Alain Locke: Faith and Philosophy



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. See also Whitman, “Democratic Vistas,” 544, cited by Garrison, “Reflections on Whitman, Dewey, and Educational Reform.”

812 Whitman, “Democratic Vistas,” . See also Whitman, “Democratic Vistas,” 521, cited by Garrison, “Reflections on Whitman, Dewey, and Educational Reform.”

813 Molesworth, “Alain Locke and Walt Whitman.”

814 Louis Gregory, “A Convention for Amity,” The Bahá’í Magazine, Star of the West 15, 272.

815 Alain Locke, “Reason and Race,” Phylon 8:1 (1947): 17–27. Reprinted in Jeffrey C. Stewart, The Critical Temper of Alain Locke: A Selection of His Essays on Art and Culture (New York and London: Garland, 1983), 319–27 [327].

816 Mason, “Social Philosophy of Alain Locke,” 26.

817 Kallen, “Alain Locke and Cultural Pluralism,” 127.

818 Green, “Alain Locke’s Multicultural Philosophy of Value,” 87.

819 Alain Locke, World View on Race and Democracy, 14.

820 Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-105, Folder 33: [re: America’s position in world affairs in relation to race.] Speech over station KMYR, Denver. 6 August 1944, p. 6.

821 Alain Locke, “Democracy Faces a World Order,” 122.

822 Alain Locke, “The Unfinished Business of Democracy,” Survey Graphic: Magazine of Social Interpretation 31 (November 1942): 455–61 [456].

823 Alain Locke, “The Unfinished Business of Democracy,” 458.

824 Locke, “The Unfinished Business of Democracy,” 455.

825 Locke, “The Unfinished Business of Democracy,” 456.

826 Johnny Washington, Alain Locke and Philosophy: A Quest for Cultural Pluralism (New York: Greenwood Press, 1986), 63.

827 Washington, Alain Locke and Philosophy, 63.

828 Locke, “The Unfinished Business of Democracy,” 459.

829 This is often cited as The Problem of Classification in Theory of Value. In the copy I obtained from Emory University through interlibrary loan, evidently Locke himself had penned in “the” before the word, “Value.” The full title is: The Problem of Classification in Theory of Value: or an Outline of a Genetic System of Values, Alain Le Roy [sic] Locke, September 1, 1917.

830 Locke to to Shoghi Effendi, 1 August 1934, Bahá’í World Centre Archives. Courtesy of the Universal House of Justice.

831 Locke, “The Unfinished Business of Democracy,” 459.

832 Locke, “The Unfinished Business of Democracy,” 459.

833 Locke, “Democracy Faces a World Order,” 128.

834 ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, newly authorized translation attached to letter dated 4 Frebruary 1985 on behalf of the Universal House of Justice to National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States. Online text: .

835 Qtd. in the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States, “The Vision of Race Unity: America’s Most Challenging Issue.”

836 Shoghi Effendi, The Advent of Divine Justice (Wilmette: Bahá’í Publishing Trust, 1936), 85–86.

837 “The Destiny of America and the Promise of World Peace: A Statement from the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States,” online at: .

838 Alain Locke, World View on Race and Democracy, 12.

839 Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-112, Folder 18 (“Creative Democracy”), 1.

840 See Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-123, Folder 8 (“On Becoming World Citizens.” Commencement Address at University of Wisconsin High School, 28 May 1946. [typescript]).

841 Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-176, Folder 13 (Bahá’í Faith).

842 Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-112, Folder 18 (“Creative Democracy”), 1.

843 Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-112, Folder 18 (“Creative Democracy”), 1.

844 Qtd. in Andrew Carroll, ed., Letters of a Nation: A Collection of Extraordinary American Letters (New York: Broadway Books, 1999), 83.

845 Andrew Carroll, Letters of a Nation, 86.

846 Carroll, Letters of a Nation, 87–88.

847 Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-112, Folder 18 (“Creative Democracy”), 1–2.

848 Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-112, Folder 18 (“Creative Democracy”), 3.

849 Alain Locke, The Negro in America (Chicago: American Library Association, 1933), 50.

850 Harlan Ober, “The Bahá’í Congress at Green Acre,” Star of the West 16.1 (April 1925): 525. Courtesy of Jeff Palermo, e-mail message, 1 May 2002.

851 Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-124, Folder 15 (“The Preservation of the Democratic Ideal”), 5.

852 Alain Locke, “Democracy Faces a World Order,” 126.

853 Untitled essay, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-143, Folder 3 (Writings by Locke—Notes. Christianity, spirituality, religion), 9–10.

854 Columbus Salley, The Black 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential African–Americans, Past and Present. Revised and updated (Secaucus, NJ: Citadel Press, 1999 [1993]), 137.

855 W. E. B. Du Bois, The Souls of Black Folks. Edited by Henry Louis Gates, Jr. and Terri Hume Oliver (New York and London: Norton, 1999), 17. Originally published as The Souls of Black Folks: Essays and Sketches (Chicago: A. C. McClurg and Co., 1903).

856 Alain Locke, “Dawn Patrol: A Review of the Literature of the Negro for 1948,” Phylon 10:1–2 (1949): 5. Reprinted in Jeffrey C. Stewart, The Critical Temper of Alain Locke: A Selection of His Essays on Art and Culture (New York and London: Garland, 1983), 337.

857 Locke’s probable homosexual orientation may be relevant to this.

858 Locke to Cullen, n.d., Box 3, Fol. Locke, Countee Cullen Papers, Amistad Research Center, Tulane University.

859 “Baha’i Faith, Only Church in World That Does Not Discriminate.” Ebony 7 (12 Oct. 1952): 39–46 [39]. Locke kept a copy of this article. Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-147, Folder 12 (Articles, advertisements that mention Locke). [CHECK: This might be Folder 11, NOT Folder 12!

860 Bahadur to Locke, 27 February 1924, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-12, Folder 2 (Bahadur, Azizullah).

861 Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-167, Folder 4: 1950-1953 (Programs on which Locke’s Name Appears).

862 Untitled essay, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-143, Folder 3 (Writings by Locke—Notes. Christianity, spirituality, religion), 9.

863 Green, Deep Democracy, 97.

864 Washington, Alain Locke and Philosophy, xxv.

865 Mason, “Locke’s Social Philosophy,” 26.

866 Mason, “Locke’s Social Philosophy,” 28.

867 Kenneth W. Stikkers, “Instrumental Relativism and Cultivated Pluralism: Alain Locke and Philosophy’s Quest for a Common World,” The Critical Pragmatism of Alain Locke: A Reader in Value Theory, Aesthetics, Community, Culture, Race, and Education, ed. Leonard Harris (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999), 214–15.

868 Locke to Parsons, 28 June 1922, Agnes Parsons Papers, NBA.

869 Posnock, Color and Culture, 202.

870 Green, Deep Democracy, 124.

871 Alain Locke, “Cultural Relativism and Ideological Peace,” in Approaches to World Peace, ed. Lyman Bryson, Louis Finfelstein, and R. M. MacIver (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1944), 609–18. Reprinted in Harris, Philosophy of Alain Locke, 67–78.

872 Moses, “Two Lockes, Two Keys,” 166.

873 Stikkers, “Instrumental Relativism and Cultivated Pluralism,” 214.

874 See Josiah Royce. The Philosophy of Loyalty. Republished with an introduction by John J. McDermott (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1995 [1908]).

875 Leonard Harris, Philosophy of Alain Locke, 4. See Josiah Royce, Race Questions, Provincialism, and Other American Problems (1908; reprint, Freeport: Books of Libraries Press 1967).

876 Green, “Alain Locke’s Multicultural Philosophy of Value,” 88. See also Royce, Race Questions.

877 Greg Moses, “Two Lockes, Two Keys: Tolerance and Reciprocity in a Culture of Democracy,” in The Critical Pragmatism of Alain Locke, ed. Leonard Harris (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999), 168.

878 Moses, “Two Lockes, Two Keys,” 168.

879 Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-112, Folder 6 (“Concept of Democracy.” Outline of lecture for Philosophy of Democracy course. 10 Dec. 1947), 2.

880 Moses, “Two Lockes, Two Keys,” 173.

881 Green, “Cosmopolitan Unity Amidst Valued Diversity,” 132.

882 Green, Deep Democracy, 97.

883 Alain Locke, “Minorities and the Social Mind,” Progressive Education 12 (March 1935): 142.

884 Segun Gbadegesin, “Values, Imperatives, and the Imperative of Democratic Values,” in Leonard Harris (ed.) The Critical Pragmatism of Alain Locke: A Reader on Value Theory, Aesthetics, Community, Culture, Race, and Education (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999), 288.

885 Gbadegesin, “Values, Imperatives, and the Imperative of Democratic Values,” 288.

886 Green, Deep Democracy, 96.

887 Rudolph V. Vanterpool, “Open–Textured Aesthetic Boundaries: Matters of Art, Race, and Culture,” in Leonard Harris (ed.) The Critical Pragmatism of Alain Locke: A Reader in Value Theory, Aesthetics, Community, Culture, Race, and Education (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999), 141.

888 Alain Locke, “Lessons in World Crisis,” 746.

889 Locke to The Washington Star, 7 Nov. 1943, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-91, Folder 54 (The Washington Star).

890 Hutchison, The Harlem Renaissance in Black and White, 86.

891 Johnny Washington, A Journey into the Philosophy of Alain Locke (Westport, CT and London: Greenwood Press, 1994), 103.

892 It should be noted that Shoghi Effendi, in The World Order of Bahá’u’lláh, 2nd rev. edn. (Wilmette: Bahá’í Publishing Trust, 1974 [1938]), used this term to refer to differences of ethnic origins, climate, history, language, tradition, thought and habit (41)—generally, in the sense of a lack of conformity except in essentials—as the bedrock of the Bahá’í administrative order. It is therefore misleading to represent “unity in diversity” as applying only to race. (I am indebted to Gayle Morrison for this important observation.)

893 “You had better make up your mind to become a Methodist—They are certainly loyal to you—I heard your praises sung by several of them.” Mary Locke to Alain Locke, 14 May 1916, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-65, Folder 21 (page 5).

894 Locke to Parsons, 28 June 1922, Agnes Parsons Papers, NBA.

895 Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-1, Folder 2 (Autobiographical statements).

896 Untitled essay, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-143, Folder 3 (Writings by Locke—Notes. Christianity, spirituality, religion).

897 Cornel West, “Afterword.” In Cornel West: A Critical Reader, 349.

898 Charles W. Mills, “Prophetic Pragmatism as a Political Philosophy.” In Cornel West: A Critical Reader. Edited by George Yancy (Malden, MA and Oxford: Blackwell, 2001), 196, quoting Lewis R. Gordon, “Black Intellectuals and Academic Activism: Cornel West’s ‘Dilemmas of the Black Intellectual’.” In Gordon, Her Majesty’s Other Children: Sketches of Racism from a Neocolonial Age (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1997), 195.

899 Qtd. in Mills, “Prophetic Pragmatism,” 197.

900 John J. Stuhr, ed. Pragmatism and Classical American Philosophy: Essential Readings and Interpretive Essays, 2nd edn. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002).

901 Private memorandum, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-1, Folder 2 (“Autobiographical statements”). Photocopy of typescript in present writer’s possession. Michael R. Winston, “Locke, Alain LeRoy,” in Rayford W. Logan and Michael R. Winston, eds. Dictionary of American Negro Biography (New York and London: W. W. Norton, 1982), 402.

902 From his 1908 Berkeley lecture, “Philosophical Conceptions and Practical Results,” qtd. in Menand, The Metaphysical Club, 354.

903 Leonard Harris, “Alain Locke and Community,” Journal of Ethics 1 (1997): 242.

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