Alain Locke: Faith and Philosophy



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12 Alain Locke, ed., The New Negro (New York: Albert and Charles Boni, Inc., 1925). Reprinted, with a new preface by Robert Hayden (New York: Atheneum, 1969).

13 Christopher Buck, “Robert Hayden.” Oxford Encyclopedia of American Literature. Edited by Jay Parini. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. Vol. 2, pp. 177–81.

14 Robert Hayden, “Preface,” The New Negro. Edited by Alain Locke (New York: Atheneum, 1969).

15 Jonathan Scott Holloway, Confronting the Veil: Abram Harris, Jr., E. Franklin Frazier, and Ralph Bunche, 1919–1941 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002), 9.

16 Leonard Harris, “Alain Leroy Locke,” American National Biography (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), vol. 13, 796–98; Rudolph A. Cain, “Alain Leroy Locke: Crusader and Advocate for the Education of African American Adults,” Journal of Negro Education 64.1 (1995): 87; Michael R. Winston, “Locke, Alain LeRoy,” in Rayford W. Logan and Michael R. Winston, eds. Dictionary of American Negro Biography (New York and London: W. W. Norton, 1982), 403. See also Tommy Lee Lott, “Alain LeRoy Locke,” in Michael P. Kelly, ed., Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), 160–65; and Sandra L. Quinn–Musgrove, “Lost in Blackness: Alain LeRoy Locke,” Ethnic Forum 12.2 (1992): 48–68. See also Jeffrey Stewart, A Biography of Alain Locke, Philosopher of the Harlem Renaissance, 1886–1930 (Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University, 1979). Abstracted in Dissertation Abstracts International 1981 42.4: 1696–1697-A.

17 Winston, “Locke, Alain LeRoy,” 403.

18 Judith Green, “Cosmopolitan Unity Amidst Valued Diversity: Alain Locke’s Vision of Deeply Democratic Transformation,” in Deep Democracy: Community, Diversity, and Transformation (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999), 132.

19Gayle Morrison, To Move the World: Louis G. Gregory and the Advancement of Racial Unity in America (Wilmette: Bahá’í Publishing Trust, 1982), 4, note.

20 Alain Locke, The Problem of Classification in the Theory of Values. Ph.D. dissertation: Harvard University, 1917, 233.

21 Alain Locke, The Problem of Classification in the Theory of Values, “233 a” (evidently a later insert, being a chart entitled, “Religious Values.”

22Ernest Mason, “Alain Locke’s Social Philosophy,” World Order 13.2 (1979): 25–34. See also Mason, “Alain Locke on Race and Race Relations,” Phylon 40.4 (1979): 342–50. Cf. Yvonne Ochillo, “The Race–Consciousness of Alain Locke,” Phylon 47.3 (1986): 173–81.

23 Mason, “Alain Locke’s Social Philosophy.”

24 Alain Locke, “Unity through Diversity: A Bahá’í Principle,” in The Bahá’í World: A Biennial International Record, Volume IV, 1930–1932 (Wilmette: Bahá’í Publishing Trust, 1933), 372–374. Reprint (Wilmette: Bahá’í Publishing Trust, 1980). Reprinted again in Locke, The Philosophy of Alain Locke, ed. Leonard Harris (1989), 133–138 [above quote from 137]. Harris’ reference on p. 133 n. should be emended to read, Volume IV, 1930–1932 (not “V, 1932–1934”).

25 Alain Locke, “Values and Imperatives,” in American Philosophy, Today and Tomorrow, ed. Sidney Hook and Horace M. Kallen (New York: Lee Furman, 1935), 313–33. Reprint: Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press, 1968. Locke’s psychograph, “Alain Locke,” appears on p. 312. This is the first of Locke’s essays in Leonard Harris, The Philosophy of Alain Locke, 34–50.

26 Alain Locke, “Values and Imperatives,” 313–33.

27 Cited by Horace M. Kallen, “Alain Locke and Cultural Pluralism.” Journal of Philosophy 54.5 (28 February 1957), 121.

28 Kallen, “Alain Locke and Cultural Pluralism,” 122.

29 Monique Deveeaux, Cultural Pluralism and Dilemmas of Justice (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 2002 [?]), 6.

30 Winston, “Locke, Alain LeRoy,” 398.

31 For verification of Locke’s birthdate, I obtained a document issued by the “Department of Public Health and Charities, Bureau of Health” (City Hall, Philadelphia), Alain Locke Papers, Box 164-1, Folder 1, Manuscript Division, MSRC, Howard University. See note by Leonard Harris, “Rendering the Text,” in idem (ed.) The Philosophy of Alain Locke: Harlem Renaissance and Beyond (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989).

32 As was the case when Locke filled out his “Bahá’í Historical Record” card. Under “Birthdate,” Locke had entered “September 13, 1886.” Bahá’í Historical Record Cards Collection, and Biographical Information Collection, NBA.

33 Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-1, Folder 2 (Autobiographical statements). Although his middle name was formally spelled “LeRoy,” in full signature he would write “Leroy,” as evident on his “Bahá’í Historical Record” card signature. Bahá’í Historical Record Cards Collection, and Biographical Information Collection, NBA.

34 Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-1, Folder 2 (Autobiographical statements). Although his middle name was formally spelled “LeRoy,” in full signature he would write “Leroy,” as evident on his “Bahá’í Historical Record” card signature. Bahá’í Historical Record Cards Collection, and Biographical Information Collection, NBA.

35 See, for instance, Locke to Parsons, 21 Oct. 1922, Agnes Parsons Papers, NBA. Courtesy of Roger Dahl, Archivist, enclosure sent 20 Feb. 2001.

36 Locke to Cook, 10 Jan. 1913, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-21, Folder 46 (Cook, George William).

37 Kallen, “Alain Locke and Cultural Pluralism,” 122.

38 Late in life, Locke reminisced about some of his childhood experiences. See Douglas K. Stafford, “Alain Locke: The Child, the Man, and the People,” Journal of Negro Education 30.1 (Winter 1961): 25–34.

39 M. Anthony Fitchue, “Locke and Du Bois: Two Major Black Voices Muzzled by Philanthropic Organizations,” Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, Issue 14 (Winter 1996–1997): 111. Online. JSTOR. Accessed 5 Mar 2001.

40 Winston, “Locke, Alain LeRoy,” 398.

41 Rayford W. Logan, Howard University:The First Hundred Years 1867–1967 (New York: New York University Press, 1969), 50.

42 Winston, “Locke, Alain LeRoy,” 398, mistakenly reads “1891.”

43 Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-1, Folder 2 (Autobiographical statements). Although his middle name was formally spelled “LeRoy,” in full signature he would write “Leroy,” as evident on his “Bahá’í Historical Record” card signature. Bahá’í Historical Record Cards Collection, and Biographical Information Collection, NBA.

44 Winston, “Locke, Alain LeRoy,” 398.

45 Hutchison, The Harlem Renaissance in Black and White, 40.

46 Hutchison, The Harlem Renaissance in Black and White, 39–40.

47 Kallen, “Alain Locke and Cultural Pluralism,” 122.

48 Harris, Philosophy of Alain Locke, 5.

49 Harris, Philosophy of Alain Locke, 3–5.

50 Harris, Philosophy of Alain Locke, 4 and 293.

51 “Biographical Memo: Alain (LeRoy) Locke,” Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-1, Folder 2 (Autobiographical statements). This memo was later published in Twentieth Century Authors, ed. Stanley Kunitz and Howard Haycroft (New York: 1942), 837, with a photograph of Locke bearing the erroneous caption, “J. L. Allen.” (Photocopy archived in the same folder.)

52 Locke to Charlotte Osgood Mason, 12 Apr. 1934, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-71, Folder ? (?? 1934). [Check Ref.]

53 [Untitled], Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-1, Folder 2 (Autobiographical statements). Although his middle name was formally spelled “LeRoy,” in full signature he would write “Leroy,” as evident on his “Bahá’í Historical Record” card signature. Bahá’í Historical Record Cards Collection, and Biographical Information Collection, NBA.

54 Locke to Parsons, 28 June 1922, Agnes Parsons Papers, NBA.

55 Winston, “Locke, Alain LeRoy,” 398.

56 Mason, Locke’s Social Philosophy, 25.

57 Harris, Philosophy of Alain Locke, 4.

58 Stewart, A Biography of Alain Locke, 53.

59 Winston, “Locke, Alain LeRoy,” 398.

60 Qtd. in Stewart, A Biography of Alain Locke, 107.

61 Nancy Fraser, “Another Pragmatism: Alain Locke, Critical ‘Race’ Theory, and the Politics of Culture,” in The Critical Pragmatism of Alain Locke: A Reader on Value Theory, Aesthetics, Community, Culture, Race, and Education, ed. Leonard Harris (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999), 6.

62 Kallen, “Alain Locke and Cultural Pluralism,” 121.

63 Jeffrey C. Stewart, “A Black Aesthete at Oxford,” Massachusetts Review 34.3 (1993): 411–28.

64 Kallen, “Alain Locke and Cultural Pluralism,” 119.

65 Hutchison, The Harlem Renaissance in Black and White, 85. See also Ross Posnock, Color and Culture: Black Writers and the Making of the Modern Intellectual (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998), 191.

66 Menand, The Metaphysical Club, 391.

67 Posnock, Color and Culture, 192.

68 Kallen, “Alain Locke and Cultural Pluralism,” 119.

69 Kallen, “Alain Locke and Cultural Pluralism,” 122.

70 Hutchison, The Harlem Renaissance in Black and White, 85.

71 Louis Menand, The Metaphysical Club: A Story of Ideas in America (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2001), 390.

72 Menand, The Metaphysical Club, 390.

73 Menand, The Metaphysical Club, 391.

74 Menand, The Metaphysical Club, 391.

75 Kallen, “Alain Locke and Cultural Pluralism,” 122.

76 Alain Locke, “Oxford Contrasts,” Independent 67 (July 1909): 139–42. See also Locke, “The American Temperament,” North American Review 194 (August 1911): 262–70.

77 Harris, Philosophy of Alain Locke, 294.

78 Posnock, Color and Culture, 194.

79 Kallen, “Alain Locke and Cultural Pluralism,” 122.

80 Winston, “Locke, Alain LeRoy,” 399.

81 Stewart, “A Black Aesthete at Oxford,” [PAGE ???].

82 Kallen, “Alain Locke and Cultural Pluralism,” 122. Menand, Metaphysical Club, 390.

83 M. G. Brock and M. C. Curthoys, eds. The History of the University of Oxford, Vol. VII. Nineteenth–Century Oxford, Part 2 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000) 804, citing Jeffrey Green, Black Edwardians (1998) 154.

84 Cited by Horace M. Kallen, “Alain Locke and Cultural Pluralism.” Journal of Philosophy 54.5 (28 February 1957): 121.

85 Locke to Washington, undated [probably Jan. 1911], Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-91, Folder 55: (Washington, Booker T.)

86 Washington to Locke, 11 Jan. 1911, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-91, Folder 55: (Washington, Booker T.)

87 Washington to Locke, 8 Jan. 1912, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-91, Folder 55: (Washington, Booker T.). Locke to Washington, 8 Jan. 1912, cited by Jeffrey Stewart, A Biography of Alain Locke, 171.

88 “Can see you at Hotel Manhattan six oclock [sic] this evening.” Washington to Locke, 18 April 1910 (cablegram), Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-91, Folder 55: (Washington, Booker T.)

89 “Biographical Memo: Alain (LeRoy) Locke,” Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-1, Folder 2 (Autobiographical statements).

90 Kallen, “Alain Locke and Cultural Pluralism,” 122. Menand, Metaphysical Club, 390.

91 Washington to Locke, 12 Sept. 1912, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-91, Folder 55: (Washington, Booker T.)

92 Charles Molesworth, “Alain Locke and Walt Whitman: Manifestos and National Identity,” in The Critical Pragmatism of Alain Locke: A Reader on Value Theory, Aesthetics, Community, Culture, Race, and Education, ed. Leonard Harris (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999), 176.

93 William B. Harvey, “The Philosophical Anthropology of Alain Locke,” in Russell J. Linnemann (ed.) Alain Locke: Reflections on a Modern Renaissance Man (Baton Rouge and London: Louisiana State University, 1982), 18.

94 Kallen, “Alain Locke and Cultural Pluralism,” 122. For an analysis of Locke’s dissertation on value theory, see Ernest Mason, “Alain Locke’s Philosophy of Value,” in Russell J. Linnemann, ed., Alain Locke: Reflections on a Modern Renaissance Man (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 1982), 1–16. Locke had originally intended to study under Royce as his PhD supervisor, but Royce had died by the time Locke returned to Harvard.

95 Harris, Philosophy of Alain Locke, 10.

96 Alain Locke, “Values and Imperatives,” in American Philosophy, Today and Tomorrow, ed. Sidney Hook and Horace M. Kallen (New York: Lee Furman, 1935), 313–33. Reprint: Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press, 1968. Leonard Harris selected this essay to be the first in his magnificent anthology, The Philosophy of Alain Locke, 34–50.

97 Alain Locke, The Problem of Classification in the Theory of Values, 124.

98 Mason, “Alain Locke’s Social Philosophy,” 28.

99 Alain Locke, The Problem of Classification in the Theory of Values, 122.

100 Alain Locke, The Problem of Classification in the Theory of Values, 122.

101 Alain Locke, The Problem of Classification in the Theory of Values, 122.

102 Alain Locke, The Problem of Classification in the Theory of Values, 169.

103 Molesworth, “Alain Locke and Walt Whitman,” 175.

104 Fitchue, “Locke and Du Bois,” 113.

105 Kallen, “Alain Locke and Cultural Pluralism,” 122.

106 Menand, The Metaphysical Club, 351.

107 James T. Kloppenberg, “Pragmatism: An Old Name for Some New Ways of Thinking?” Journal of American History 83.1 (June 1996): 102, n. 3.

108 Posnock, Color and Culture, 184.

109 Harris, Philosophy of Alain Locke, 4.

110 Alain Locke, “Pluralism and Intellectual Democracy,” in Conference on Science, Philosophy and Religion, Second Symposium (New York: Conference on Science, Philosophy and Religion, 1942). Reprinted in Leonard Harris, ed., The Philosophy of Alain Locke: Harlem Renaissance and Beyond (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989), 53.

111 Kloppenberg, “Pragmatism: An Old Name for Some New Ways of Thinking?” 101.

112 Kloppenberg, “Pragmatism: An Old Name for Some New Ways of Thinking?” 120.

113 Houston Baker, Jr., Modernism and the Harlem Renaissance (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), 75, quoted by Harris, Philosophy of Alain Locke, 12. See Ernest Mason, “Deconstruction in the Philosophy of Alain Locke,” Transactions of the Charles S. Pierce Society 24 (Winter 1988): 85–106.

114 Posnock, Color and Culture, 187.

115 Posnock, Color and Culture, 187.

116 Judith Green, “Alain Locke’s Multicultural Philosophy of Value,” The Critical Pragmatism of Alain Locke: A Reader on Value Theory, Aesthetics, Community, Culture, Race, and Education, ed. Leonard Harris (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999), 87.

117 “Cultural Relativism,” Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-112, Folder 23 ("Cultural Relativism"), p. 1 (handwritten speech).

118 Locke, “Cultural Relativism,” 3.

119 Locke, “Cultural Relativism,” 7–8.

120 Napier, “Affirming Critical Conceptualism,” 109.

121 Mason, “Social Philosophy of Alain Locke,” ??.

122 Mason, “Social Philosophy of Alain Locke,” 34.

123 Mason, “Social Philosophy of Alain Locke,” 34.

124 Posnock, Color and Culture, 192.

125 Molesworth, “Alain Locke and Walt Whitman,” 175–76.

126 Alain Locke, “Values and Imperatives,” 313–33.

127 Alain Locke, “Pluralism and Ideological Peace,” in Freedom and Experience: Essays presented to Horace M. Kallen, ed. Sidney Hook and Milton R. Konvitz (Ithaca and New York: Cornell University Press, 1947), 67.

128 Kallen, “Alain Locke and Cultural Pluralism,” 121.

129 Jonathan Scott Holloway, Confronting the Veil, Chapter One, “Secret Sites: Black Washington, D.C., and Howard University,” 35–83, citing Constance Green, The Secret City: A History of Race Relations in the Nation’s Capital (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1967), 202.

130 Green, The Secret City, 202, citing Crisis, xxxix, 195.

131 Fitzpatrick and Goodwin, The Guide to Black Washington, 158.

132 Holloway, Confronting the Veil, 45.

133 Fitzpatrick and Goodwin, The Guide to Black Washington, 101.

134 Holloway, Confronting the Veil, 49.

135 Holloway, Confronting the Veil, 41.

136 David Krasner, A Beautiful Pageant: African American Theatre, Drama, and Performance in the Harlem Renaissance, 1910–1927. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002), 133–34.

137 Sandra Fitzpatrick and Maria R. Goodwin, The Guide to Black Washington: Places and Events of Historical and Cultural Significance in the Nation’s Capital. Revised Illustrated Edition (New York: Hippocrene Books, 2001), 161.

138 Fitzpatrick and Goodwin, The Guide to Black Washington, 81.

139 Holloway, Confronting the Veil, 37–45.

140 Qtd. in Holloway, Confronting the Veil, 44, citing Sterling Brown, Washington, City and Capital. Federal Writers’ Project. Works Progress Administration (Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1937), 89.

141 Qtd. in an unsigned editorial (probably by Firuz Kazemzadeh), “Interchange,” World Order 14.1 (Fall 1979): 4. Gunnar Myrdal, An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy. 1944. Reprint: Harper and Row, 1962. Page not specified in citation.

142 Stockman, The Bahá’í Faith in America: Early Expansion, Chapter 16, “New England and Washington DC,” 217–31.

143 Robert Stockman, The Bahá’í Faith in America: Early Expansion 1900–1912 (Oxford: George Ronald, 1995), 224.

144 Stockman, The Bahá’í Faith in America: Early Expansion, 224.

145 Stockman, The Bahá’í Faith in America: Early Expansion, 225, quoting Bahá’u’lláh, The Hidden Words. Arabic no. 68.

146 Stockman, The Bahá’í Faith in America: Early Expansion, 225–26.

147 Pauline Hannen to Mirza Ahmad Sohrab, (handwritten), May 1909, Ahmad Sohrab Papers, NBA. Courtesy of Roger M. Dahl, Archivist, National Bahá’í Archives, Bahá’í National Center, enclosure sent 2 July 2002.

148 Pauline Hannen to Mirza Ahmad Sohrab, (handwritten), May 1909, Ahmad Sohrab Papers, NBA. Pp. 23–24. Courtesy of Roger M. Dahl, Archivist, National Bahá’í Archives, Bahá’í National Center, enclosure sent 2 July 2002.

149 The Nineteen-Day Feast is part of the Bahá’í worship cycle, based on a spiritual calendar consisting of 19 months of 19 days each, with each day (and weekday), month, year, and cyle of years named after attributes of God (such as honor, grandeur, knowledge, etc.) that function as human perfections which Bahá’ís seek to embody. Bahá’í communities thus hold a Nineteen-Day Feast once a Bahá’í month. The Nineteen-Day Feast consists of three parts: devotional, consultative and social.

150 Jos. H. Hannen, “Washington, D. C.,” Bahai News 1.1 (21 March 1910): 18–19, quoted in Morrison, To Move the World, 33.

151 Stockman, The Bahá’í Faith in America: Early Expansion, 344.

152 Morrison, To Move the World, 73.

153 Stockman, The Bahá’í Faith in America: Early Expansion, 344.

154 Morrison, To Move the World, 31.

155 Morrison, To Move the World, 5–6.

156 Fá∂il Mázandarání, Taríkh-i Zuhur al-¥aqq, vol. 8, part 2 (Tihran: Bahá’í Publishing Trust, 132 B.E.), 1209.

157 From a Tablet of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, translated from the Persian, in Women (Bahá’í compilation), 4.

158 ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, Selections from the Writings of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, 113 (sec. 76); ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, Múntakhabátí az Makátib-i Ha∂rat-i ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, vol. 1, sec. 76. Gloss on original Arabic text provided by Vahid Brown, personal communication, 3 Jan. 2004.

159 ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, Selections from the Writings of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, 114 (sec. 78); ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, Múntakhabátí az Makátib-i Ha∂rat-i ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, vol. 1, sec. 78. Gloss on original Persian text provided by Vahid Brown, personal communication, 3 Jan. 2004.

160 ‘Abdu’lBahá, trans. Shoghi Effendi, The Advent of Divine Justice (Wilmette, IL: Bahá’í Publishing Trust, 1969 [1939]), 31.

161 Richard Thomas, Understanding Interracial Unity: A Study of U.S. Race Relations Sage Series on Race and Ethnic Relations, vol. 16 (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1996), 47.

162 ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, “Letter From ‘Abdu’l-Bahá to the First Universal Races Congress,” Star of the West 2.9 (20 Aug. 1911): 5. Reprinted from Record of the Proceedings of the First Universal Races Congress (Orchard House, Westminster: P. S. King and Son, 1911) [advance prepublication copy]. See also Papers on Interracial Problems Communicated to the First Universal Races Congress Held at the University of London, July 26-29, 1911, ed. Gustav Spiller (Boston: Ginn and Co., 1912). Reprint: Universal Races Congress, Inter-racial Problems: Papers. Edited by G. Spiller. With a new introduction by Herbert Aptheker. New York: Citadel Press, 1970.

163 ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, “Letter […] to the First Universal Races Congress,” 6.

164 Wellesley Tudor-Pole, “The Bahai Movement,” Star of the West 2.9 (20 Aug. 1911): 4–5. This is preceded by idem, “The First Universal Races Congress,” Star of the West 2.9 (20 Aug. 1911): 3–4. Reprinted from the Christian Commonwealth, 2 Aug. 1911. See also Paul Rich, “ ‘The Baptism of a New Era’: The 1911 Universal Races Congress and the Liberal Ideology of Race.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 7.4 (1984): 534–50; and Robert John Holton, “Cosmopolitanism or Cosmopolitanisms: the Universal Races Congress of 1911,” Global Networks, forthcoming.

165 Alain Locke, Race Contacts and Interracial Relations, edited by Jeffery C. Stewart (Washington: Howard University Press, 1992), 1.

166 Harris, “Chronology,” The Philosophy of Alain Locke, 294.

167 Washington to Locke, undated letter, in which he writes: “My dear Doctor Washington, I am in receipt this evening of your kind permission to take Doctor Elbert’s place in your party through Florida March 1st to 8th.” See also Washington to Elbert, 26 Feb. 1912 (cablegram), Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-91, Folder 55: (Washington, Booker T.); Stewart, “Introduction,” in Locke, Race Contacts and Interracial Relations, xxxix.

168 Winston to Conductor (cablegram), 2 March 1912, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-91, Folder 55: (Washington, Booker T.)

169 Washington to Locke, 10 Aug. 1912, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-91, Folder 55: (Washington, Booker T.)

170 Locke to Washington, undated letter [July 1912 ?], Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-91, Folder 55: (Washington, Booker T.)

171 Cook to Locke, 17 July 1912, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC,Box 164-21, Folder 46 (Cook, George William). That this letter of appointment was actually intended for Locke is complicated by the fact that the letter ostensibly appears to be addressed to a “Mr. E. C. Williams, Principal, M Street High School, Bowen Cottage, Arundel-on-the-Bay, Md.” The letter begins, “Dear Sir:-.” Could it be that this was Locke’s place of employment prior to taking his position at Howard?

172 Locke to Washington, undated letter [1912], Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-91, Folder 55: (Washington, Booker T.)

173 Qtd. in an untitled compilation of Bahá’í writings on race unity. Typescript in Locke’s possession. Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-176, Folder 13 (Bahá’í Faith).

174 Qtd. in Allan L. Ward, 239 Days: ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s Journey in America (Wilmette: Bahá’í Publishing Trust, 1979), 37.

175 W. E. B. Du Bois, The Souls of Black Folk: Essays and Sketches (Greenwich, CT: Fawcett, 1961 [1903]), 13.

176 Ward, 239 Days, 40.

177 “23 April 1912. Talk at Howard University. Washington, D. C. Translated by Amin Banani,” in ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, The Promulgation of Universal Peace: Discourse by Abdul-Baha Abbas during His Visit to the United States in 1912. [Rev. edn in one vol.] (Wilmette: Bahá’í Publishing Trust, 1943), 43.

178 “23 April 1912. Talk at Howard University. Washington, D. C. Translated by Amin Banani,” in ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, The Promulgation of Universal Peace: Discourse by Abdul-Baha Abbas during His Visit to the United States in 1912. [Rev. edn in one vol.] (Wilmette: Bahá’í Publishing Trust, 1943), 43.

179 Qtd. in Darlene Clark Hine, William C. Hine, and Stanley Harrold, eds., The African-American Odyssey (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2000), 234.

180 Ward, 239 Days, 40.

181 “23 April 1912. Talk at Howard University. Washington, D. C. Translated by Amin Banani,” in ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, The Promulgation of Universal Peace: Discourse by Abdul-Baha Abbas during His Visit to the United States in 1912. [Rev. edn. in one vol.] (Wilmette: Bahá’í Publishing Trust, 1943), 43.

182 Zia Bagdadi, “ ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in America,” Star of the West 19.3 (June 1928): 89. Qtd. in Ward, 239 Days, 43.

183 ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, “Address of Abdu’l-Bahá at the Home of Mrs. Dyer, April 24, 1912, 9 p.m.” Translated by Dr. Ameen U. Fareed and taken stenographically by Joseph H. Hannen. Star of the West 3.3 (28 April 1912): 21. Reference courtesy of Sen McGlinn , Saturday, 11 May 2002.

184 Ma˙mud’s Diary. Translated by M. Sobhani (Oxford: George Ronald, 1998), 57 (under the diary page for Wednesday, 24 April 1912). Transliteration based on notes by Dr. Khazeh Fananapazir, , posting on the Tarjuman translation list Friday, 10 May 2002 1:01 a.m., based on Mírzá Ma˙múd Zarqání, Badá-yi al-Áthár, vol. 1, pp. 48–49 (Langenhain: Bahá’í Verlag, 1982). Reprint of the Bombay 1914 edition.

185 Ward, 239 Days, 43, quoting Promulgation of Universal Peace, 54.

186 ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, “Prayer for Washington,” n.p., n.d. Personally given to the author by the staff of Rankin Chapel on 9 Aug. 2001.

187 Locke to Cook, 10 Jan. 1913, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-21, Folder 46 (Cook, George William).

188 Cook to Locke, 14 Jan. 1913, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC,Box 164-21, Folder 46 (Cook, George William).

189 Morrison, To Move the World, 73.

190 Boyle to Parsons, 18 February 1914, Agnes Parsons Papers, NBA. Qtd. in Morrison, To Move the World, 74.

191 Edna Belmont to Parsons, 2 March 1914, Agnes Parsons Papers, NBA. Qtd. in Morrison, To Move the World, 74.

192 Boyle to Parsons, 18 February 1914, Agnes Parsons Papers, NBA. Qtd. in Morrison, To Move the World, 74.

193 Morrison, To Move the World, 74.

194 ‘Abdu’l-Bahá to Edna Belmont, received 1 May 1914, Agnes Parsons Papers, NBA. Provsional translation, quoted in Morrison, To Move the World, 75–76.

195 Morrison, To Move the World, 75–80.

196 Qtd. in Winston, “Locke, Alain LeRoy,” 399.

197 Washington to Locke, 6 May 1915, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-91, Folder 55: (Washington, Booker T.)

198 Winston, “Locke, Alain Leroy,” 399.

199 Du Bois to Locke, 18 May 1915, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-26, Folder 8 (Du Bois, W. E. B. 1921–1929).

200 My thanks to Gayle Morrison for suggesting these possibilities.

201 Haney to Locke, February 1915, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-33, Folder 49 (Haney, Mariam).

202 Elizabeth Kidder Ober, Matthew W. Bullock, and Beatrice Ashton, “Harlan Foster Ober 1881–1962” (In Memoriam), The Bahá’í World: An International Record, vol. 13, 1954–1963 (Haifa: The Universal House of Justice, 1970), 866.

203 Stockman, The Bahá’í Faith in America: Early Expansion, 1900–1912, 218–19.

204 Stockman, The Bahá’í Faith in America: Early Expansion, 1900–1912, 217; 266–71.

205 Shoghi Effendi, God Passes By, 261.

206 Richard N. Francis, “Excerpts from the lives of early believers on teaching the Bahá'i Faith. Amoz Everett Gibson, first black member of the Universal House of Justice,” . See “In Memoriam,” The Bahá'i World, vol. XVIII, 666.

207 Howard Colby Ives, Portals To Freedom (Oxford: George Ronald, 1983 [1937]), Chapter Seven. Online: .

208 Morrison, To Move the World, 131.

209 Menand, The Metaphysical Club, 396 and Harris, Philosophy of Alain Locke, 205. These lectures were later edited and published: Alain Locke, Race Contacts and Interracial Relations, edited by Jeffery C. Stewart (Washington: Howard University Press, 1992).

210 Jeffrey Stewart, “Introduction,” in Alain LeRoy Locke, Race Contacts and Interracial Relations: Lectures of the Theory and Practice of Race, ed. Jeffrey Stewart (Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1992), xxxiii.

211 See Alain Locke, “Major Prophet of Democracy.” Review of Race and Democratic Society by Franz Boas. Journal of Negro Education 15.2 (Spring 1946): 191–92. See also Mark Helbling, “Feeling Universality and Thinking Particularistically: Alain Locke, Franz Boas, Melville Herkskovits, and the Harlem Renaissance,” Prospects 19 (1994): 289–314.

212 Cited by Peggy Pascoe, “Miscegenation Law, Court Cases, and Ideologies of ‘Race’ in Twentieth–Century America,” Journal of American History 83.1 (June 1996): 53, n. 23.

213 Pascoe, “Miscegenation Law,” 53.

214 Menand, The Metaphysical Club, 396–97.

215 Fraser, “Another Pragmatism,” 7.

216 “The Negro’s Contribution to American Culture,” Journal of Negro Education 8 (July 1939): 521–39, reprinted in Jeffrey C. Stewart (ed.), The Critical Temper of Alain Locke: A Selection of His Essays on Art and Culture (New York: Garland, 1983) and quoted in Tommy Lee Lott, “Nationalism and Pluralism in Alain Locke’s Social Philosophy,” in Lawrence Foster and Patricia Herzog (eds.) Defending Diversity: Contemporary Philosophical Perspectives on Pluralism and Multiculturalism (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1994): 106.

217 Fraser, “Another Pragmatism,” 17.

218 Haney to Locke, 1916, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-33, Folder 49 (Haney, Mariam).

219 Stewart, “Introduction,” in Locke, Race Contacts and Interracial Relations, xix.

220 Haney to Locke, April 1916, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-33, Folder 49 (Haney, Mariam).

221 Stewart, “Introduction,” in Locke, Race Contacts and Interracial Relations, xx.

222 Mary Locke to Alain Locke, 14 May 1916, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-65, Folder 21 (page 5).

223 Du Bois to Locke, 17 May 1916, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-26, Folder 8 (Du Bois, W. E. B. 1921–1929).

224 Cook to Locke, 13 June 1916, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC,Box 164-21, Folder 46 (Cook, George William).

225 Locke to Cooke, 18 May 1916, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC,Box 164-21, Folder 46 (Cook, George William).

226 Stewart, A Biography of Alain Locke, 22.

227 Stewart, A Biography of Alain Locke, 22, n. 30: “Locke to Mason, 4/12/36, 7/26/32, Gen. Corr., ALP, MSC, HU.” These letters would now be catalogued as: (1) Locke to Mason, 12 April 1936, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-71, Folder 9 (Feb.-May 1936); and (3) Locke to Mason, 26 July 1932, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-70, Folder 1 (July 1932).

228 Locke to Mason, 26 July 1932, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-70, Folder 1 (July 1932), qtd. by Stewart, A Biography of Alain Locke, 341.

229 Locke to Mason, 26 July 1932, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-70, Folder 1 (July 1932), 2.

230 Locke to Mason, 26 July 1932, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-70, Folder 1 (July 1932), 3.

231 Locke to Mason, 12 April 1936, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-71, Folder 9 (Feb.-May 1936), 1.

232 The date, “1918,” given in the table compiled by Morrison, To Move the World, 204, is almost certainly based on the personal data Locke provided.

233 On the Bahá’í Historical Record cards, see Stockman, The Bahá’í Faith in America: Early Expansion, 1900–1912, 412; and “Bahá’í Historical Record,” Bahá’í News, No. 94 (August 1935): 2. The Historical Record Cards have been available to researchers for some time, but they gave no clues about Locke because his card has only recently been discovered.

234 Gayle Morrison, To Move the World, “Table. Information about 99 black respondents among 1,1813 Bahá’ís surveyed, 1935–c. 1937, from Bahá’í Historical Record Cards in the National Bahá’í Archives, Wilmette, Illinois,” 204.

235 Bahá’í Historical Record Cards Collection, and Biographical Information Collection, NBA. Locke received three copies of this form from Joseph F. Harley, III, secretary of the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Washington, DC. Harley to Locke, 27 August 1935, Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-176, Folder 13 (Bahá’í Faith).

236 See Charlotte Linfoot, “Alain LeRoy Locke, 1886–1954,” in The Bahá’í World: An International Record, Volume XIII, 1954–1963 (Haifa: Universal House of Justice, [1970] 1980), 894–95. In this obituary, Linfoot states: “In the early 1920's Dr. Locke came into contact with the Bahá’í Faith in Washington, DC” (895).

237 Louis Gregory (on behalf of the National Bahá’í Committee for Racial Amity), “Inter–Racial Amity Activities,” Bahá’í News, No. 72 (April 1933): 6.

238 Alain Locke Papers, MSRC, Box 164-98, Folder 11: Illegible (Italian/Farsi)

239 Roger Dahl, Archivist, National Bahá’í Archives, letter to Buck, 16 Feb. 2001.

240 Office of the Secretary Records, Bahá’í Membership Lists Files, Bahá’í National Center. These lists include: March 1922; September 1925; 1928–1929 (appears to be updated by hand and written over the typewritten 1927–1928 list); 14 January 1934; 22 January 1936; 1937; January 1938; 11 January 1939; 1940; 1941; 1942; 15 January 1943; 1944; 1945; 1946; 1947; 1948; 1949; 1950; 1951. Courtesy of Roger M. Dahl, Archivist, National Bahá’í Archives.

241 Henry E. Baker to Alain Locke, no date, Alain Locke Papers, Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, Howard University, Washington, DC, Box 164-12, folder 9. Available at
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