Aim: In what ways was Reconstruction a struggle between the Executive and Legislative branches? Objectives

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AIM: In what ways was Reconstruction a struggle between the Executive and Legislative branches?

Objectives: Johnson on Reconstruction, Congress
How important was Lincoln’s leadership?

On voting rights?

In favor of expanding right to vote to “ the very intelligent, and on those who serve our cause as soldiers”

Assassinated- led to take over by more radical Republicans

Andrew Johnson

The only Southern Senator to remain with the Union

Championed the cause of the poor white

Picked as the VP to promote pro-Union (Republican) Democrats to vote for them

But was a white supremacist made to work with a Congress who’s cause was the liberation of slaves (as well as preservation o the Union)

Who has the power to run Reconstruction of the South?

How did Johnson do in power?

At first, Johnson favored by Congress due to his hatred for the South

Hatred, however, only for the aristocrats that led the Confederacy

10% Plan- called for the disenfranchisement of all former leaders and officeholders & Confederates with more than $20,000 in taxable property

BUT held power to make individual pardons- many leaders back in power soon after

Did Johnson promote the interests of the South or of the Union?

8 months after taking office, all 11 ex- Confederates came back

drew up constitutions that ratified the 13th Amendment, repudiated secession, negated debts

BUT: none of the constitutions extended voting rights to blacks

Alexander Stephens elected governor of Georgia (former Confederate VP)

How were Republicans further enraged?

Black Codes: prohibited blacks from renting or borrowing money to buy land; Freedmen as vagrants/ bondage workers- signed work contracts;

Prohibited blacks from testifying against whites in court (similar to slavery)


Of a bill increasing the services and protection of the Freedmen’s Bureau

Civil rights bill that would have nullified the Codes and guarantee full citizenship & equal rights

How did Congress fight back?

Election of 1866

Johnson appealed to Southern racists

Republicans waved the “bloody shirt”

Took overwhelming control of Congress

Moderates and radical Republicans against Johnson (isolated Democrats as purely Southern)

Ended the first round – Executive Reconstruction (Lincoln and Johnson 1863-1866)

Began a plan that was more punitive to the Southern Whites and more protective of Blacks

Radical Republicans

Different from the moderates who championed the cause of middle class whites- took on the cause of civil rights for blacks

Many shifted from moderates to counter the huge electoral power of the South – 3/5’s no longer applies

Led by Charles Sumner (caned) in the Senate and Thaddeus Stevens in the House

Revolutionize Southern society through military rule

Blacks to exercise their civil rights

Get educated in federally run schools

Receive lands confiscated by the federal government

Most important aspects were the Civil Rights Act of 1866 – made into more permanent form in the 14th Amendment

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