Age of progress



Download 12.53 Kb.
Date conversion16.04.2016
Size12.53 Kb.


AP EURO: LECTURE OUTLINE pp. 642-647

THE MASS SOCIETY IN AN “AGE OF PROGRESS“ 1871-1894:
Europe in the late 1880’s -

1. Period of material prosperity

2. New industries and new markets

3. A Second Industrial Revolution

4. Belief that material progress = human progress

5. Emergence of a mass society - voting rights, improved standard of living. education

6. Improvements for the working class

7. Mass leisure

8. The triumph of liberalism in W. Europe - growth of political democracy

9. Persistence of the old order in Central and E. Europe



THE GROWTH OF INDUSTRIAL PROSPERITY:
Tremendous material growth after 1871 = a belief in progress
The 1st Industrial Rev. = textiles, railroads, iron, and coal
The 2nd Industrial Revolution = steel, chemicals, electricity, and petroleum

NEW PRODUCTS:
Steel -

1. Replaced iron

2. Lighter, smaller, faster machines and engines

3. Railways, ships, and arms

4. Germany and the United States surpass Britain in steel production
The Chemical Industry -

1. Alakalies = textile, soap and paper industries

2. Organic chemical compounds = artificial dyes

3. Chemicals used for photography and film


Electricity -

1. New source of energy

2. First practical electrical generators dev. In the 1870’s

3. By 1910 electricity became a source of power for homes, shops, and factories


Application of electricity -

1. Thomas Edison = light bulb

2. Alexander Graham Bell = the telephone

3. Guglielmo Marconi = radio

4. Electric railways. Streetcars, and subways

5. Electrification of factories - conveyor belts, cranes, machines

Petroleum -

1. The internal combustion engine in 1878

2. Liquid fuels = petroleum and gasoline

3. Ships


4. Automobiles - Gottlieb Daimler devs. Light engine in 1886

5. Henry Ford = the assembly line = the Model T

6. Airplanes - the Wright brothers at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina in 1903

NEW MARKETS:
Development of markets for the sale of manufactured goods -

1. Domestic markets

2. Pop increase + rising incomes = more spending on consumer goods

3. New mass marketing = advertising and sales tactics

4. Department stores
The end of free trade and return to tariffs and protection of domestic industries
Cartels = producers cooperating to set prices and control production = maintain high prices
Creation of larger and larger manufacturing plants - iron, steel, machinery, electrical and chemical industries
Efforts to make production streamlined and efficient -

1. Mechanization

2. Precision tools and interchangeable parts

3. The assembly line

4. Scientific management of labor

NEW PATTERNS IN AN INDUSTRIAL ECONOMY”
The Second Industrial Revolution led basic economic patterns of modern European economic life -

1. The business cycle - boom and bust

2. Economy rises and heats

3. Economy cools and slumps


From 1895 to World War I = economic boom/economic growth
La Belle Époque = a gold age of European civilization = “ the beautiful age” = good times!

GERMAN INDUSTRIAL LEADERSHIP:
After 1870 Germany replaces Britain as the industrial leader of Europe -

1. Organic chemicals

2. Electrical equipment

3. Trade
Why did Germany pass Britain?

1. Britain got stuck in the 1st Industrial Revolution technology

2. Germany industrialized later so it could jump right to 2nd I.R. technology

3. Formation of large cartels = big business

4. Encouragement of scientific and technical education

EUROPEAN ECONOMIC ZONES:
By 1900 Europe was divided into two economic zones =

1. Western and central Europe = Britain, Belgium. France, Netherlands, western part of Austria-Hungary

and northern Italy

Advanced industrialization

Higher standard of living

Good transportation systems

Healthy and educated citizens

2. South and eastern Europe = southern Italy, most of Austria-Hungary, Spain, Portugal, the Balkans, and

Russia

Lagged behind economically and socially


New patterns of Euro agriculture -

1. Drop in prices of agricultural goods

2. Tariffs

3. Mechanization - farm machinery

4. Specialization

5. Chemical fertilizers



A WORLD ECONOMY:
Economic development + transportation revolution = world economy
Europe economically dominated the rest of the world -

1. Bought their raw materials

2. Sold surplus manufactured goods to them

3. Invested capital around the world



4. Used military superiority to enforce economic domination



The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016
send message

    Main page