African-American Historical Notebook/Primer

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The Economics of Slave Labor in the North

Slavery was more profitable to the North American colonial economy than free labor. The competitive superiority of slave labor as compared with free labor in regions favorable to the commercial production of staples rests on a comparatively simple basis. With its abundance of fertile land in the New World, labor, when employed with a reasonable degree of efficiency, could produce a volume of physical goods larger than the bare requisites of its subsistence from birth to death. The owner of the slave had legally appropriated his/her services for life, and therefore, was in a position to appropriate the surplus above the requisites of subsistence. Land, equipment and supervision were necessary to employ slave labor productively. The physical surplus might disappear for a time on account of crop failure, and price fluctuations might also cause the value surplus to vanish for short periods, but there was both a physical and a value surplus to vanish for short periods, but there was both a physical and a value surplus for the full lifetime of the slave which was the reason the institution of slavery was maintained.

It was surplus that gave slave labor under plantation organization an ability to displace free labor, whether hired or engaged in production on family-sized farms. The minimum level of competition in the case of slave labor was bare subsistence. The planter was able, to produce at price levels that left little more than the expense of maintaining the slave. White labor could bid no lower. The basis of competition rarely reached so low a level. There were extensive areas of fertile land where white labor could find an outlet for its energies without coming into acute competition with slave labor. When free white labor did come into direct competition with slave labor in the South, there resulted geographical segregation.

The possession of areas suitable to the marketing of products was of vital importance to the owners of slaves, for, they could enjoy the surplus product of their labor only in the form of a food surplus, which it was impossible to consume, or in access of personal service.

In competition for the locations favorable to commercial agriculture, the planter

was able, if necessary, to pay a portion of the annual value of the slave or its

capitalized equivalent, as a problem to outbid free labor in the acquisition of


There were about 4 million African slaves in the South by 1860, with about 400,000 white families owning slaves. Approximately 200,000 of the 4 million African slaves, about 5 percent of the total slave population worked in industry.

Industrial Slavery in the South

Southern industry slavery had been grossly underestimated. The South , by the 1850's accounted for about 20 percent of the capital invested in the nation's industry.

Fred Bateman and Thomas Weiss have shown that industrial slavery remained highly profitable even in the late ante-bellum years when slave prices were highest and that southerners did, in fact, fail to take optimal advantage of entrepreneurial opportunities in industry.17

As early as the 1790's, southern industry began to develop. The processing of agriculture crops, the extraction of ores, turpentine, lumber, the manufacture of tobacco, and hemp were all important southern developments.

One of the most important southern industrial developments was the effort to bring cotton mills to the south. Textile mills in the South developed in the 1790's, after the war of 1812 and again in the 1840's. By the 1860's, capital in cotton factories in the South had nearly doubled and the slave states produced almost 25 percent of the nation's cotton and woolen textiles.

Many textile mills in the South either employed slave labor exclusively or combined both bondsmen and wage workers in the same mill. For many years, there was the myth that textile mills in the South only employed poor whites. The manufacture of iron was also heavily dependent upon slave labor.

Serving plantation and railroad interests, iron manufacturing expanded into widely scattered centers in the Piedmont and the mountains of Virginia, South Carolina, and Alabama, as well as into Kentucky, Tennessee, and Missouri. 18 Southern pig iron production grew unevenly in the 1850's, after a promising early development when Pennsylvania and Ohio ironmongers posed severe competition. Virginia, Georgia, and South Carolina made less iron in the 1860's than a decade earlier, but Kentucky, after a brief decline in the 1840's, increased its production by 29 percent, and led the South. The chief labor force were slaves in the most upper-South iron works. The Oxford Iron Works of Virginia, early in the 19th century, which contributed to the war effort of 1812-1815, owned 220 Africans. The Cumberland River region of Tennessee in the 1840's in which Senator John Bell would later run for President, controlled one iron establishment and employed more than 1800 African slaves. The Tredegan Iron Company of Richmond , Virginia in the 1850's used more than 100 African slaves.

By 1860, this firm employed 900 workers, half of them slaves to transact one million dollars' worth of business annually. Tredegan was the South's leading iron mill by 1860, and it had the third largest iron-working force in the United States and the largest force in Richmond. Capitalized at almost half a million dollars, its furnaces and rolling mills produced virtually every conceivable kind of finished iron. Tredegan's facilities were the most important of Virginia's developing industrial capacity, and they would become the "ironmaker to the Confederacy" 19

Also a large number of slaves labored in iron works in other parts of the South. The Neebitt Manufacturing Company in South Carolina owned about 140 African-Americans, and the Aera and Aetna Iron Works used 90 industrial salves. Exploitation of the central Alabama and central Missouri iron regions fell to the slave owning Shelby Iron Company and to the slave-hiring Maramec Iron works. The Northampton Furnace in Maryland, hired many slaves. Blacksmith shops using slave labor were common on plantations and in towns.

Probably, approximately 10,000 slaves were employed at the ante-bellum southern iron works.2 Tobacco manufacturing was centered in Virginia and North Carolina, expanded westward into Kentucky and Missouri in the 1850's. It was an important industry employing slaves. Hemp manufacturing was another major southern industry. Cotton bagging, spinning the fibers of the hemp plants and bale rope, all of which were vital to the maritime strength of the US., were produced. In the 1850's, one- third of the nation's hemp factories were in Kentucky concentrated in the Bluegrass towns of Lexington and Louisville. In the last ant-bellum decade, the number of southern enterprises decreased from 159 to 97 due to northern and Russian competition. By 1860, New York and Massachusetts had surpassed Kentucky in the production of cordage, but Missouri still led the South in the production of cordage and Kentucky still manufactured 60 percent of the nation's cotton bagging and bale rope.

Slave labor was crucial throughout the pre-civil war period to hemp manufacturing. In 1850, some 159 Kentucky hemp factories employed 3,000 African-Americans: by 1860. Kentucky's establishment alone used 5,000 African industrial slaves. In the 1840's in the hemp manufacturing center of Louisville, two companies, Worseys and Goldings, employed 165 and 125 African -Americans industrial slaves. Industrial slaves worked as mechanics, machinists, as well as brick manufacturers. There were sugar mills in Louisiana and Texas which African-American industrial slaves worked in. In South Carolina and Georgia, the rice milling industry was almost depended upon slave labor. With centers near Richmond, in central Alabama, Missouri, and in the Cumberland regions of Maryland and Tennessee, coal and iron mining were widespread. The southern coal and iron mining industry was dependent upon slave labor. Slave labor largely mined gold in the South.

The federal government was entirely dependent on gold from North Carolina

from 1804 to 1827. It played a major part in the nation's wealth until 1849. The federal

government was dependent on the southern lead mined by slaves which went for the

military. Beginning in southwestern Virginia, it soon expanded into Missouri. The

famous pioneers Moses and Sephan Austin in 1801 migrated to the Western lead district,

accompanied by their 21 slave adults and six slave children. By 1819, well before the

deposits reached their peak production, more than 1100 diggers, mainly slaves, worked in

the Missouri lead fields, while the Virginia mines, dug by Africans still remained

operational. Slaves were employed at chemical work plants in the South. Slave labor on

the southern coasts in Western Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and Arkansas produced salt.

A Kentucky hemp manufacturers, who converted from free labor to slave labor,

claimed that slaves reduced his costs by 33 percent. In 1854, it was reported that

at Kansas River, Virginia slave miners produced $2 per day more than free miners

at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania pits. The next year, the Virginia and Tennessee

Railroad reported that slave labor cost only about $11 monthly while free labor

cost $40 to $50 monthly. The manager of one South Carolina cotton mill

estimated in 1851, slaves cost less than half as much as whites.21

Slave labor was very much less expensive to employ than free labor in many integrated

industrial enterprises in the South.


Slavery's Relationship to the Market Size and the Expansion of the National Economy.

According to Douglas C. North, cotton was the major force to the developing national economy. Cotton was important because it was the major independent item in the interdependent structure of internal and international trade. Demands for western foodstuffs and northeastern services and manufacturers were basically dependent on the income received from the cotton trade.22

For the South, income received from the export of cotton (sugar, rice and tobacco) flowed directly out of the regional economy again in the purchase of goods and services. The West provided food for the South and was its major market until the problems of cross-mountain transport was solved. The growth of the market for western foodstuffs was geared to the expansion of the Southern cotton economy. The Northeast provided services including finance, transport, insurance, manufactured goods and marketed into South's cotton.

Cotton was the most important influence in the growth of the market size and consequent expansion of the economy; the slow development of the 1820's to the accelerated growth in the 1830's, cotton initiated this period of rapid growth and the concomitant expansion in income, in the size of domestic markets, and creation of the social overhead investment (in the course of its role in the marketing of cotton). Also in the Northeast which facilitated the subsequent rapid growth of manufacture. Cotton was responsible for the accelerated pace of westward migration as well as for the movement of people out of self sufficiency into the market economy.23 Cotton was the commodity which foreign demand was constantly increasing. It accounted for over half the value of exports and income from cotton was the major influence for interregional trade. Cotton was the most important cause of expansion.

During periods of expansion, millions of acres of new land were purchased from the government for cotton production. Some historians believe that slavery in 1860 in the South was on the point of being strangled for lack of room to expand. But the scarcity of land was not seriously limiting the plantation system. Agricultural slavery had utilized only a small fraction of the available land area. The most fertile and available soils were occupied but there as an extensive area remaining, a considerable part of which had been brought into cultivation since 1860. Before the Civil War, railways were rapidly opening up new fertile areas to plantation agriculture. The economic motives for the continuance of slavery from the standpoint of the employer were never so strong as in the years just preceding the Civil War.

The Atlantic Slave Trade provided national capitalists in the United States with the "primitive accumulation" upon which to rapidly to transform from an agricultural based capitalist economy to an industrial capitalist economy and both agricultural and industrial slavery provided the national ruling class with the economic super surplus (value) extracted from slave labor for 250 years which caused the United States of America to become a major economic/political and military power.


1. Walter Rodney, How Europe Underdeveloped Africa [Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1982 ] pp. 87-88

  1. William Z. Foster, The Negro People in American History [ ] p.26

  2. Immanuel Wallerstein, "American Slavery and the Capitalist World Economy; A
    Review Essay," American Journal of Sociology, March 1981; ppl 109-1213

  3. Edward Reynolds, Stand the Storm [London: Allison and Busby, 1985] p.57

  4. Eric Williams, Capitalism and Slavery [Chapel Hill-London: The University of
    North Carolina Press, 1994] p. 52

  5. Immanuel Wallerstein, The Modern World System: Capitalist Agriculture and the
    Origin of the European World Economy in the Sixteenth Century [New York:
    Academic Press, 1974] p.40

  6. Andre Gunder Frank, World Accumulation, 1492-1789 [New York: Monthly
    Review Press, 1982] p. 12

  7. Walter Rodney, How Europe Underdevelopment Africa [ Washington, D.C.:
    Howard University Press, 1982 ] p.95

  8. Ibid, Foster, p.26

  9. Op. Cit, Williams, p.52

  10. Ibid, Rodney, pp. 97-98

  11. Kark Marx, Capital, Volume 1 [New York: International Publishers] pp.784-785

  12. Op. Cit., Marx, p. 785

  13. Philip S. Foner, Organized Labor and The Black Worker [New York:
    International Publisher's] p.4

  14. Opt. Cit., p.

  15. Lewis C. Gray, History of Agriculture in the Southern United States to 1860 [ ]
    pp. 474-475

  16. T. Stephen Whitman "Industrial Slavery at the Margin - The Maryland Chemcial
    Works," Vol. LIX, No. 1, The Journal of Southern Hsitory; February, 1993, pp.

  17. T. Stephen Whitman, "Industrial Slavery at the Margin - The Maryland
    Chemcial Works, " Vol. LIX, No. 1, The Journal of Southern History; February,
    1993, pp.31-32

  18. Robert S. Starobin, Industrial Slavery in The Old South [New York: Oxford
    University Press, 1975] pp. 14-15 Opt. Cit., p. 15

  19. Ibid, Starobin, p. 17

21. Op. Cit., p. 24

23. Douglas C. North The Economic Growth of The United States 1790-1860 [New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1966] p.68


  1. Op Cit (Gray)

  2. Philip S. Foner, History of Black Americans: From Africa to the Emergency of
    the Cotton Kingdom [Westport, Conn; Greenwood Press, 1975]

  3. Dan Nabudere, The Political Economy of Imperialsim [London: Zed Press, 1977]

  4. Ken Lawrence, The Roots of Class Struggle in The South [Somerville, Mass.:
    New England Press, 1975]

  1. C.L.R. James, "The Atlantic Slave Trade and Slavery" in John Williams &
    Charles Harris, Amistad [New York: Random House, 1971] pp, 119-160

  2. Robert Starobin, "Discipling Industrial Slaves in the Old South, " The Journal of
    Negro History.

  3. Donald R. Wright, African-Americans in the Colonial Era: From African Origins
    Through the American Revolution [Arlington Heights, Illinois; Harlan Davidson,
    Inc. 1990]

  4. Donald R. Wright, African-Americans in the Early Republic - 1789-1831
    [Arlington Heights, Illinois: Harlan Davidson Inc., 1993]


The slave codes robbed the Africans of their freedom and will power. Slaves resisted this treatment, therefore strict and cruel punishment was implemented for disobeying their masters. Slaves were forbidden from carrying guns, taking food, striking their masters, and running way. All slaves could be flogged or killed for resisting or breaking the slave codes. Some slave states required both slave and free blacks to wear metal badges. Those badges were embossed with an ID number and occupation.

Freedom was always on the minds of the enslaved Africans. How to gain that freedom was the big question. American historical records have identified some of these attempts and some of the people involved in the Africans quest for freedom on American soil.

Refusing to obey their masters' demands created a duel crisis on the part of the resisting slaves and slave owners. The most common form of resistance used by the slaves was to run away. To live as a runaway required perfect escape routes and exact timing. Where to hide, finding food, leaving the family and children behind became primary issues for the escaping slaves. Later severe punishment had to be faced whenever a hunted slave was caught and returned to bondage.

What was a maroon community?

Many slaves ran off and lived in the woods or vast wilderness in the undeveloped American countryside. This group of slaves were called "maroons," for they found remote areas in the thick forest and mainly lived off wild fruits and animals as food. Some of these maroons ran off, lived, and even married into segments of the Native American populations. They were later called Black Indians.

For Africans on the North American soil, that horrible journey started with the developing territorial colonies at a time when workers were needed to keep the economy of this new country solvent. Therefore, by 1619, the use of indentured servants brought the first Africans to America at Jamestown, Virginia, Poor whites also worked during this period as indentured servants. A "contract" said that this service would last from four to seven years - thereby the said would then become free. During this early period, some of the first enslaved Africans worked their way out of this system and became free tradesmen and property owners on the North American soil. The quest for more land and an economy based upon profit were two of the major points that escalated the demand for more slaves in America. Therefore slave workers became highly prized commodities in a system dependent upon lots of

manual labor. The entire southern American economy and the states in that warm region needed laborers to work on the plantations dealing with rice, indigo, tobacco, sugar cane and cotton. Other slaves labored as dock workers, craft workers, and servants. Slaves in the northern American region on small farms and as skilled and unskilled workers in factories and along the coast as shipbuilders, fishermen, craftsmen and helpers of tradesmen.

Slavery grew at such a fast rate that, by 1750, over 200,000 Africans slaves were in North America (13 colonies). By 1800 that number grew to 700,000. In South Carolina alone African slaves outnumbered the white population and Africans made up more than one half of the populations in the state of Maryland and Virginia. The free African-American population expanded to about 40,000 throughout the colonies by 1770.

What was seasoning (slave breaking)?

There was a 30% to 50% survival rate in the slave breaking process, (seasoning). Seasoning followed sale. On Barbados, Jamaica and other Caribbean islands, planters divided slaves into three categories: Creoles (slaves born in the Americas), old Africans (those who have lived in the Americas for some time), and new Africans (those who just survived the middle passage). For resale, Creole slaves were worth three times the value of unseasoned new Africans, whom planters and Creole slaves called "salt-water Negroes" or "Guinea-birds". Seasoning was the beginning of the process of making new Africans more like Creoles.

In the West Indies, this process involved not only an apprenticeship in the work routines of the sugar plantations on the islands. It was also a means of preparing many slaves for resale to North American planters, who preferred "seasoned" slaves to "unbroken" ones who came directly from Africa. In fact, most of the Africans who ended up in the British colonies of North America before 1720 had gone first to the West Indies. By that date, the demand for slave labor in the islands had become so great that they could spare fewer slaves for resale to the North American market. Thereafter, as a result, slave imports into the tobacco-, rice-, and later cotton-growing regions of the American South came directly from Africa and had to be seasoned by their American masters. But many slaves still came to North America from the Caribbean to which they had been bought from Africa or where they had been born.

In either case, seasoning was a disciplinary process intended to modify the behavior and attitude of slaves and made them effective laborers. As part of this process, the slaves' new masters gave them new names: Christian names, generic African names, or names from classical Greece and Rome (such as Jupiter, Achilles, or Plato).

The seasoning process also involved slaves learning European languages. Masters on the Spanish islands of the Caribbean were especially thorough in this regard. Consequently, the Spanish of African slaves and their descendants, although retaining some African words, was easily understood by any Spanish-speaking person. In the French and English Caribbean islands and in parts of North America, however, slave society produced Creole dialects that in grammar, vocabulary and intonation had

distinctive African linguistic features. These Africanized versions of French and English, including the Gullah dialect still prevalent on South Carolina's sea islands and the Creole spoken today by most Haitians were difficult for those who spoke more standardized dialects to understand.

Seasoning varied in length from place to place. Masters or overseers broke slaves into plantation work by assigning them to one of several work gangs. The strongest men joined the first gang, or "great gang," which did the heavy fieldwork of planting and harvesting. The second gang, including women and other men, did lighter fieldwork, such as weeding. The third gang, composed of children, worked shorter hours and did such tasks as bringing food and water to the field gangs. Other slaves became domestic servants. New Africans served apprenticeships with old Africans from their same ethnic group or with Creoles.

Some planters looks for cargoes of young people, anticipating that they might be more easily acculturated than older Africans. One West Indian master in 1792 recorded his hopes for a group of children: "From the late Guinea sales, I have purchased altogether twenty boys and girls, from ten to thirteen years old." He emphasized that "it is the practice, on bringing them to the estate, to distribute them in huts of Creole blacks, under their direction and care, who are to feed them, train them to work, and teach them their new language."

Planters had to rely on old Africans and Creoles to train new recruits because white people were a minority in the Caribbean. Later, a similar demographic pattern developed in parts of the cotton-producing American South. As a result, in both regions African custom shaped the cooperative labor of slaves in gangs. But the use of old Africans and Creoles as instructors and the appropriation of Africans styles of labor should not suggest leniency. Although the plantation overseers, who ran day-to­day operations, could be white, of mixed race, or black, they invariably imposed strict discipline. Drivers, who directed the work gangs, were almost always black, but they carried whips and frequently punished those who worked too slowly or showed disrespect. Planters assigned recalcitrant new Africans to the strictest overseers and drivers.

Planters housed slaves undergoing seasoning with the old Africans and Creoles who were instructing them. The instructors regarded such additions to their households as economic opportunities because the new Africans provided extra labor on the small plots of land that West Indian planters often allocated to slaves. Slaves could sell surplus roots, vegetables, peas and fruit from their gardens and save to purchase freedom for themselves or others. Additional workers helped produce larger surpluses to sell at local markets, thereby cutting the amount to time required to accumulate a purchase price.

New Africans also benefited from this arrangement. They learned how to build houses in their new land and to cultivate vegetables to supplement the food the planter provided. Even though many Africans brought building skills and agricultural knowledge with them to Americas, old Africans and Creoles helped teach them to adapt what they knew to a new climate, topography, building materials, and social organization.

From Darlene Clarke Hine, William A. Nine and Stanley Harold, The African

American Odyssey Volume One to 1877 [ Upper Saddle, New Jersey: Pearson/Prentice Hall,

2006] pp 44-46

What did Columbus do to the native population when he landed in the so-called New World (America)? Explain.

He enslaved But due to the white s man diseases and the unaccustomed type of work, few indigenous people were able to survive.

What caused the British colonists to begin to make distinction of division between the white indentured servants and the African Slaves? (in the colony of Virginia)

The Bacon rebellion in Virginia in 1676 of white indentured service who wanted to secure more Native American territory received support of African Americans because they thought they would gain freedom if the rebellion was successful. The rebellion was one of the main reasons why colonial authorities began issuing ordinances in 1679 separating the African and European races.

Miscegnation. Both white indentured servants and African slaves suffered under the slave system. Colonists were deathly afraid of the possibility of joint revolt. They were determined that the races would not mix under any circumstances.

Explain the Atlantic triangle slave trade

There were two mam patterns of triangular trade. The first was a voyage from England to Africa, then from Africa to the West Indies, and then from the West Indies back to England. For example, a slave ship would leave Liverpool. England with a cargo of manufactured goods and then proceed to West Africa where these items were exchanged for slaves. The slaves were then transported to and sold in the West Indies, and the profits were used to purchase a cargo of sugar (or other produce) which was shipped back to Liverpool. The second pattern of triangular trade originated in New England. Slave ships sailed to West Africa with a cargo of rum, and they exchanged the rum the slaves. Then they sailed to the slave market in the West Indies where the slaves were sold. The profits of the sale were used to purchase cargoes of molasses, which were brought back to New England and distilled into rum. Although the local ports-of-call often varied, a ship's revolving cargo of sales, rum, sugar, molasses, tobacco, and other crops were consistent and played vital roles in the trade.

Who was Benjamin Bannaker and what did he do or create?

Benjamin Bannaker was the son of a freed slave and an indentured servant. He had an aptitude for math and mathematical concepts and applications. One of his early accomplishments was the building of a clock with wooden gears. The clock was so precise that it continued to strike every hour for 40 years. He is probably best known for surveying the territory that latter became Washington, B.C. He is credited with drawing the boundaries and street layout for the District.

Christpus Attucks and other Africans-Americans fought on the side of the Americans patriots against the British in the American Revolution because they felt they would achieve freedom after revolution.

True or False: Circle:

It was not until 1723 . . . that blacks were denied the right to vote in Virginia. According to Albert E. McKinley, blacks only voted in North Carolina until 1715, in South Carolina until 1701, and in Georgia until 1754. Blacks not only voted, but they also held public office. There was a black surety in York County, Virginia, in the first decades of the seventeenth century, and a black beadle in Lancaster County, Virginia. (p.27)

The first blacks apparently arrived in Massachusetts from the West Indies in 1638 on the Desire, America's first slave ship (Ibid)

The first stage, linked, in part, with the Massachusetts precedent, was the extension of the term of black servants from a specified numbers of years to life. Following Massachusetts on this point were Connecticut in 1650, Virginia in 1661, Maryland in 1663, New York and New Jersey in 1664, South Carolina in 1682, Pennsylvania and Rhode Island in 1700, North Carolina in 1715, and Georgia in 1755. (p.66)

A point of considerable importance here is that slavery did not immediately displace white servitude. For more than one hundred years, the two systems existed side by side, mutually influencing one another. For almost as long as the period, the white servant continued to interact, threatening the stability of this dual system of servitude, (p. 74)

On the eve of the American Revolution, blacks constituted 60% of the population of South Carolina, 40% of the population of Virginia and 30% of the population of Maryland. By the first census, there were 757,000 blacks in America, 19.3% of the population.

In 1672, 1687, 1694, 1709, 1710, 1722, 1730, 1739 and 1741, blacks conspired or staged revolts. They also committed suicide, established maroon camps, poisoned masters, and fled to the Indians, (p.79)

From Lerone Bennett, The Shaping of Black America

Did you know the American Revolution was financed from the Slave Trade?

Robert Morris, a wealthy Quaker merchant and slave trader between 1754 and 1766 helped finance the Continental Army and Congress as President of the National Bank of North America and treasurer of the second continental congress along with Thomas Willings, Charles Willings and Jewish banker Harper Salomon. Charles L. Blockson, The Liberty Bell Era: The African-American Story [Harrisburg, PA: RB books, 2003] pp 32,57, 187.

Did you know what the purpose of the American revolution was for?

On June 22, 1772, a judge sitting in the High Court in London declared in the Somerset case decision that slavery "so odious" that it could not exist as common law and set the conditions which would consequently result in the freedom of the 15,000 slaves living in England at that time.

This decision eventually reached America and terrified the predominately southern slave-holders because America was then a collection of British colonies and as such were subject to British law, and they feared that this decision would cause the emanicpation of the slaves here. Thus, to ensure the preservation of slavery, the southern

states joined the northern colonies in their fight for "freedom" and their rebellion against England.

This decision was codified in the First Continental Congress in 1774 when John Adams promised southern leaders the support of their right to maintain slavery and drafted a Declaration of Colonial Independence from Parliament.

What is the meaning of GeorRe Washington chopping down the cherry tree?

According to Brother Taj Tarik Bey it means when George Washington chopped down the flag of the defeated Moors in 1774.

"George Washington the ninth president of the United States of America" 9th Masonic Propretor to the Moorish Palace of Ben Bey City, District of Columbia wrote to the Sultan of Morocco in the year 1789 and apologized for irregular tax payments from the colonists in the Moorish Provinces. His reference to the change of government was relative to the charter granted the Albons and the turnover of the reigns of Authority from the Moors to the Colonists. He chopped down the Moorish flag in 1774. From Brother Taj Tarik Bey Civic Lesson Number 1: Who are the Moorish Americans? Moors: Defined [Camden, New Jersey (Schechabee) P 201: Moorish American Heritage Series, 1996] p. 37

Note: Moors were counted in the 1789, census along with White Americans, Native Americans (Indians) and slaves but were not recorded in the 1808 census as a category of people. Some say Moors were reduced or forcefully enslaved along with other Africans brought to the Americas in the period of time and that the Moors were defeated in the Battle of the Lakes in 1789.

Did you know George Washington owned slaves?

George Washington owned 317 slaves. He treated his loyal slaves somewhat well for a slavemaster but would brand those who ran away and were eventually caught or those who resisted in other forms in the forehead.

A must reading: Charles L. Blockson, The Liberty Bell Era: The African-American Story [Harrisburg, Pa: RB Books, 2003] p. 41

How did the Americans seeking independence from England win the support of the white indentured servants and some African slaves?

At the time of the American settler class "colonist" revolution 40% of the population was in bondage. Twenty percent were white indentured servants working their bondage off and twenty percent were African slaves. The American bourgeoisie (the merchants and plantation owners' promised if they won independence they would eliminate indentured servitude winning over a large portion of the whites in bondage and many Africans felt if they supported the "colonists" they would be granted freedom. The forty percent who were free farmers or artisans saw the settler class "colonists" revolution as a chance to gain more land and prosperity.

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