussed the $25,000 check deposit one of the burglars had in their bank account. Woodward was told that Dahlberg turned over the check at a meeting in Washington to Hugh W. Sloan Jr. or Maurice stans. This was important information and links them to the “money trail”.
Carl Bernstein: He is also a reporter who worked with Woodward on the Watergate Scandal. He found information on Colson and Chotiner and wrote “Choitner Theory”.He did many other great things like learning that Hunt investigated Kennedy and checked out books on it. He then wrote a story about his findings. He traveled to Miami and is credited for finding the 5th check with Dahlberg’s name on it.
Kenneth H. Dahlberg: He is CRP’s MidWest Finance Chairmen. The man gave Woodward information on a check for $25,000 that a burglar had in his bank. Dahlberg told him the money was his from his job and at a meeting in Washington for the campaign committee he either turned it over to the CRP’s finance chairman or treasures. This completes the story the reporters were working on and allowed Woodward to write a story.
E. Howard Hunt Jr.: Hunt is in the President's Investigation unit and investigated Kennedy and the accident at Chappaquiddick. He took trips of Florida and California often, and was described as a nice but paranoid man. He had books on Chappaquiddick and tried to figure out how information on Kennedy was leaked. His work gave the reporter’s something to write about and made them that much closer to solving the scandal.
Dardis: He was an employee for Gerstein, a state attorney, that communicated with Bernstein on the information the firm had accumulated. He flew Berstein to Miami and was so busy he left the reporter waiting all day. Finally, Dardis read transactions from Barker’s bank account. He also showed Bernstein the 5th check for $25,000 that the other newspapers did not know about. This information lead to Dahleberg and gave Woodward and Berstein more information on the money trail.
Richard E. Gerstein: Gerstein was the state attorney for Dade county that had information on the Watergate Scandal. He set Berstein up with Dardis, allowing the reporter to get all the information Gerstein had available. Gerstein also helped Bernstein get a meeting with Dardis, who is a very busy man. Without Gerstein the reporters would not have been able to get their information on the extra check.
Chapter # 3
The beginning of the chapter began six weeks after attorney general John N. Mitchell released his initial statement about the Committee for Re-electing the President (CRP) and it’s dedication towards the traditional American electoral process. It was then that the committee’s attempts to affirm their non-involvement with the Watergate scandal was “disintegrating”. Woodward was making calls to find out more about these claims. Clark MacGregor said he knew nothing about said events. He also said that Mitchell and Stans would have more knowledge on the topic. Prior to this, vice president candidate George McGovern had previously announced that Senator Thomas F. Eagleton was dropping out of the race for presidency, and it seemed as though President Nixon’s re-election was certain. The next day, the CPR’s finance chairman Kenneth H. Dahlberg was positive he had personally delivered a check for $25,000 to Maurice Stans on April 11 while he was speaking on the phone once again to Woodward. Stans’ secretary later told Woodward that Stans did not wish to comment at said time. The White House Press Secretary Ron Ziegler stated that the President was “confident” in Stans and that Stans’ further comment would not be “proper” because the issue was still undergoing investigation. It was told to Woodward via telephone by Philip S. Hughes, the director of the new Federal Elections Division of the General Accounting Office, that an audit would conducted to “find out what’s up” with the wavering accounts of the check. Later, Woodward tried to contact Hugh Sloan, the CRP treasurer, but he was informed that Sloan no longer worked for the CRP. He allegedly resigned from his position. When Woodward called the GAO on a daily basis, he came to discover that the audit was coming to hundreds of thousands of “unaccounted cash”. A slush fund. The fund of $100,000 consisted of money from Barker’s bank account and Dahlberg’s check. Bernstein discovered that the fund was under the name of Gordon Liddy, and that it was planned for Liddy to take the fall for the break in. On August 16, MacGregor made the first attempt to put the blame on Liddy. When Woodward called MacGregor later that day, he was frustrated at him for questioning his knowledge on the situation. MacGregor claimed he had never met Gordon Liddy and had no idea what was going on, or why he could have possibly wanted the money. Then on August 22, the Washington Post printed the story on the GAO audit, and investigators has claimed that the CRP has “mishandled” over $500,000, $100,000 of which was maintained in an illegal security fund. Sloan’s successor Paul E. Barrick rebuttled saying that allegations were completely false. A former employee of the White House had previously come out saying that no such security fund had ever existed, and after the article was released, he took back his statement saying he had just recently learned of the trust fund. “I’m afraid some people here aren’t telling me the truth.” Later that day, Richard Nixon was reelected as President of the United States. Then judge Charles R. Richey, who was hearing the trial on the burglary, announced that the trial would be withheld from the public until after the case was closed. He said he acted under the constitution for the rights of those being investigated. At a page break, the story of how Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein became friends was presented. They started as competitors, afraid that the other may steal the spotlight on the Watergate coverage. Gradually, they molded into journalistic partners, now known as Woodstein. And eventually, they became friends. Their depiction of their editor Barry Sussman was presented as well. Then the chapter morphed into more of Bernstein’s point of view. He had become obsessed with the $89,000 that had been rooted through Mexico and passed through Bernard Barker’s bank account. He couldn’t understand why the situation involved Mexico when Maurice Stans said the fund originated in Texas. Emmett Moore, the committee treasurer, said he knew not why the money was transferred across the border. Bernstein began utilizing his high school Spanish in order to find out more detail on the matter. Then on August 24, Bernstein got information from Martin Dardis, but it could not be discussed over the phone. So Bernstein took the first flight on the 25th to Miami. The Mexican checks were “laundered”, so to speak. The money chain is impossible to source. A lawyer of Robert Allen, Richard Haynes, said Stans set up the whole thing. They set the funds up in multiple locations, and in no way did Stans want the chains to be traceable. It was on April 7 that Stans went on a final fundraising swing across the Southwest. He assured reluctant Democrats that their fundraising towards a Republican presidential campaign would be ensured. They were protected by a Mexican middleman whose bank records were not subject to U.S. investigators. Through this protection, the CRP would be able to receive donations from businesses and corporations. The act was forbidden. Checks, security notes, and stock certificates were smuggled across the border and converted to cash in Mexico City and then sent to Washington. It was conferred that Stans and Nixon had been at this for years. All of the President’s men were in on it. Then Bernstein and Woodward used the committee’s telephone roster of over 100 campaign officials to visit the people on the list at home to obtain more information. Most officials were nervous in the presence of Bernstein and Woodward and refused to answer any of their questions. They began to notice a trend. A couple of interviewees had mentioned “wholesale destruction” just after the Watergate scandal. No one was sure of the specifics. The two reporters spent hour upon hours investigating any ties that might link the White House and the CRP to the Watergate break-in. They were relentless, making calls to various politicians and people who may have been involved into the late hours of the night, and continuing to making nighttime visits to officials on the roster. No evidence they found could conclusively prove that any of the money from the slush fund went towards the burglary. FBI investigators assured Bernstein and Woodward that they were not giving them any new information with their frequent calls. The investigation was put at rest. The investigators said it was unlikely for it reopen. When Bernstein suggested that Dick Gerstein should come up to Washington to help the investigation move along, the FBI agent he was speaking with exclaimed that neither Gerstein nor Bernstein new all the facts. Only the FBI has been enlightened on every detail of the situation.
Bob Woodward: Bob Woodward, one of the two main characters in “All the President’s Men”, is a journalist investigating the first Water-gate break in and ensuing scandal for, The Washington Post. Woodward is known as one of the best investigative reporters of all time and his talent is shown throughout the first chapters of the book. In the beginning of chapter three, Woodward shows his great investigative talent by contacting several government officials which helps Woodward get deeper into the investigation.After contacting many people Woodward fines a lot of important information. For example,in the beginning of chapter three, woodward contacted Clark MacGregor, and got denial from Michell’s successor, which is MacGregor. Woodward then confirmed that Dhalberg had given a $25,000 check to Maurice Stan’s but there was no report of this from Stan’s to the Federal Elections Division of General Accounting Office. An investigation was then initiated by the GAO because of this conflict. At the end of this chapter, Woodward, along with Bernstein, knocked on doors of CRP personnel at night to interview them. They later found out the key people who would know about Watergate bugging operation were not interviewed by FBI. Woodward was very important in this chapter because he found out a lot of key information relating to the scandal.
Carl Bernstein: Carl Bernstein, one of the two main characters works alongside his partner, Bob Woodward. He is a journalist investigating the first Water-gate Break in and ensuing scandal for, The Washington Post. Bernstein did the majority of the most important news reporting on the Water- gate scandal, which led to numerous government investigations. Carl plays an important role in chapter three because he uses his knowledge and talent to find out the deep information in the scandal. In the middle of chapter three, after Maurice Stan’s told GAO the mexican money came from Texas, Bernstein tried to track down Texas Committee Chairman, Robert Allen. Bernstein then went to Miami again and found out from Martin Dardis that Allen’s lawyer described Nixon’s campaign money laundering techniques. At the end of this chapter Bernstein along with Bob Woodward, knocked on the doors of the CRP personnel and found out the key people weren’t investigated by the FBI.
Maurice Stans: Maurice Stans was the CRP finance chairman in All the President’s Men. Stan’s was given the $25,000 check by Dahlberg personally on April 11th. Stan’s secretary told Woodward that there would be no immediate comment because Stan’s was “agonized over the confusing circumstances”. This now made it hard for Woodward to tell what actually happened and thus reaffirm his own integrity. Philip Hughes then said that their were no reports regarding Stan’s reports showing anything like the Dahlberg check, so the GAO started investigating. After all the investigations, Stan’s managed to delay the report release date, causing Judge Richey to reverse a decision and made all testimony sealed. Stan’s told GAO the Mexican money came from Texas, causing Bernstein to further investigate and eventually find out from Stan’s accountant, that Hunt, Liddy and 5 burglars were accused of 7 different crimes.