|Alexander the Great
Global History and Geography I Name: ____________________
E. Napp Date: ____________________
In 338 B.C., Philip II, the king of Macedonia (an area north of Greece), brought all the Greek city-states under his control. His son, Alexander the Great, went on to conquer most of the Mediterranean world – including Persia and Egypt. He founded new cities, some of which he named after himself. Alexander even extended his conquests to the Indus River valley. Although his empire collapsed shortly after his early death, his conquests helped to spread Greek culture throughout the ancient world.
Alexander was only twenty when his father died. Two years later, Alexander marched eastward with 35,000 soldiers. Alexander’s soldiers quickly conquered Asia Minor. They then freed Egypt from Persian rule. Next, Alexander moved east again and conquered Babylon. He continued to move eastward and by 330 B.C., he had defeated all the Persian armies. For four more years, Alexander’s tired army moved eastward. They went as far as the Indus River. For the Greeks, this was the end of the known world. Alexander wanted to push on, but his men begged him to turn back. In 323 B.C., Alexander developed a fever in Babylon. Within a few days, the thirty-two year old leader was dead. For 13 years, Alexander ruled. During that time he had changed the world.
After his death, his followers created separate kingdoms in Egypt, Persia, and the other areas that Alexander had conquered. These kingdoms often fought each other. But one thing held them together – their Greek culture. Throughout the Middle East, people adopted Greek customs. Greek immigrants, traditions, and the use of the Greek language spread. As Greek culture spread eastward, it blended with other cultures. This blend of eastern and western cultures is called Hellenism. The word comes from the Greek word “Hellas”, which means “their own land” or “Greece.” An important new culture emerged. Known as Hellenistic Culture, it was a blend of Greek, Persian, Egyptian, and Indian influences.
Where was Macedon located? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Who was Philip II? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
How did the death of Philip II affect Alexander the Great? ________________________________________________________
List the lands Alexander the Great conquered:
What happened to Alexander’s empire after his death? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Provide a one word answer for Alexander’s greatest impact on World History:
A definition of Hellenism: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What is the origin of the word “Hellenism”?
So, when you see Hellenism, you need to think:
List the accomplishments of the Hellenistic Age:
So, although Alexander was not Greek, he kept Greek culture alive and although he died at an early age, he greatly influenced world history.
An Interesting Story about Alexander the Great:
The story begins with a man bringing a wild horse to Philip II. However, nobody could tame the horse, and Philip grew upset at the man for bringing such an unstable horse to him. Alexander, however, publicly defied his father and claimed that he could handle the horse. Alexander's reaction was viewed by his father as immature, in addition to being disrespectful to all the people that failed to tame the horse, Bucephalus. For that reason, Philip proposed, and Alexander agreed instantly, that if Alexander could ride the "wild" horse, Philip would buy it; on the other hand, if Alexander failed, he would have to pay the price of the horse, which was 13 talents, an enormous sum for a boy of Alexander's age.
Alexander apparently noticed that the horse had been shying away from its own shadow, and so he led it gently into the sun, so that its shadow was behind it, all the while stroking it gently and whispering into its ear. Eventually the horse let Alexander mount him, and the 12 year-old Alexander was able to show his equestrian skill to his father and all who were watching.
What does this story reveal about Alexander the Great? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Alexander entered India in 327, encountering some of the toughest fighting of his career in the crossing. He reached the Indus River in 326. None of the Greeks had ever encountered anything to prepare them for India. The terrain, the monsoons, the fierce tribes, all combined with the long years of campaigning to take some of the heart out of the Macedonians.
Alexander's geographers had assured him that just beyond India was Ocean, the great body of water that completely encircled the world. Most historians believed that Alexander had no idea of the true size of the subcontinent and that he truly believed he need make only one more push to bring the entire eastern world under his dominion.
Two factors combined to bring Alexander's march to a halt: he began to realize that India was much bigger than he had thought, and a war with an Indian king named Porus showed that India would not fall easily to the Greeks. Porus was powerful both as a man and a king. He stood seven feet tall. He fielded an army that was a match for the Greeks, but Porus' army had an additional advantage: war elephants.
Hellas, Hellenism, Euclid, Aristotle, Philip, Bucephalus, Greece