Alain Locke: Faith and Philosophy



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242 Morrison, To Move the World, 149.

243 National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States, The Vision of Race Unity: America’s Most Challenging Issue (Wilmette: Bahá’í Publishing Trust, 1991).

244 Alain Locke, Race Contacts and Interracial Relations, edited by Jeffery C. Stewart (Washington: Howard University Press, 1992).

245 Gayle Morrison, To Move the World: Louis G. Gregory and the Advancement of Racial Unity in America (Wilmette: Bahá’í Publishing Trust, 1982).

246 Dahl to Buck, 16 February 2001.

247 Morrison, To Move the World, 147.

248 Morrison, To Move the World, 155.

249 “National Committee on Race Amity Appointed,” Baha’i News Letter, No. 16 (March 1927): 5. Morrison, To Move the World, 166 and 344, n. 4. Morrison to author, e-mail dated 19 June 2002.

250 “Committees of the National Spiritual Assembly 1927–1928,” Baha’i News Letter, No. 19 (August 1927): 4; Bahá’í Archives of Washington, D.C. Courtesy of Ms. Anita Chapman.

251 Gregory to Parsons, 10 July 1927, Agnes Parsons Papers, NBA. Courtesy of Roger M. Dahl, Archivist, National Bahá’í Archives, Bahá’í National Center, enclosure sent 22 Aug. 2001.

252 Morrison, To Move the World, 182.

253 Morrison to author, e-mail dated 19 June 2002.

254 Gregory to Parsons, 29 July 1928, Agnes Parsons Papers, NBA. Courtesy of Roger M. Dahl, Archivist, National Bahá’í Archives, Bahá’í National Center, enclosure sent 22 Aug. 2001.

255 “Committees of the National Spiritual Assembly 1929–1930,” Baha’i News Letter, No. 32 (May 1929): 4. See also “Interracial Amity Committee, “Baha’i News Letter No. 40 (April 1930): 10–12, and Morrison, To Move the World, 186.

256 “Committees of the National Spiritual Assembly 1929–1930,” Baha’i News Letter, No. 32 (May 1929): 4. Members: Louis Gregory (Chairman), Shelley Parker (Secretary), Agnes Parsons, Louise Boyle, Mariam Haney, Dr. Zia Bagdadi, Dr. Alain Locke, Loulie Mathews, Miss Alice Higginbotham.

257 Morrison to author, e-mail dated 19 June 2002. I am indebted to Dr. Morrison for the considerable research time she spent in verifying the memberships of these seven committees on which Locke served.

258 “National Bahá’í Committees: 1931–1932,” Baha’i News Letter, No. 53 (July 1931): 2; Louis Gregory, “The Annual Convention,” Bahá’í News, no. 52 (May 1931): 3; Locke to Gregory, 6 June 1931, Louis Gregory Papers, NBA. Courtesy of Roger M. Dahl, Archivist, National Bahá’í Archives, Bahá’í National Center, enclosure with letter dated 16 February 2001; Morrison, To Move the World, 349, n. 29.

259 Morrison, To Move the World, 195. Committee members included Loulie Mathews, Mabelle L. Davis, Dr. Zia Bagdadi, Shelley N. Parker, Sara E. Witt, Coralie F. Cook, Louis Gregory.

260 Morrison, To Move the World, 213–14, 244.

261 ‘Abdu’l–Bahá, Selections from the Writings of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. Compiled by the Research Department of the Universal House of Justice. Translated by the Marzieh Gail et al (Haifa: Bahá’í World Centre, 1978), 30–32.

262 Gregory, “Inter–racial Amity,” 281. See Morrison, To Move the World, 134–43.

263 Louise Boyle to Horace Holley, 1 February 1927, Interracial Committee Correspondence, Office of the Secretary, National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada Records. Qtd. by Morrison, To Move the World, 168.

264 Morrison, To Move the World, 135.

265 Gayle Morrison, “To Move the World: Promoting Racial Amity, 1921–1927,” World Order 14.2 (Winter 1980): 15.

266 Root to Locke, undated note on back of photo of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-208, Folder 16 (“Abdu’l-Baha Abbas”).

267 Haney to Locke, undated, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-33, Folder 49 (Haney, Mariam).

268 Haney to Locke, 14 May 1921, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-33, Folder 49 (Haney, Mariam).

269 Morrison, To Move the World, 139.

270 Morrison, “To Move the World: Promoting Racial Amity, 1921–1927,” 16, citing Bahai Temple Unity, Proceedings of the Annual Meeting, 1922, 310, Bahai Temple Unity records.

271 Louis Gregory, “Convention for Amity Between the Colored and White Races.” In Star of the West 12.6 (24 June 1921): 117–18. Reprinted as vol. 7 (Oxford: George Ronald, 1978). See also idem, “Inter–Racial Amity,” in The Bahá’í World: A Biennial International Record, Volume Two, 1926–1928, comp. National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada (New York: Bahá’í Publishing Committee, 1929; reprint, Wilmette: Bahá’í Publishing Trust, 1980) 281; and idem, “Racial Amity in America.” In The Bahá’í World: A Biennial International Record, Volume VII, 1936–1938 (National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada, 1939; reprint, Wilmette: Bahá’í Publishing Trust, 1980) 655; Mariam Haney (secretary, The Teaching Committee of Nineteen), “A Compilation of the Story of the Convention for Amity,” 31 May 1921, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-106, Folder 7 (re: Amity Convention).

272 Facsimile on p. 168 of National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada, The Bahá’í Centenary, 1844–1944: A Record of America’s response to Bahá’u’lláh’s Call to the Realization of the Oneness of Mankind to Commemorate the One Hundreth Anniversary of the Birth of the Bahá’í Faith (Wilmette: Bahá’í Publishing Committee, 1944). See also Horace Holley, “Survey of Current Bahá’í Activities in the East and West,” in The Bahá’í World: A Biennial International Record, Volume II, April 1926–April 1928, comp. National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada (New York: Bahá’í Publishing Committee, 1928; reprint, Wilmette: Bahá’í Publishing Trust, 1980), 22–23.

273 Program, Bahá’í Archives of Washington, D.C. Courtesy of Ms. Anita Chapman.

274 Louis Gregory, “Convention for Amity Between the Colored and White Races.” In Star of the West 12.6 (24 June 1921): 114–19, 123–24. Reprinted as vol. 7, Oxford: George Ronald, 1978.

275 Louis Gregory, in Mariam Haney, “A Compilation on the Story of the Convention for Amity,” on behalf of “The Teaching Committee of Nineteen,” 31 May 1921: 5. Bahá’í Archives of Washington, D.C. Courtesy of Ms. Anita Chapman. See also Louis G. Gregory, “Convention for Amity Between the Colored and White Races,” Star of the West 12.6 (June 24, 1921): 118, which reads: “Friday evening Dr. Alain L. Locke, presiding, expressed the great effort of the convention to be the unity of heart and mind in human succor, exemplifying the power of a new spirit in a new day.”

276 The Hadleigh (Washington, D.C.), 20 May 1921, quoted by Mariam Haney, “A Compilation on the Story of the Convention for Amity,” 9.

277 The Hadleigh (Washington, D.C.), 20 May 1921, quoted by Mariam Haney, “A Compilation on the Story of the Convention for Amity,” 9.

278 Mariam Haney, “A Compilation on the Story of the Convention for Amity,” 2.

279 Mariam Haney, “A Compilation on the Story of the Convention for Amity,” 6.

280 Morrison, “To Move the World: Promoting Racial Amity, 1921–1927,” 16, n. 30.

281 Gwendolyn Etter-Lewis, “African American Women in the Bahá’í Faith, 1899–1919,” World Order 25.2 (Winter 1993–94): 47.

282 Louis Gregory, “Some Recollections of the Early Days of the Bahai [sic] Faith in Washington, D.C.” Manuscript. 7 December 1937, Tuskegee Institute. Courtesy of Gayle Morrison, U.S. Bahá’’í National Center.

283 Alain L. Locke, “Educator and Publicist,” Star of the West 22.8 (November 1931) 254–55. [Obituary of George William Cook, 1855–1931].

284 Morrison, “To Move the World: Promoting Racial Amity, 1921–1927,” 17.

285 Gregory, quoted by Morrison, “To Move the World: Promoting Racial Amity, 1921–1927,” 17.

286 Morrison, “To Move the World: Promoting Racial Amity, 1921–1927,” 17–18.

287 National Committee on Inter-Racial Amity to the “National Spiritual Assembly and the Local Spiritual Assemblies of the United States and Canada,” 23 February 1927. Bahá’í Archives of Washington, D.C. Courtesy of Ms. Anita Chapman.

288 Gregory, “Convention for Amity Between the Colored and White Races,” 115.

289 Untitled report by Martha Root, in Mariam Haney, “A Compilation on the Story of the Convention for Amity,” 12.

290 ‘Abdu’l–Bahá to Parsons, 26 July 1921 and 27 September 1921. Qtd. in Morrison, To Move the World, 143 and 342, n. 34.

291 Haney to Locke, 4 October 1911, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-33, Folder 49 (“Haney, Mariam”).

292 ‘Abdu’l–Bahá to Parsons, 26 July 1921 and 7 October 1921. Qtd. in Morrison, To Move the World, 142–43 and 342, n. 33. Also published in the 1929–1930 Annual Reports, Baha’i News Letter, “Interracial Amity Committee,” 10. An alternative translation is as follows: “The convention of the colored and white was in reality a great work, because if the question of the colored and white should not be resolved[,] it will be productive of great dangers in [the] future for America. Therefore the Confirmations [sic] of the Kingdom of Abhá shall continually reach any person who strives after the conciliation of the colored and the white.” [Gregory, “Interracial Amity Committee” (1930): 10.] Note that this text differs from the translation given in another report (Gregory, “Convention for Amity Between the Colored and White Races,” 115), but the gist is the same. In all likelihood, both translations were taken from the same Persian original.

293 See Roy Williams, “Convention for Amity Between the White and Colored Races, Springfield, Massachusetts, December 5 and 6, 1921.” Star of the West 13 (28 April 1922): 51.

294 Morrison, To Move the World, photograph opposite p. 137.

295 “List of Bahá’ís in U.S. & Canada” dated March 1922. NBA. Courtesy of Roger Dahl, Archivist.

296 Robert Stockman, “The Bahá’í Faith in America: One Hundred Years,” World Order 25.3 (Spring 1994): 14.

297 Haney to Locke, 5 January 1922, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-33, Folder 49 (“Haney, Mariam”).

298 Locke to Parsons, 28 June 1922, Agnes Parsons Papers, NBA. Courtesy of Roger Dahl, Archivist, enclosure sent 26 Feb. 2001.

299 Lewis, When Harlem Was in Vogue, 87.

300 Locke to Parsons, 21 Oct. 1922, Agnes Parsons Papers, NBA. Courtesy of Roger Dahl, Archivist, enclosure sent 20 Feb. 2001.

301 Locke to Parsons, 1 Nov. 1922, Agnes Parsons Papers, NBA. Courtesy of Roger Dahl, Archivist, enclosure sent 20 Feb. 2001.

302 Locke to Cullen, 16 Nov. 1922, Box 3, Fol. Locke, Countee Cullen Papers, Amistad Research Center, Tulane University.

303 Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-1, Folder 6 (Will and instructions in case of death).

304 Gregory to Locke, 12 March 1923, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-32, Folder 50 (Gregory, Louis G.).

305 Locke to Cullen, 15 March 1923, Box 3, Fol. Locke, Countee Cullen Papers, Amistad Research Center, Tulane University.

306 Remey to Locke, 12 June 1923, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-80, Folder 1 (Remey, Charles Mason).

307 “Baha’i Faith, Only Church in World That Does Not Discriminate.” Ebony 7 (12 Oct. 1952): 39–46.

308 Reprints:

1924: Alain Locke, “Impressions of Haifa,” Star of the West 15.1 (1924): 13–14. Original manuscript in Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-115, Folder 29 (“Impressions of Haifa” [typescript]).

1926: Reprint: Alaine [sic] Locke, “Impressions of Haifa,” in Bahá’í Year Book, Volume One, April 1925–April 1926, comp. National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada (New York: Bahá’í Publishing Committee, 1926) 81, 83.

1928: Alaine [sic] Locke, “Impressions of Haifa,” in The Bahá’í World: A Biennial International Record, Volume II, April 1926–April 1928, comp. National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada (New York: Bahá’í Publishing Committee, 1928; reprint, Wilmette: Bahá’í Publishing Trust, 1980) 125, 127.

1930: Alain Locke, “Impressions of Haifa,” in The Bahá’í World: A Biennial International Record, Volume III, April 1928–April 1930, comp. National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada (New York: Bahá’í Publishing Committee, 1930; reprint, Wilmette: Bahá’í Publishing Trust, 1980) 280, 282.

309 Locke to Cullen, n.d. [1923], Box 3, Fol. Locke, Countee Cullen Papers, Amistad Research Center, Tulane University.

310 Locke to Cullen, 12 July 1923, Box 3, Fol. Locke, Countee Cullen Papers, Amistad Research Center, Tulane University.

311 Editor’s introduction to Alain Locke, “Impressions of Luxor,” The Howard Alumnus 2.4 (May 1924): 74.

312 Visa, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-2, Folder 2 (Personal Papers—Passports, 1922, 1924).

313 Lewis, When Harlem Was in Vogue, 87 and 324, citing “Locke to Cullen, n.d. (1923), Box 3, Fol. Locke: CCP/ARC.” This refers to the the Cullen–Locke correspondence in the Countee Cullen Papers, Amistad Research Center, Tulane University (309). Having subsequently ordered this correspondence myself, I noticed that Locke used the term, “Bahaist.” Locke to Cullen, n.d. [1923], Box 3, Fol. Locke, Countee Cullen Papers, Amistad Research Center, Tulane University.

314 Hughes and Locke to Cullen, postcard dated 31 Aug. 1923 (Verona), Box 3, Fol. Locke, Countee Cullen Papers, Amistad Research Center, Tulane University. Both Locke and Hughes wrote greetings on the same postcard, with Locke saying: “We are together here again. Wishing we were three instead of two.”

315 Locke and Hughes to Cullen, postcard dated 26 July 1923 (Paris), Box 3, Fol. Locke, Countee Cullen Papers, Amistad Research Center, Tulane University. As in the Verona postcard, Locke and Hughes wrote separate messages on the same card. Locke begins: “ ‘See Paris and die’ — Meet Langston and be damned’.”

316 Research Department, Bahá’í World Centre, Memorandum to The Universal House of Justice, 26 December 2001.

317 Locke to Cullen (n.d., 1923), Box 3, Fol. Locke, Countee Cullen Papers, Amistad Research Center, Tulane University.

318 Research Department, Bahá’í World Centre, Memorandum to The Universal House of Justice, 12 June 2002.

319 Locke, “Impressions” (1930), 280.

320 Locke, “Impressions” (1930), 280.

321 Locke, “Impressions” (1930), 282.

322 Locke, “Impressions” (1930), 280.

323 Locke, “Impressions” (1930), 280.

324 Locke, “Impressions” (1930), 280.

325 Locke, “Impressions” (1930), 280.

326 Locke, “Impressions” (1930), 280.

327 Locke, “Impressions” (1930), 282.

328 Locke, “Impressions” (1930), 282.

329 Research Department, Bahá’í World Centre, Memorandum to The Universal House of Justice, 12 June 2002.

330 From a letter dated 12 March 1926 written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada Publishing Committee, “References to Dr. Alain Locke in Letters Written on Behalf of Shoghi Effendi,” Attachment, The Universal House of Justice to Buck, 16 July 2001.

331 Locke, “Impressions” (1930), 282.

332 Shoghi Effendi to the Washington, D.C. Bahá’í Assembly, 24 December 1923, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-79, Folder 9 (Rabbani, Shoghi).

333 Lewis, When Harlem Was in Vogue, xxviii.

334 Du Bois to Locke, 9 Oct. 1924, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-26, Folder 8 (Du Bois, W. E. B. 1921–1929).

335 Bahadur to Locke, 27 February 1924, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-12, Folder 2 (Bahadur, Azizullah).

336 This expression occurs in the famous Armory v. Delamirie trover case (King’s Bench, 1722; 1 Strange 505).

337 Morrison, To Move the World, 146; Gregory, “Inter–Racial Amity,” 283; idem, “Racial Amity in America,” 657; Locke to Parsons, 21 October 1922, Agnes Parsons Papers, NBA.

338 Morrison, To Move the World, 147.

339 See Alain Locke, “Major Prophet of Democracy.” Review of Race and Democratic Society by Franz Boas. Journal of Negro Education 15.2 (Spring 1946): 191–92. See also Mark Helbling, “Feeling Universality and Thinking Particularistically: Alain Locke, Franz Boas, Melville Herkskovits, and the Harlem Renaissance,” Prospects 19 (1994): 289–314.

340 Cited by Peggy Pascoe, “Miscegenation Law, Court Cases, and Ideologies of ‘Race’ in Twentieth–Century America,” Journal of American History 83.1 (June 1996): 53, n. 23.

341 Menand, The Metaphysical Club, 396–97.

342 Morrison, To Move the World, 147.

343 Morrison, To Move the World, 147.

344 National Bahá’í Assembly [sic] “To the Assemblies of the United States and Canada, 19 May 1924, Bahá’í Archives of Washington, D.C. Courtesy of Ms. Anita Chapman; Morrison, To Move the World, 147.

345 Locke to Parsons, 22 May 1924, Agnes Parsons Papers, NBA. Courtesy of Roger Dahl, Archivist, enclosure sent 20 Feb. 2001.

346 Morrison, “To Move the World: Promoting Racial Amity, 1921–1927,” 22.

347 Program, Bahá’í Archives of Washington, D.C. Courtesy of Ms. Anita Chapman.

348 Morrison, To Move the World, 147–49.

349 Morrison, To Move the World, 149; Gregory, “Racial Amity in America,” 658.

350 Bahá’í Archives of Washington, D.C. Courtesy of Ms. Anita Chapman.

351 Morrison, To Move the World, 149.

352 Morrison, To Move the World, 149.

353 Jeffrey Stewart, “Introduction,” in Locke, Race Contacts and Interracial Relations, xlii. For a full discussion of this controversy, see Juan Williams and Dwayne Ashley, I’ll Find a Way or Make One: A Tribute to Historically Black Colleges and Universities (New York: Amistad, 2004): 119–30.

354 Locke to Franz Boas (handwritten letter on The Civic Club stationery), 3 Dec. 1925, Boas Papers, American Philosophical Society. My thanks to Robert S. Cox, Keeper of Manuscripts.

355 Locke to Boas, 14 Dec. 1925, Boas Papers, American Philosophical Society.

356 Locke to Du Bois, 1925, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-26, Folder 8 (Du Bois, W. E. B. 1921–1929).

357 Logan, Howard University:The First Hundred Years 1867–1967, 235–36.

358 Locke to Parsons, 21 Oct. 1922, Agnes Parsons Papers, NBA. Courtesy of Roger Dahl, Archivist, enclosure sent 20 Feb. 2001.

359 Romare Bearden and Harry Henderson, A History of African-American Artists From 1792 to the Present (New York: Pantheon Books, 1993), 246.

360 Kallen, “Alain Locke and Cultural Pluralism,” 122.

361 Lewis, When Harlem Was in Vogue, xxviii.

362 See Verner D. Mitchell, “Alain Locke: Philosophical ‘Midwife’ of the Harlem Renaissance,” in The Critical Pragmatism of Alain Locke: A Reader on Value Theory, Aesthetics, Community, Culture, Race, and Education, ed. Leonard Harris (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999), 192.

363 “Biographical Memo: Alain (LeRoy) Locke,” Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-1, Folder 2 (Autobiographical statements).

364 Locke, The New Negro, 6 and 47, quoted in Astrid Franke, “Struggling with Stereotypes: The Problems of Representing a Collective Identity,” The Critical Pragmatism of Alain Locke: A Reader on Value Theory, Aesthetics, Community, Culture, Race, and Education, ed. Leonard Harris (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999), 23 and 26.

365 Alain Locke, ed., The New Negro (New York: Albert and Charles Boni, Inc., 1925). Reprinted, with a new preface by Robert Hayden (New York: Atheneum, 1969).

366 Richard J. Shusterman, “Pragmatist Aesthetics: Roots and Radicalism,” in The Critical Pragmatism of Alain Locke: A Reader in Value Theory, Aesthetics, Community, Culture, Race, and Education, ed. Leonard Harris (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999), 102 and 109, n. 8.

367 Franke, “Struggling with Stereotypes,” 22.

368 Locke, The New Negro 11, 47, 99, quoted in Shusterman, “Pragmatist Aesthetics,” 105.

369 Fraser, “Another Pragmatism,” 15–17.

370 Alain Locke, The New Negro, 52–3 and 9, quoted in Shusterman, “Pragmatist Aesthetics,” 102 and 104.

371 Molesworth, “Alain Locke and Walt Whitman,” 185.

372 Harris, Philosophy of Alain Locke, 6. Locke expressed his enthusiastic support for Du Bois’ concept in an essay, “The Talented Tenth,” Howard University Record 12.7 (December 1918): 15–18, but locked antlers with Du Bois over the latter’s insistence that art be propaganda, in a later essay, “Art or Propaganda?” Harlem 1 (November 1928): 12–13. See discussion in Richard Keaveny, “Aesthetics and the Isuue of Identity,” in The Critical Pragmatism of Alain Locke: A Reader in Value Theory, Aesthetics, Community, Culture, Race, and Education. Leonard Harris, ed. (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999), 127–40.

373 See Alain Locke, “Art or Propaganda?” Harlem 1 (November 1928): 12–13.

374 Lewis, When Harlem Was in Vogue, 92.

375 Lewis, When Harlem Was in Vogue, xxiv.

376 Lewis, When Harlem Was in Vogue, xxviii.

377Lewis, When Harlem Was in Vogue, 117.

378 Valerie Boyd, Wrapped in Rainbows: The Life of Zora Neale Thurston (New York: Scribner, 2003), 89.

379 Lewis, When Harlem Was in Vogue, 116 and xxi.

380 Jeffery Stewart, qtd. by Sheila Folliott, “The Renaissance.” Online:
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