African American Response to Jim Crow Jim Crow Laws were passed to discriminate against African Americans Racial Segregation



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African American Response to Jim Crow
Jim Crow Laws were passed to discriminate against African Americans
Racial Segregation

  1. Separation based on race.

  2. Directed primarily against African Americans, but other

groups were also segregated.

Jim Crow Laws

1. Made discrimination practices legal in many communities and

states.

2. Were characterized by unequal opportunities in:


Housing

Work


Education

Employment


Booker T. Washington – Believed equality could be achieved through

vocational education. He accepted social separation.


W.E.B. DuBois -- Believed in full political, civil and social rights for

African Americans.


Plessy v. Ferguson – Supreme Court case which made “Separate but Equal” legal.

Plessy v Ferguson was the Supreme Court case that in 1896 made “Separate but Equal” legal. Homer Plessy was a black man arrested for ride in a train car reserved for whites. At trail he argued that the law violated his constitutional rights. The court said that it was okay to have the law. Plessy appealed the case all the way to the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court also said that the state had the right to segregate train cars. This ruling made “Separate but Equal” the law of the land for over 50 years.



The Great Plains
Physical features and climate of the Great Plains

  • Flatlands that rise gradually from east to west

  • Land eroded by wind and water

  • Low rainfalls

  • Frequent dust storms





KNOW that because of new technologies, people saw the Great Plains not as a “Treeless Wasteland” but as a vast area to be settled.

Inventions and adaptations


  • Barbed wire – used to protect fields and animals

  • Steel plows – made it easier to plow the hard ground

  • Dry farming - a method of farming to get the most moisture from

the ground

  • Sod houses – without many trees houses were made from sod

  • Beef cattle raising – cattle were able to thrive in the Great Plains

  • Wheat farming – wheat grew well in the Great Plains

  • Windmills – pumped water

  • Railroads – the Transcontinental Railroad made it easier to move people

and supplies
Reasons for westward expansion (why people moved to the Great Plains)


  • Opportunities for land ownership

  • Technological advances, including the Transcontinental Railroad

  • Possibility of wealth created by the discovery of gold and silver

  • Adventure

  • A new beginning for former slaves


Interaction and conflict between different cultural groups
Indian policies and wars


  • US government wanted to place American Indians onto reservations.

  • The Indians didn’t want to live on reservations. This lead to many conflicts.

  • The Battle of Little Bighorn. The Sioux Indians killed General Custer and all his troops. This battle is also known as Custer’s Last Stand.

  • Chief Joseph. Chief of the Nez Perce Tribe. His tribe tried to make it to Canada rather than be sent to a reservation. The US Calvary stopped them 40 miles from the border. Chief Joseph made a famous speech……

“……..Hear me my chiefs! I am tired. My heart is sick

and sad. From where the sun now stands, I will fight no

more forever.”


Discrimination against immigrants

  • Many immigrant groups faced discrimination. Two examples of this are the Chinese and the Irish. Both groups worked on the transcontinental railroad.


Industrialization & Growth of American Cities
Post Civil War changes in farm and city life


  • Mechanization (the reaper) had reduced farm labor needs and increased production. The reaper was able to do the work of about 9 or 10 men.

  • Industrial development in cities created increased labor needs. Many factories were being built and they needed workers.

  • Industrialization provided access to consumer goods. With all the goods being produced, and the new technology of the Railroads even people living in rural areas had access to goods by way of things like mail order.


Reasons for increased immigration

(why did people want to move to the United States)



  • Hope for better opportunities

  • Religious freedom

  • Escape from oppressive governments

  • Adventure


Transportation of resources

  • Moving natural resources like copper & lead to eastern factories.

  • Moving iron ore deposits to steel mills which were mainly in Pittsburgh

  • Transporting finished products to national markets.


Natural Resources to be made into products are

Go to the factories products then… taken to the

markets to be

sold.


Examples of manufacturing areas


  • Textile industry………………..New England

  • Automobile Industry………..Detroit

  • Steel Industry…………………..Pittsburgh

  • Meatpacking………………………..Chicago



Examples of big business


  • Railroads

  • Oil

  • Steel



Reasons for rise and prosperity of big business


  • National markets created by transportation advances

    • With the railroad a business could sell it’s products all over the United States.

  • Captains of Industry, these men had the money to invest in business and were willing to take that risk.

    • John D. Rockefeller – Oil

    • Andrew Carnegie – Steel

    • Henry Ford – Automobiles

  • Advertising, companies started to advertise there products more, this let people know what was out there to buy.

  • Lower-cost production, businesses had figured out ways to make their products for less money.


Inventions that contributed to great change and industrial growth



  • Lighting and mechanical uses of electricity – Thomas Edison

  • Telephone – Alexander Graham Bell

These inventions among others, made it much easier to

work in the factories.



Factors resulting in growth of industry


  • Access to raw materials and energy – the railroad gave us more and better access to this.

  • Availability of work force – Americans moving to the cities looking for work, and immigrants from other countries in the cities looking for work gave industry a lot to choose from.

  • Inventions – lighting and electricity made the factories work better.

  • Financial Resources – The captains of industry had lots of money to put into their factories.


Challenges faced by cities

(what were some bad things that happened)



  • Tenements and ghettos

  • Political Corruption (political machines)




Rapid industrialization and urbanization led to overcrowded immigrant neighborhoods and tenements
Efforts to solve immigration problems

(what were some of the things done to try to make life better)



  • Settlement houses, such as Hull House founded by Jane Addams

  • Political machines that gained power by attending to the needs of new immigrants (jobs, housing)


POLITICAL MACHINES HAD BOTH POSITIVE & NEGATIVE EFFECTS

Negative effects of industrialization


  • Child labor

  • Low wages, long hours

  • Unsafe working conditions


Progressive Movement workplace reforms



  • Improved safety conditions

  • Reduced work hours

  • Restrictions placed on child labor


Rise of organized labor


  • Formation of Unions – Growth of American Federation of Labor (AFL)

  • Strikes – Aftermath of the Homestead Strike


Spanish American War
Reasons for the Spanish American War


  • Protection of American business interests in Cuba.

  • American support of Cuban rebels to gain independence from Spain.

  • Rising tension as a result of the sinking of the USS Maine in Havana Harbor

  • Exaggerated news reports of events –Yellow Journalism

Results of the Spanish American War




  • The United States emerged as a world power.

  • Cuba gained independence from Spain.

  • The United States gained possession of the following:

  1. The Philippines

  2. Guam

  3. Puerto Rico


GUAM


Early 20th Century
Transportations changes


  • Use of the assembly line by Henry Ford made automobiles more affordable for Americans.

  • Transportation improved because of more people having automobiles.

Results of improved transportation brought on by affordable automobiles




  • Greater mobility

  • Creation of jobs – to make cars, sell them, service them, to build roads etc.

  • Growth of transportation related industries – road construction, oil, steel, automobile

  • Movement to suburban areas.

Communication changes




  • Increased availability of telephones.

  • Development of the radio (Marconi – wireless signals)

  • Development of the broadcast industry (Sarnoff)

  • Development of movies

Ways electrification changed American Life




  • Labor saving products, washing machines, electric stoves, water pumps.

  • Electric lighting

  • Entertainment – radio

  • Improved communications



TECHNOLOGY EXTENDED PROGRESS INTO ALL AREAS OF AMERICAN LIFE, INCLUDING NEGLECTED RURAL AREAS.



WWI
Reasons for US involvement in WWI


  • Inability to remain neutral

  • German submarine warfare – sinking of the Lusitania

  • US economic and political ties to Great Britain

ALLIES


  • Great Britain

  • France

  • Russia

  • Serbia

  • Belgium

  • United States (in 1917)

CENTRAL POWERS



  • Germany

  • Austria-Hungary

  • Bulgaria

  • Ottoman Empire

US leadership as the war ended





  • At the end of WWI, President Woodrow Wilson prepared a peace plan, The 14 points, that called for the formation of The League of Nations, a peace keeping organization.




  • The US decided not to join the League of Nations because politicians were worried about being caught up in future European wars.



THE GREAT MIGRATION
The Great Migration north started when great numbers of African Americans moved north in search of better lives.


  • Jobs for African Americans in the South were scarce and low paying.

  • African Americans faced discrimination and violence in the South.

  • African Americans moved to northern cities in search of better employment opportunities.

  • African Americans also faced discrimination and violence in the north.


Harlem Renaissance
African American artists, writers and musicians based in Harlem revealed the freshness and variety of African American cultures.
Review the following people from the people to know section.


  1. Jacob Lawrence

  2. Langston Hughes

  3. Duke Ellington

  4. Louis Armstrong

  5. Bessie Smith

Know that the popularity of these artists spread to all of American Society.
Cultural climate of the 1920s & 1930s
Review the following people from the people to know section.


  1. Georgia O’Keefe

  2. F. Scott Fitzgerald

  3. John Steinbeck

  4. Aaron Copland

  5. George Gershwin


Temperance Movement & Prohibition


  • Made up of groups opposed to the making and consuming of alcoholic beverages.

  • The groups supported the 18th amendment prohibiting the manufacture, sale, and transport of alcoholic beverages.




Prohibition was imposed by a constitutional amendment that made it illegal to manufacture, transport or sell alcoholic beverages.

Results of Prohibition


  • Speakeasies were created as places for people to drink alcoholic beverages.

  • Bootleggers smuggled illegal alcohol and promoted organized crime.


Women’s Suffrage

The women’s suffrage movement was not only to attain voting rights for women, but also to attain increased educational opportunities for women. Women gained the right to vote with the 19th amendment to the Constitution. Susan B. Anthony worked for women’s suffrage.

W.E.B. Dubois Booker T. Washington Chief Joseph

Believed in full Believed equality Chief of the

Political, civil, and could be achieved Nez Perce

Social rights for through vocational “…I will fight

African Americans. education. He no more

accepted social forever.”

separation.


Andrew Carnegie Henry Ford John D. Rockefeller



Captain of the Captain of the Captain of the

steel industry Automobile industry. oil industry.

He developed the

Assembly Line


Jane Addams Alexander Graham Bell Thomas Edison



Founded Hull House Invented the Telephone Invented the

light bulb


The Wright Brothers Guglielmo Marconi David Sarnoff Susan B. Anthony



Considered first in flight Developed the radio Developed broadcast Worked hard for

first to send wireless radio women’s suffrage

signals. movement


Woodrow Wilson Georgia O’Keeffe George Gershwin &

Aaron Copland



President of US during An artist known for Both were composers of

WWI. Developed a urban scenes and, uniquely American music

peace plan that called later paintings of

for the formation of the southwest.

The League of Nations




F. Scott Fitzgerald John Steinbeck Jacob Lawrence



A novelist who A novelist who Painter who

wrote about the wrote portrayed chronicled the

Jazz Age of the the strength of Great Migration North

1920’s He wrote poor migrant

The Great Gatsby workers during

the Great Depression

He wrote Grapes of Wrath

Duke Ellington & Bessie Smith Langston Hughes

Louis Armstrong

Both were Jazz composers Blues singer A poet who

During the Harlem Renaissance during the combined the

Harlem Renaissance experiences of

African and

American cultural

roots
Stuff You Gotta Know
Dates To Know


  • 1876…………………………………..Battle of Little Bighorn

  • 1877…………………………………..Chief Joseph

  • 1898…………………………………..Spanish American War

  • 1914…………………………………..World War I starts in Europe

  • 1917…………………………………..America joins WWI


Time Periods to Know

Late 19th century – early 20th century (1877-1914)

  • US changes from an agricultural to an industrial nation.

  • Many immigrants from Europe come to the US.

  • Many advances in transportation, electricity, & communication.

1917-1918

  • America was involved in WWI

1920’s

  • Jazz Age – Harlem Renaissance

  • Prohibition

  • Women’s suffrage

  • Period of prosperity in US


Court Cases to Know

  • Plessy v Fergusson – 1896 – made “Separate but equal” legal.


Constitutional Amendments to Know

  • 18th Amendment – Prohibition of alcohol

  • 19th Amendment – Women’s right to vote (suffrage)


Organizations to Know

  • AFL – American Federation of Labor (during industrialization)

  • League of Nations (after WWI)


Acts and Policies to Know

  • Jim Crow Laws

  • Homestead Act (Great Plains)


Wars & Conflicts

  • Battle of Little Bighorn………….1876

  • Nez Perce Indians ……………….1877

  • Homestead Strike ..……………..1892

  • Spanish American War………….1898

  • WWI……In Europe 1914 -1918…American Involvement………1917-1918




1862 Homestead Act Starts
1865 Civil War Ends

Movement


Westward to

the Great

Plains 1876 Battle of Little Big Horn

1877 Reconstruction ends Black Codes are

& Nez Perce Indians introduced in the

South. They would

Immigration soon be known as

and 1892 Homestead Strike Jim Crow Laws

Industrialization

1895 Marconi sends first wireless signals
1898 Spanish American War
1903 Wright Brothers fly first plane at Kitty Hawk
1908 Henry Ford starts the Assembly Line for the

Model T
1914 World War I begins in Europe

The Great Migration North begins

Immigration

slows during

the war. 1915 Lusitania is sunk by German U-Boat


1917 America becomes involved in WWI
1918 WWI is over

1919 League of Nations is formed

Congress won’t allow America to join the

League of Nations


1920 18th Amendment to the Constitution

prohibits sale & transport of alcohol.

19th Amendment to the Constitution

gives women the right to vote.


1920 Harlem Renaissance begins


Essential Questions


  1. How did people’s perceptions and use of the Great Plains change after the

Civil War?

  1. How did people adapt to life in challenging environments?

  2. How did advances in transportation link resources, products, and markets?

  3. What are some examples of manufacturing areas that were located near centers of population?




  1. What is one way of grouping the 50 states?

  2. What are some examples of cities that historically have had political, economic, and/or cultural significance to the development of the United States?




  1. What is racial segregation?

  2. How were African Americans discriminated against?

  3. How did African Americans respond to discrimination and “Jim Crow”?

  4. Why did westward expansion occur?

  5. Why did immigration increase?

  6. Why did cities develop?

  7. What inventions created great change and industrial growth in the United States?

  8. What challenges faced Americans as a result of those social and technological changes?

  9. What created the rise in big business?

  10. What factors caused the growth of industry?

  11. How did industrialization and the rise in big business influence life on American farms?

  12. How did the reforms of the Progressive Movement change the United States?

  13. How did workers respond to the negative effects of industrialization?

  14. What were the reasons for the Spanish American War?

  15. What were the results of the Spanish American War?

  16. How was social and economic life in the early 20th Century different from that of the late nineteenth century?




  1. What were the reasons for the United States becoming involved in World War I?

  2. Who were the Allies?

  3. Who were the Central Powers?

  4. In what ways did the United States provide leadership at the conclusion of the war?

  5. Why did African Americans migrate to northern cities?

  6. What was Prohibition, and how effective was it?

  7. How did the Harlem Renaissance influence American life?

  8. Who were the leaders in art, literature, and music? What were their contributions?

Essential Understandings

  1. During the nineteenth century, people’s perceptions and use of the Great Plains changed.

  2. Technological advances allowed people to live in more challenging environments.

  3. Advances in transportation linked resources, products and markets.

  4. Manufacturing areas were clustered near centers of population.

  5. A state is an example of a political region. States may be grouped as part of different regions, depending upon the criteria used.




  1. Cities serve as centers of trade and have political, economic, and cultural significance.

  2. Discrimination against African Americans continued after Reconstruction.

  3. Jim Crow Laws institutionalized a system of legal segregation.

  4. African Americans differed in their responses to discrimination and Jim Crow.

  5. New opportunities and technological advances led to westward migration after the Civil War.




  1. Population changes, growth of cities, and new inventions produced interaction and often

Conflict between different cultural groups.


  1. Population changes, growth of cities, and new inventions produced problems in urban areas.




  1. Inventions had both positive and negative effects on society.




  1. Between the Civil War and World War I, the United States was transformed from an agricultural to an industrial nation.




  1. The effects of industrialization led to the rise of organized labor and important workplace reforms.




  1. The United States emerged as a world power as a result of victory over Spain in the Spanish American War.




  1. Economic interests and public opinion often influence US involvement in international affairs.

  2. Technology extended progress into all areas of American life, including neglected rural areas.




  1. The United States involvement in WWI ended a long tradition of avoiding involvement in European conflicts and set the stage for the United States to emerge as aglobal superpower later in the 20th century.




  1. There were disagreements about the extent to which the US should isolate itself from world affairs.

  2. Reforms in the early 20th century could not legislate how people behaved.

  3. The 1920’s and 1930’s were important decades for American art, literature and music.

  4. The leaders of the Harlem Renaissance drew upon the heritage of black culture to establish themselves as powerful forces for cultural change.


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