All Alabama high school students must earn four credits in social studies for graduation



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GRADES 10-12

Overview

The educational program of all Alabama high school students includes a comprehensive curriculum of essential social studies content that prepares students to be knowledgeable, responsible citizens capable of applying social studies knowledge and skills in their daily lives. The emphases of the Grades 10-12 social studies program are civic competence and participation and economic, geographic, and historical awareness. Careful consideration has been taken to align the social studies content at the high school level with standards addressed by national social studies organizations.
All Alabama high school students must earn four credits in social studies for graduation. As part of these requirements, students must complete United States History to 1877 (one credit), United States History From 1877 to the Present (one credit), United States Government (one-half credit), and Economics (one-half credit). The content of these core courses requires students to examine the period from prediscovery to the present, looking at the issues explored in Grades 8 and 9 from the perspective of the United States. The United States History to 1877, United States History From 1877 to the Present, United States Government, and Economics courses described in this document provide fundamental content to be learned by all high school students that enables them to become responsible citizens and active participants in local, state, national, and global societies. In addition to the World History course required in Grade 9 and the four courses required for Grades 10-12, local school systems may offer elective social studies courses. These may include, but are not limited to, further study of current events, geography, sociology, and psychology. Elective courses such as these enrich students’ development of civic responsibility.
In addition to increasing factual knowledge, tenth- through twelfth-grade students are developmentally capable of abstract reasoning, critical thinking, and sophisticated problem solving. The courses required in Grades 10-12 foster the growth of productive citizens as students engage in opportunities for analyzing complex issues. The instructional environment also provides opportunities for active civic participation, social science research, and authentic learning through a variety of methods and tools such as the use of primary sources, written analysis of information, debate, presentation, simulation, technology, and experimentation. Although not all strands are indicated for all content standards, teachers are encouraged to incorporate the perspective of each strand into each standard where applicable.

TENTH GRADE

United States History to 1877

The study of the history of the United States in Grade 10 takes students on a journey across five centuries of social, economic, geographic, and political development in the United States. Students begin with the earliest discoveries on the North American continent and follow a chronological study of the major events, issues, movements, leaders, and groups of people of the United States through Reconstruction from a national and an Alabama perspective. The content standards build upon the foundation students gained in the study of the United States in Grades 5 and 6, as well as the study of world history in Grades 8 and 9, but require a more rigorous analysis. The content and level of rigor in the tenth-grade course are developmentally appropriate. With more fully developed skills in abstract thinking, students are now able to compare, analyze, and explain events and developments.


In order to provide a classroom environment that encourages all students to reach their potential, teachers employ various methods of instruction to facilitate students’ inquisitive pursuit of knowledge about the United States. These methods include the use of current technology such as interactive digital video software and Internet sources that allow students to explore historical topics and interpretations more extensively than in the past.

TENTH GRADE


United States History to 1877
Students will:


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1. Contrast effects of economic, geographic, social, and political conditions before and after European explorations of the fifteenth through seventeenth centuries on Europeans, American colonists, and indigenous Americans.

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  • Contrasting European motives for establishing colonies

Examples: religious persecution, poverty, oppression

  • Tracing the course of the Columbian Exchange

  • Explaining how the institution of slavery developed in the colonies

  • Describing conflicts among Europeans that occurred regarding the colonies

  • Explaining how mercantilism was a motive for colonization




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2. Compare various early English settlements and colonies on the basis of economics, geography, culture, government, and Native American relations.

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Examples: three colonial regions, colonies of settlement versus colonies of exploitation, religious beliefs




  • Identifying tensions that developed between the colonists and their local governments and between the colonists and Great Britain

  • Describing the influence of ideas of the Age of Enlightenment on the colonies

  • Explaining the role of the House of Burgesses and New England town meetings on colonial society

  • Describing the impact of the Great Awakening on colonial society




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3. Trace the chronology of events leading to the American Revolution, including the French and Indian War, the Stamp Act, the Boston Tea Party, the Intolerable Acts, the Battles of Lexington and Concord, the publication of Common Sense, and the Declaration of Independence.

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  • Explaining the role of key leaders and major events of the Revolutionary War

Examples: key leaders—George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry, Marquis de Lafayette;
major events—Battles of Bunker Hill, Trenton, Saratoga, and Yorktown


Examples: John Locke, Baron de Montesquieu, Jean-Jacques Rousseau

  • Comparing roles in and perspectives of the American Revolution from different regions and groups in society, including men, women, white settlers, free and enslaved African Americans, and Native Americans

  • Describing reasons for American victory in the American Revolution

  • Analyzing how provisions of the Treaty of Paris (1783) affected relations of the United States with European nations and Native Americans

  • Contrasting prewar colonial boundaries with those established by the Treaty of Paris (1783)




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4. Describe the political system of the United States based on the Constitution and the Bill of Rights.

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  • Describing inadequacies of the Articles of Confederation

  • Describing personalities, issues, ideologies, and compromises related to the Constitutional Convention and ratification of the Constitution

  • Identifying factors leading to the development and establishment of political parties, including Alexander Hamilton’s economic policies and the election of 1800




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5. Identify key cases that helped shape the United States Supreme Court, including Marbury versus Madison, McCullough versus Maryland, and Cherokee Nation versus Georgia.







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  • Identifying concepts of loose and strict constructionism




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6. Describe relations of the United States with Britain and France from 1781 to 1823, including the XYZ Affair, the War of 1812, and the Monroe Doctrine.







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7. Describe the development of a distinct culture within the United States between the American Revolution and the Civil War, including the impact of the Second Great Awakening and writings of James Fenimore Cooper, Henry David Thoreau, and Edgar Allan Poe.







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  • Tracing the development of temperance, women’s, and other reform movements in the United States between 1781 and 1861

Relating events in Alabama from 1781 to 1823 to those of the developing nation

Examples: statehood as part of the expanding nation, acquisition of land, settlement, Creek War

  • Tracing the development of transportation systems in the United States between 1781 and 1861




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8. Trace the development of efforts to abolish slavery prior to the Civil War.







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  • Describing the abolition of slavery in most Northern states in the late eighteenth century

  • Describing the rise of religious movements in opposition to slavery, including the objections of the Quakers

  • Describing the impact of the principle of “inalienable rights” as a motivating factor for movements to oppose slavery

  • Describing the founding of the first abolitionist societies by Benjamin Rush and Benjamin Franklin and the role played by later critics of slavery, including William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, Angelina and Sarah Grimké, Henry David Thoreau, and Charles Sumner

  • Explaining the importance of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 that banned slavery in new states north of the Ohio River

  • Describing the rise of the underground railroad and its leaders, including Harriet Tubman and the impact of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin




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9. Summarize major legislation and court decisions from 1800 to 1861 that led to increasing sectionalism, including the Missouri Compromise of 1820, the Compromise of 1850, the Fugitive Slave Act, the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and the Dred Scott decision.

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Describing Alabama’s role in the developing sectionalism of the United States from 1819 to 1861

Examples: participation in slavery, secession, Indian Wars, reliance on cotton

  • Analyzing the Westward Expansion from 1803 to 1861 to determine its effects on sectionalism, including the Louisiana Purchase, Texas Annexation, and the Mexican Cession

  • Describing the tariff debate and the nullification crisis

  • Describing the formation of the Republican party and its effect on the election of 1860

  • Identifying causes leading to the Westward Expansion

Examples: quest for gold, opportunity for upward mobility

  • Locating on a map areas affected by the Missouri Compromise, the Compromise of 1850, and the Kansas-Nebraska Act




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10. Describe how the course, character, and effects of the Civil War influenced the United States.




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  • Identifying key Northern and Southern personalities, including Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson, and William T. Sherman

  • Describing the impact of the division of the nation during the Civil War on resources, population, and transportation

  • Explaining reasons for border states remaining in the Union

  • Discussing nonmilitary events and life during the Civil War

  • Explaining causes of the military defeat of the Confederacy

Explaining Alabama’s involvement in the Civil War


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11. Contrast congressional and presidential reconstruction plans, including African-American political participation.

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  • Tracing economic changes in the post-Civil War period for whites and African Americans in the North and the South, including the effectiveness of the Freedmen’s Bureau

  • Describing the social restructuring of the South

  • Describing the Compromise of 1877

  • Identifying post-Civil War Constitutional amendments

  • Discussing causes for the impeachment of Andrew Johnson

ELEVENTH GRADE

United States History From 1877 to the Present


The study of the history of the United States in Grade 11 continues the journey begun in Grade 10 through the economic, geographic, social, and political development of the United States. Beginning with the post-Reconstruction United States and its shift into a more industrialized society, the course continues through the twentieth century to the present. Students are involved in a chronological study of major events, issues, movements, and leaders of the United States through the present from both a national and an Alabama perspective. Students are actively involved in and are challenged by the level of expectation inherent in the required content of this course. With more fully developed skills in abstract thinking, students compare, analyze, and explain events and developments rather than simply list or identify them.
In order to provide a classroom environment that encourages all students to reach their potential, teachers employ various instructional methods to facilitate students’ pursuit of knowledge about the United States. Instruction that includes individual and group research, debate, presentation, and the employment of current technology such as interactive digital video software and Internet sources provides students with extensive opportunities to explore and analyze historical topics and interpretations.

ELEVENTH GRADE

United States History From 1877 to the Present

Students will:


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PS

1. Explain the transition of the United States from an agrarian society to an industrial nation prior to World War I.

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Examples: urbanization, development of Birmingham, Sherman Antitrust Act, mechanized farming, Turner frontier thesis
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