|-Age of Jackson-
Use Chapter 11 of your text to complete the following outline questions.
I. ELECTION of 1824
Who ran? List the person, their party, and where they were from.
Andrew Jackson: Democratic-Republican, from the West
Henry Clay: Democratic-Republican, from the West
William Crawford: Democratic-Republican, from Georgia
John Quincy Adams: Democratic-Republican, from Massachusetts
John Quincy Adams
What Is a favorite son?
A candidate that receives backing from their home state, rather than that of the national political party.
What was the "bargain" Jackson talked about?
“Corrupt Bargain”: When Henry Clay made a deal with John Quincy Adams to ensure that Adams would win the office of president in exchange for Clay being named Secretary of State (traditionally the stepping stone to becoming President).
II. ELECTION of 1828
Who ran? List the person and the party.
John Quincy Adams: National Republican
Andrew Jackson: Democratic-Republican
b. Describe the parties in this era.
I. Democratic-Republicans: favored states’ rights and mistrusted a strong central government. Individualists from the frontier, immigrants or laborers from the city.
II. National-Republicans: wanted a strong central government. They supported federal measures, such as road building and the Bank of the United States,that would shape the nation’s economy. Many were merchants and farmers.
c. What Is mudslinging? Attempts to ruin an opponent’s reputation with insults.
d. Who won the election? Andrew Jackson
III. JACKSON AS PRESIDENT
a. What was his nickname and why? “Old Hickory”, because his troops during the War of 1812 thought he was as tough as a hickory stick.
b. Who could vote In the nation's early years? There was limited suffrage, and only white men who owned property had the right to vote.
c. What changes in voting occurred In the 1820s? Be specific. States began to loosen property requirements for voting. Democracy expanded as people who had not been allowed to vote, voted for the first time.
d. What Is a bureaucracy? A government system in which nonelected officials carry out laws.
e. What is the spoils system? The practice of replacing government employees with the winning candidate’s supporters.
IV. THE TARIFF DEBATE and the NULLIFICATION CRISIS
a. What Is a tariff? A fee paid by merchants who imported goods.
b. What was the purpose of the Tariff of 1828? To make European goods more expensive so that American consumers are more likely to buy American made goods.
c. Why did the South hate it? They meant that the South would have to pay higher prices for imported goods that they had previously relied on. What did they call the tariff? Tariff of Abominations.
d. What did Southerners and Vice-President John C. Calhoun argue they had the right to do? They argued that they had the right to NULLIFY, or cancel a federal law it considered against state interests.
e. Where did Daniel Webster stand on nullification? Webster argued that nullification could only mean the end of the Union and defended the Constitution.
f. Where did President Jackson stand on the Issue of nullification? Like Webster, Andrew Jackson was against nullification.
g. In 1832, Congress passed a new tariff. How did it differ from the tariff of 1828? It was a lower tariff, hoping that the protest in the South would die down. It did not.
h. What did South Carolina's state legislature do? They passed the Nullification Act, declaring that it would not pay the “illegal” tariffs of 1828 and 1832.
I. What else did the South Carolina legislators threaten? They threatened to secede from the Union if the federal government tried to interfere with their actions.
j. What did Henry Clay, the Great Compromiser, propose? Proposed a bill that would gradually lower the tariff over several years.
k. What did Jackson do just in case? Persuaded Congress to pass the Force Bill, which allowed the President to use the United States military to enforce acts of Congress.
I. How did South Carolina respond? Accepted the new tariff.
m. What was the lesson of the Nullification Crisis for the South? That the federal government would not allow a state to go its own way without a fight.
V. MOVING NATIVE AMERICANS
a. Why was the Indian Removal Act passed? To remove the Indians from land that proved to be successful for farming and push them west of the Mississippi towards land that seemed unsuitable for farming.
b. Whose Idea was it and what did it say? Congress, it allowed the federal government to pay Native Americans to move west.
c. What was the Supreme Court case Worcester v. Georgia and what did It say? Case where the Cherokee Indians sued the state of Georgia. The Cherokees refused to give up their land, which had been recognized by the federal government as being their own state separate from Georgia. Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that Georgia had no right to interfere with the Cherokee, only the federal government had authority over matters involving the Cherokee.
d. What was the Trail of Tears? The forced journey westward of the Cherokee Indians. President Jackson sent in the federal troops to push the Indians off the land, along the long journey west, brutal weather claimed thousands of Cherokee lives.
e. Who were the only Native Americans to successfully resist? The Seminole people of Florida.
VI. WAR AGAINST THE BANK
a. What did Jackson believe about the bank? That it was an organization of wealthy Easterners over which ordinary citizens had no control.
b. How did Clay and Webster use the bank to try to defeat Jackson? They persuaded the bank president to apply early for a new charter that would extend the life of the bank until after Jackson was president.
c. Who won the election of 1832? Andrew Jackson
d. What happened 2 months after Van Buren took office? The country entered into a severe economic depression. Business and employment were very low.
e. Explain the principle of laissez-faire. That government should interfere as little as possible in the nation’s economy.
VII. WHIGS COME TO POWER
a. Who was the Whig candidate of 1840? William Henry Harrison
Who was the 1st vice president to become president? John Tyler of Virginia
How did he become president? William Henry Harrison died of pneumonia on April 4, 1841
What happened in office after that? Although Tyler had been elected vice president as a Whig, he was once a democrat. As president, Tyler was a strong supporter of states’ rights, vetoed several bills sponsored by Whigs in Congress, including a bill to recharter the Bank of the United states. His lack of party loyalty outraged the Whigs, most of Tyler’s cabinet resigned, and Whig leaders in Congress expelled Tyler from the party.