African American Soldiers In The Civil War



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African American Soldiers In The Civil War

Ron Harp


Hamilton City Schools

Fall, 2010






Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division,

[reproduction number, e.g., LC-B8184-3287

This lesson will give students an overview of both the role of the African American Troops in the Civil War as well as detail the experiences of Black soldiers. Students will recognize that African American military experience reflected the larger experience of African Americans in the United States in this period.

Overview/ Materials/LOC Resources/Standards/ Procedures/Evaluation/Rubric/Handouts/Extension


Overview Back to Navigation Bar

Objectives

Students will:

  • Be able to use primary resources.

  • Be able to explain what the Emancipation Proclamation is.

  • Be able to identify the author of the Emancipation Proclamation.

  • Be able to explain how the Emancipation Proclamation affected the number of African American Recruits in the Union Army.

  • Be able to give examples of the ways African Americans were discriminated against in the Civil War.

  • Be able to explain how African Americans contributed to the Union victory in the Civil War.

Recommended time frame

One or Two Class Periods

Grade level

8th grade

Curriculum fit

Social Studies – American History

Materials

First Organization of Colored Troops in New York, handout.

Computer/Projector

Photocopies

Handouts





Ohio State Learning Standards Back to Navigation Bar




.

10. Explain the course and consequences of the Civil War with

emphasis on: b. The Emancipation Proclamation;


Procedures Back to Navigation Bar




This one or two day lesson fits into the unit dealing with the Civil War. A good place for insertion would be after the first two years of the war when the South was doing well and tens of thousands of lives had been lost.

Day One:

  • Students need background information of the following:

  • Causes of the war from the viewpoints of both the North and South

  • Strengths and Weaknesses of both sides

  • Plans for victory for both the Union and Confederacy.

  • Introduction

    • Break into groups of 3 to 5 depending on class size

    • Ask students how they thought African Americans in the Northern States attempting to enlist as soldiers in the Union Army were treated during the first two years of the Civil War 1861-1862:

    • Have students write their group answer on lesson guide answer sheet.

    • Ask each group to read their response and the reasoning behind it.

    • Have students read the Emancipation Proclamation. Handout provided.

    • Have groups discuss and write why A. Lincoln issued this document.

    • Discuss this document with them. In their groups have them fill in how they think this document affected the following:

      • Slave Recruits

      • Southerners and the Confederate Army

      • A. Lincoln and the Union Army

      • African Americans as soldiers

    • Have students list the ways black soldiers were discriminated against during the Civil War







Replace this text with directions for how this learning experience will be evaluated. There is a separate page for posting your assessment rubric. Create a link to the rubric page.

Extension Back to Navigation Bar




Replace this text with directions for an extension activity. Create a link to the extension activity.




Teacher’s Guide

African American Soldiers in the Civil War




  1. Free African Americans living in the North were not allowed to become soldiers at the start of the Civil War. 1861-1862.

    1. Reasons:

      1. They could not take orders.

      2. Were not intelligent enough.

      3. White’s would not fight along side of blacks

    2. Many tried to enlist but were denied by the states and the War Dept.

    3. Attitude changes in Mid 1862-ten of thousands dead, recruitment low.

    4. Save white lives if blacks fought.

    5. http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=rbaapc&fileName=20700//rbaapc20700.db&recNum=2. Library of Congress

  2. Lincoln and the Emancipation Proclamation.

    1. Issued January 1, 1863

    2. Lincoln’s main goals:

      1. Preserve the Union

      2. Weaken the Confederate war machine. South was doing well in war at this time.

      3. Do away with slavery

    3. Affects of the Emancipation Proclamation.

      1. Slaves-thousands escaped and joined the Union Army.

      2. Slave family’s punished sometimes for the male slave escaping. Too hard for whole family to escape

      3. Southerners – lost laborers and property; made owners very angry

      4. Confederate Army had to use troops to do labor done by slaves, loss of fighting troops.

      5. Abraham Lincoln had to figure out what would be needed to care for the four million freed slaves; everyday essentials like food, clothing, shelter and jobs.

      6. Lincoln did not free the slaves in the four Border States fearing that these states would join the Confederacy.

      7. The number of African American Soldiers increased as thousands of the former slaves joined the Union Army

  3. African Americans as Soldiers

    1. Faced many forms of discrimination

      1. Less Pay – many refused pay until paid equally with white soldiers. Congress passed bill in Aug. 1864 for equal pay.

      2. White Officers led black companies until late in the Civil War. African Americans were not allowed to become officers.

      3. Segregation of troops, blacks and whites did not live in same buildings or areas of camps. Black troops received poorer uniforms and equipment.

      4. Fatigue Duty

        1. African American Troops were given menial tasks. They did not see as much fighting

          1. Cleaning up dead bodies

          2. Moving supplies

          3. Taking care of white soldiers

        2. Faced harsher punishments


  1. African Americans in Battle

    1. Seventeen African American soldiers received the Medal of Honor. Eight sailors received the same honor.

    2. Fought in many different battles – 39 major engagements

      1. Examples:

        1. The Crater – Heaviest Losses

        2. Fort Wagner – Frontal Assault – Heaviest Losses

        3. Port Hudson – Heaviest Losses

        4. Fort Milliken – Fierce hand to hand, bayonet combat

  2. Civil War Victory

    1. Union Preserved

    2. Slavery ends in the U.S.A.

    3. 200,000 African Americans serve in the armed forces

    4. 39,000 die while serving

  3. African Americans After the Civil War

    1. African American suffered from being poor and discrimination

      1. Low paying jobs

      2. Educational opportunities were unequal – segregation

      3. Segregation of Public Places

        1. Hotels, restaurants, etc. Especially in the South

        2. Voting requirements

      4. African American Soldiers

        1. 12,500 stayed in the military

          1. Guarded the Mexican border with the U.S.

          2. Fought Native Americans in the West


Handouts

Back to Navigation Bar

Handout for the Organization of Colored Troops in New York State.




Group Activity Sheet
Group Members: ________________ _____________
________________ _____________ _______________



  1. Discuss and write a paragraph on what the group thinks the role Free African Americans played as far as military service in the first two years of the Civil War.



  1. After reading the Emancipation Proclamation and discussing the contents; have each group answer the following questions on the Group Activity Sheet:

    1. Which one of the following groups benefited the most from the Emancipation Proclamation? Support your answer with facts given in class presentation and handouts:

      1. Slaves and Slave Recruits

      2. Southerners and the Confederate Army

      3. Union Army


  1. Why did Lincoln issue the Emancipation Proclamation when he died?


  1. Does your group feel that the Emancipation Proclamation helped the Union cause?

Emancipation Proclamation

Whereas on the 22nd day of September, A.D. 1862, a proclamation
was issued by the President of the United States, containing,
among other things, the following, to wit:

"That on the 1st day of January, A.D. 1863, all persons held as


slaves within any State or designated part of a State the people
whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States shall
be then, thenceforward, and forever free; and the executive
government of the United States, including the military and naval
authority thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of such
persons and will do no act or acts to repress such persons, or any
of them, in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom.

"That the executive will on the 1st day of January aforesaid,


by proclamation, designate the States and parts of States, if any,
in which the people thereof, respectively, shall then be in
rebellion against the United States; and the fact that any State
or the people thereof shall on that day be in good faith
represented in the Congress of the United States by members
chosen thereto at elections wherein a majority of the qualified
voters of such States shall have participated shall, in the
absence of strong countervailing testimony, be deemed conclusive
evidence that such State and the people thereof are not then
in rebellion against the United States."

Now, therefore, I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United


States, by virtue of the power in me vested as Commander-In-Chief
of the Army and Navy of the United States in time of actual armed
rebellion against the authority and government of the United States,
and as a fit and necessary war measure for supressing said
rebellion, do, on this 1st day of January, A.D. 1863, and in
accordance with my purpose so to do, publicly proclaimed for the
full period of one hundred days from the first day above mentioned,
order and designate as the States and parts of States wherein the
people thereof, respectively, are this day in rebellion against
the United States the following, to wit:

Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana (except the parishes of St. Bernard,


Palquemines, Jefferson, St. John, St. Charles, St. James, Ascension,
Assumption, Terrebone, Lafourche, St. Mary, St. Martin, and Orleans,
including the city of New Orleans), Mississippi, Alabama, Florida,
Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia (except the
forty-eight counties designated as West Virginia, and also the
counties of Berkeley, Accomac, Morthhampton, Elizabeth City, York,
Princess Anne, and Norfolk, including the cities of Norfolk and
Portsmouth), and which excepted parts are for the present left
precisely as if this proclamation were not issued.

And by virtue of the power and for the purpose aforesaid, I do


order and declare that all persons held as slaves within said
designated States and parts of States are, and henceforward shall
be, free; and that the Executive Government of the United States,
including the military and naval authorities thereof, will
recognize and maintain the freedom of said persons.

And I hereby enjoin upon the people so declared to be free to


abstain from all violence, unless in necessary self-defence; and
I recommend to them that, in all case when allowed, they labor
faithfully for reasonable wages.

And I further declare and make known that such persons of


suitable condition will be received into the armed service of
the United States to garrison forts, positions, stations, and
other places, and to man vessels of all sorts in said service.

And upon this act, sincerely believed to be an act of justice,


warranted by the Constitution upon military necessity, I invoke
the considerate judgment of mankind and the gracious favor
of Almighty God.

Rubric For Group Activity Sheet
Grade is based on an eight point Rubric
2 points awarded per group question

Response is answered in complete sentences with facts taken from the class presentation and handouts

that support their answer.

1 point awarded per group question

Response is accurate with some facts listed from the class presentation and handouts.



0 points awarded per group question

Answer is inaccurate without supporting facts from the class presentation and handouts.




Image

Description

Citation

URL







Arlington, Va. Band of 107th U.S. Colored Infantry at Fort

Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, [reproduction number, e.g., LC-B8184-3287

http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/cwar:@field(NUMBER+@band(cwp+4a40237))







 Stereoview of two African-American pickets on duty near Dutch Gap, Virginia.

." published by E. & H.T. Anthony & Co

Pickets on Duty

1861-1865



http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/aaeo:@field(DOCID+@lit(o4445))






Group at Mr. Foller's farm, Cumberland

Civil War Treasures from the New-York Historical Society

Group at Mr. Foller's farm, Cumberland

1862


http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/cwnyhs:@field(DOCID+@lit(ad10009))






[Washington, District of Columbia]. Gen. Napoleon Bonaparte McLaughlen and staff.


Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, [reproduction number, e.g., LC-B8184-3287]

Gen. Napoleon Bonaparte McLaughlen and staff. 1865 July

http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/cwnyhs:@field(DOCID+@lit(ad10009))


Image

Description

Citation

URL





First Organization of Colored Troops in New York State

Library of Congress, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, African American Pamphlet Collection

http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=rbaapc&fileName=20700//rbaapc20700.db&recNum=2






Fugitive Slaves Crossing Rappahanock Riser in Virginia

New York Historical Society Attn. Library Director

2 West 77th Street

New York, New York

10024


Call Number: PR-065-800-36

http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D?cwnyhs:1:./temp/~ammem_mWFD::













African American Resource Table




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