Affirmative section consultation and cooperation through dialogue networks



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SO-CALLED RUSSIAN MAFIAS ONLY FILL IN TO MAKE SYSTEMS WORK TO BENEFIT THE INDIVIDUAL CITIZENS
Victor Sergeyev, Moscow State Institute for International Relations, 1998; THE WILD EAST: Crime and lawlessness in post-communist Russia, p. 107 // acs-VT99

Criminal groups control liquor-selling kiosks, as well as markets, especially those of manufactured goods and second-hand cars. They do not cause much trouble to private citizens (as is usually the case for any "mafia"); rather, they try to impose order on the territories they control. Naturally, they struggle for spheres of influence; especially fierce were their showdown* in 199293, at the time when small trade was rapidly growing. Now that mafia street battles are not so common, we may assume that the spheres of influence probably have been divided.


OFFICIAL CORRUPTION IN RUSSIA INCREASES ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY
Victor Sergeyev, Moscow State Institute for International Relations, 1998; THE WILD EAST: Crime and lawlessness in post-communist Russia, p. 116 , acs-VT99

So anyone who addressed a state institution in order to obtain permission, a license, official registration, or any other document, the legalization of which presupposed some work on the part of the administration, faced a dilemma: either prepare the documents him/herself, redoing them over and over again and then waiting for a long time before the decision was made; or resort to the services of the cooperative under the auspices of the same adminis trative body and, after paying, get the necessary papers without any trouble and delay. Anyone acquainted with the habits of the Soviet bureaucracy knew the solution: you had to pay, especially since the payment required was quite reasonable. It goes without saying that in most cases the people working in cooperatives were just the same functionaries of administrative bodies whose official duty was to work with the documents.


CITIZENS PREFER GOVERNMENT CORRUPTION TO THE ALTERNATIVE -- TOTAL GOVERNMENT FAILURE
Victor Sergeyev, Moscow State Institute for International Relations, 1998; THE WILD EAST: Crime and lawlessness in post-communist Russia, p. 116-117 // acs-VT99

Despite its moral ambivalence, this new situation was met by most citizens with a sigh of relief, since it was much easier to pay than to face endless refusals. But the moral climate in administrative bodies, where corruption became accepted as something quite natural, no doubt suffered considerably. After administrations were replaced in a number of large cities in 1991, new "democratic" authorities openly declared that functionaries, whose salaries were usually rather low (through the depreciation of the ruble and tremendous deficits in state and local budgets, they virtually worked gratis), had the right to reasonable remuneration for their work at the clients' expense. It is absolutely clear what impact such statements had on functionaries of administrative bodies and in which direction their interests were reoriented.


BANKING SPHERE IS NOT DEEPLY CRIMINALIZED
Victor Sergeyev, Moscow State Institute for International Relations, 1998; THE WILD EAST: Crime and lawlessness in post-communist Russia, p. 121 // acs-VT99

I do not believe that the banking sphere in Russia is seriously criminalized. Accusations of this sort are constantly being made against banks by Russia's press (which is prone to see criminalization in every instance). They speculate about the criminal origin of a considerable proportion of bank capital in Russia, citing different figures (as a rule, several dozen percent). These allegations, however, are rather doubtful. One can hardly imagine that proper "criminal groups," which obtained their money by racketeering, robbery, and so forth, might not only have billions of dollars at their disposal but also take the risk of putting them in banking, a sphere kept under the closest control by the authorities (the origin of a bank's own capital, unlike the money in its accounts, can be effectively traced through rather elaborate procedures).


ORGANIZED CRIME IN RUSSIA CAME ABOUT BECAUSE OF THE “POWER BUYOUT” OF FORMER COMMUNISTS -- OTHERWISE THE RUSSIAN POLITICAL TRANSITION WOULD HAVE BEEN VERY BLOODY
"POWER BUYOUT" OF FORMER SOVIET BUREAUCRATS MADE THE PEACEFUL TRANSITION FROM COMMUNISM POSSIBLE
Victor Sergeyev, Moscow State Institute for International Relations, 1998; THE WILD EAST: Crime and lawlessness in post-communist Russia, p. 115 , acs-VT99

Thus, the idea of a "power buyout" resulted in the total corruption and extension of the powers of the medium stratum of the former Soviet bureaucracy, which in the Soviet period had been controlled by Party committees and law-enforcement bodies. Under the new circumstances, older control structures collapsed without being replaced by representative power bodies with control capabilities. As a matter of fact, the events of October 1993 were a decisive victory for the medium stratum of the postSoviet bureaucracy, which, after the disbandment of the Soviets and under the cover of the new Constitution, ultimately eliminated any control on the part of society.


THE RUSSIAN SHADOW ECONOMY STARTED GROWING LONG BEFORE THE FALL OF COMMUNISM
Stanislav Menshikov, Erasmus University in Rotterdam, Monthly Review, October, 1997; Pg. 49; HEADLINE: Revolution from Above: The Demise of the Soviet System; acs-VT99

The shadow economy per se was estimated to account for 15 percent of the Soviet GDP by the end of the 1980s (today ranging from 25 to 40 percent, but now a very different creature - characterized mainly by tax evasion). More importantly, it was closely connected with the lower and middle levels of the economic bureaucracy, making them both parts of one undercover capitalist chain of operators in the pores of Socialism. When private business was legalized towards the end of Gorbachev's rule, they started laundering their businesses and previously accumulated assets. Some of the richest people of today come from this semi-criminal strata. Mr. Gusinsky, head of the Most-Bank group, started as a construction manager with underground operations, and so did Mr. Smolensky, head of the Stolichny Bank, another important financial institution. Both stand (or at least stood) close to Moscow Mayor Luzhkov, an important potential contender for top power in the country. None of them come from the Party machine.


FORMER COMMUNIST OFFICIALS ARE NOW THE GODFATHERS OF ORGANIZED IN RUSSIA
Arnaud de Borchgrave; The Washington Times, July 25, 1997, Pg. A19, HEADLINE: Ignoring Russia's crisis of crime , acs-VT99

Sen. John Kerry of Massachusetts, the ranking Democrat on the Senate subcommittee on Terrorism, Narcotics and International Operations, wrote in his recent book, "The New War," that "the real power lies with the Russian godfathers and their allies - former KGB officials with important positions in the economy, whether privatized or still under state control, and corrupt politicians in high office."


RUSSIA IS LARGELY UNDER THE CONTROL OF ORGANIZED CRIMINAL ELEMENTS
CLOSE TO 2/3 OF THE RUSSIAN ECONOMY IS CONTROLLED BY ORGANIZED CRIME
John Lloyd, January 31, 1998 [The Times. HEADLINE: Red alert\\ jan]VT99

Though it is the suborning of the state, not necessarily the growth of the mafia, which is the deepest threat both to Russia and to us, Russian organised crime, by virtue of its sheer scale, is already a global problem. General Mikhail Yegorov, the former interior minister, said in May 1994 that organised crime groups had grown from 785 in the last days of the Soviet Union to 5,691 - a figure which the UN endorsed in the same year, estimating that these groups numbered some three million people. By 1996, Russian figures showed the gangs had swollen again, to around 8,000. These gangs directly control - again, according to Russian figures - 40 per cent of private businesses, 50 per cent of Russian banks and 60 per cent of state-owned companies. Some estimates even suggest that up to 80 per cent of the banks are under some form of mafia control, and that two thirds of the entire economy is crirninalised.


TWO THIRDS OF THE RUSSIAN ECONOMY IS CONTROLLED BY ORGANIZED CRIME
Arnaud de Borchgrave; The Washington Times, July 25, 1997, Pg. A19, HEADLINE: Ignoring Russia's crisis of crime , acs-VT99

Russia's Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD), which is in charge of combating organized crime, reckons that 40 percent of private business, 60 percent of state-owned enterprises, and more than half of 1,747 banks are controlled by crime syndicates. All told, roughly two-thirds of the Russian economy is under the sway of organized crime. Rep. Benjamin A. Gilman, New York Republican, the chairman of the House International Relations Committee, calls Russia "virtually a full-fledged kleptocracy."


POWERFUL CRIMINALS IN RUSSIA RUN FOR PARLIAMENT TO GAIN LEGAL IMMUNITY
Grigory Yavlinsky; Russian economist and the leader of Yabloko, a democratic, reformist political party, Foreign Affairs, May, 1998 / June, 1998; Pg. 67, HEADLINE: Russia's Phony Capitalism acs-VT99

The law making Duma members immune from prosecution should be immediately repealed. The large number of criminals running for Duma seats to gain immunity is repulsive. How can a legislature fight corruption when its members have their own deals on the side?


RUSSIA IS IN A STRANGE STATE OF QUASI-REFORM WHERE CORRUPTION SPREADS AND REFORM STAGNATES
Mark Gage, Professional Staff Member for East Europe and the New Independent States, Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives, Heritage Foundation Reports, April 6, 1998; Pg. 30, HEADLINE: THE FUTURE OF UNITED STATES -- RUSSIAN RELATIONS acs-VT99

* Internal economic reform: Russian President Yeltsin's irresolute support for reform over the past five years has left Russia with an economy in a strange state of "quasi-reform," stifling market-based economic growth and allowing the spread of corruption at all levels. (The Clinton Administration's attempt to move the focus of our aid program to regions of Russia that we believe are interested in reform may be the clearest sign yet that reform at the center in Russia has slowed to a stop.)


IMPOSSIBLE TO ACT AGAINST RUSSIAN ORGANIZED CRIME BECAUSE THEY ARE IN LEAGUE WITH THE GOVERNMENT
RUSSIAN ORGANIZED CRIME SYNDICATES ENJOY THE PROTECTION OF THE CURRENT GOVERNMENT
Arnaud de Borchgrave; The Washington Times, July 25, 1997, Pg. A19, HEADLINE: Ignoring Russia's crisis of crime , acs-VT99

All major Western intelligence services have reported to their political masters that Russia's syndicates enjoy the protection of the ruling oligarchy that consolidated its power during Mr. Yeltsin's illnesses in 1996. But Western governments continue to look the other way, much the way their predecessors pooh-poohed Soviet links to international terrorist groups during the Cold War.


RUSSIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT IS CORRUPT, SO IT CANNOT SOLVE THE PROBLEM
Victor Sergeyev, Moscow State Institute for International Relations, 1998; THE WILD EAST: Crime and lawlessness in post-communist Russia, P. 118-119 , acs-VT99

If, however, both the state administration and the economy are corrupted, insulating law-enforcement agencies from corruption is a difficult task. Combating corruption in these agencies continues (the recent data on it were made public by President Yeltsin in his first electoral speech in Ekaterinburg in February 1996), but, as journalistic investigations reveal, the results of these efforts are rather modest. Some law-enforcement officers not only are linked to criminal groups but exact tribute directly from businessmen.


RUSSIAN STATE OFFICIALS ARE MORE LIKELY TO ENGAGE IN CRIMINAL ACTIVITY THAN BUSINESS PEOPLE
Bertram Silverman & Murray Yanowitch, Profs. of Economics Hofstra Univ., 1997; NEW RICH, NEW POOR, NEW RUSSIA: Winners and losers on the Russian road to capitalism, p. 108 , acs-VT99

Gaidar's sentiments on this matter are expressed - with particular clarity in his contrasting characterization of the social groups that seemed to symbolize the Soviet past and the market-driven present: Let us not forget that the state official is always potentially more criminogenic than the businessman. The businessman can enrich himself honestly, if only he is left alone. The state official can enrich himself only dishonestly. Thus the bureaucratic apparatus carries within itself a much greater potential for mafia activity than business does. Moreover the framework of the bureaucratic (including the punitive) system may readily provide a framework for a mafia-like system.


BANKING SYSTEM IS CONTROLLED BY ORGANIZXED CRIME
BANKS ARE INCLUDED IN "GRAY ZONES" OF THE RUSSIAN ECONOMY
Victor Sergeyev, Moscow State Institute for International Relations, 1998; THE WILD EAST: Crime and lawlessness in post-communist Russia, p. 127 , acs-VT99

The early history of commercial banks and the concrete economic conditions (the shocktherapy , reform) of the initial period of the development of the banking system determined key features of the banking business in present-day Russia. These features appear common to the development of economic institutions in cc gray zones" in general.


BANK MANAGER MURDER SHOWS CRIMINALIZATION OF RUSSIAN BANKS
Victor Sergeyev, Moscow State Institute for International Relations, 1998; THE WILD EAST: Crime and lawlessness in post-communist Russia, p. 134 , acs-VT99

The very large proportion of high-ranking bank managers among the victims of assassinations indirectly indicates that the banking business is still in serious danger of crimmialization.


BANK MANAGERS ARE TARGETS FOR RUSSIAN MAFIAS
Victor Sergeyev, Moscow State Institute for International Relations, 1998; THE WILD EAST: Crime and lawlessness in post-communist Russia, p. 133-134 , acs-VT99

Much more serious are the problems that arise inside Russia due to the uncertainty of the banks' future under the permanent manipulation of administrative norms. Instability is definitely counterproductive to banking insofar as banking is inherently intended to make contracts more reliable and to stabilize economic behavior. Under Russia's instability, large banking operations appear rather risky. At the same time, the system of civil suits is virtually inoperative; the cheated party has no real chance of satisfying its claims. Under such circumstances, an unusually severe alternative system of assuring contracts has emerged that uses hired killers. According to a statement made by the Association of Russia's Banks on the occasion of the assassination of the well-known television journalist and businessman Vlad Listyev, sixteen high-ranking bank managers were killed in 1994. In 1995, the situation became much more aggravated: by September 1995, the number of bankers killed during the year was about eighty.


IMPACT: ORGANIZED CRIME EXPANSION MEANS A RUSSIAN CORPORATIST CRIMINAL STATE
INCREASED CRIMINALIZATION OF RUSSIAN SOCIETY THREATENS TO CRUSH FUTURE HOPES FOR A CIVIL SOCIETY
Victor Sergeyev, Moscow State Institute for International Relations, 1998; THE WILD EAST: Crime and lawlessness in post-communist Russia, p. 69 , acs-VT99

And the unprecedented criminalization of Russian society, triggered by the hasty "white" revolution, has produced the threat of a new "black" revolution, which would seek to exterminate the still weak sprouts of civil society, new moral practices, and democratic institutions.


RUSSIA IN IN DANGER OF BECOMING A MAFIA STATE
John Lloyd, January 31, 1998 [The Times. HEADLINE Red alert\\jan]VT99

Russia is now in danger of becoming a mafia state - the first time this has happened to a major world power. The daily toll of contract murders is just a reflection of a fundamental lawlessness that has entered into the governance of the society itself. In November, the government went into crisis - not because of a fall in the rouble or a run on the banks, but because Anatoly Chubais, first deputy prime minister And A key figure in the past five years of Russian economic reform, had, along, with three of his closest colleagues, been accused of accepting a large payment from a Russian corporation for a book never written.


RUSSIA IS VEERING TOWARDS THE CORPORATIST CRIMINAL STATE AS A MODEL
Grigory Yavlinsky; Russian economist and the leader of Yabloko, a democratic, reformist political party, Foreign Affairs, May, 1998 / June, 1998; Pg. 67, HEADLINE: Russia's Phony Capitalism acs-VT99

With such problems, despite the good news about the Russian economy over the last year, it is clear that the Russian market is still veering toward the corporatist, criminalist, oligarchic path.


IMPACT: ORGANIZED CRIME WILL GAIN CONTROL OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS
A SERIOUS RISK EXISTS THAT THE RUSSIAN MILITARY AND NUCLEAR FORCES WILL FALL INTO CONTROL OF THE ORGANIZED CRIME SYNDICATES
John Lloyd, January 31, 1998 [The Times. HEADLINE: Red alert\\jan]VT99

The CSIS report also warns of the prospect of strategic nuclear missile systems in the hands of a disintegrating military becoming "subject to criminal control". The Russian military is in a desperate according to its own commanders, terminal - position. Its hugely reduced draft is disproportionately criminal; its soldiers and officers receive no pay for months on end; it was humiliated in the Chechen war (during which its officers sold weapons to the enemy, and at the end of which it effectively lost a piece of Russian territory); and its generals are overwhelmingly venal. In February 1996, General Igor Rodionov, the former defence minister, described the military as in "a horrible state of decay... Russia might soon reach the threshold beyond which its rockets and nuclear systems cannot be controlled". That May, he was fired.


THERE IS NO EFFECTIVE PLAN IN PLACE TO CONTROL NUCLEAR TRADE BY RUSSIAN MAFIA GROUPS
Jonathan Power, The Baltimore Sun, October 14, 1997, Pg. 11A, HEADLINE: Threat of the Russian nuclear mafia acs-VT99

Mr. Freeh promised "drastic steps to prevent and detect" nuclear weapons falling into the hands of Russian criminal gangs. Yet at the same time he admitted that the Russian syndicates, with former KGB officers in the hierarchy, run the most sophisticated criminal operations ever seen in the United States. What "drastic steps" does Mr. Freeh have up his sleeve? Former CIA director John M. Deutch, commenting on the statement that "the U.S. government is effectively organized to address the terrorist threat," said two words: "Ha, ha."


RISK OF NUCLEAR ATTACK BY RUSSIAN OUTLAWS IS NOW GREATER THAN THE RISK OF ATTACK BY THE SOVIETS DURING THE COLD WAR
Jonathan Power, The Baltimore Sun, October 14, 1997, Pg. 11A, HEADLINE: Threat of the Russian nuclear mafia acs-VT99

"The director of the FBI, Louis Freeh, has warned that Russian organized crime networks pose a menace to U.S. national security and has asserted that there is now greater danger of a nuclear attack by some outlaw group than there was by the Soviet Union during the Cold War," the Washington Post reported.


IF WE FAIL TO STOP THE RUSSIAN NUCLEAR MAFIA, IT WILL BE THE GREATEST TRAGEDY SINCE HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI
Jonathan Power, The Baltimore Sun, October 14, 1997, Pg. 11A, HEADLINE: Threat of the Russian nuclear mafia acs-VT99

No doubt Washington would like to deal with this grave crisis without having to throw into relief its past errors. Common sense suggests the White House is working with Moscow to try quietly to buy off the would-be nuclear terrorists.

One wishes the authorities well, for if they fail it will be the greatest tragedy to befall humanity since Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
CRIME AND CORRUPTION IN RUSSIA HAVE LED TO UNPRECEDENTED PROLIFERATION OF WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION
Ariel Cohen; Senior Policy Analyst at The Heritage Foundation, Heritage Foundation Reports, April 6, 1998; Pg. 28, HEADLINE: WHAT KIND OF RELATIONSHIP? WHAT KIND OF RUSSIA? acs-VT99

Crime and corruption, especially in the armed forces and the military -- industrial complex, are threatening the world with an unprecedented proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Yeltsin's own chemical weapons adviser, General Kuntsevich, was arrested for attempting to sell large amounts of binary weapons components to Syria. According to Russian newspapers, Iran has spent $ 25 million bribing senior Russian Defense Ministry officials and generals in order to acquire nuclear and ballistic missile capabilities. Russian foreign trade experts told me repeatedly that Russia is creating an impression of upholding the law while violating the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) vis-a-vis Iran. For an appropriate sum of money, you can buy today anything that was found in the Soviet arsenal -- and those were some very nasty toys.


RUSSIAN ORGANIZED CRIME WILL PROVIDE NUCLEAR WEAPONS TO TERRORISTS, WHO WILL USE THEM
WHEN RUSSIAN MAFIA TRADES IN NUCLEAR WEAPONS, IT WILL BE WITH TERRORIST GROUPS WITH A VERY SPECIFIC AGENDA
Jonathan Power, The Baltimore Sun, October 14, 1997, Pg. 11A, HEADLINE: Threat of the Russian nuclear mafia acs-VT99

If they do trade in nuclear weapons, the danger will not be with governments with a fixed address, where Washington, Moscow, London, Paris or even Beijing know where to retaliate.

It will be with a free-lance terrorist group of no fixed abode, determined to use blackmail to secure a particular objective. It could be to force the withdrawal of the Turkish army from Kurdish areas or Israel from its settlements in the West Bank or to demand release of jailed Colombian drug barons.
TERRORISTS ARE NOW WILLING TO USE WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION AGAINST INNOCENT POPULATIONS
John M. Deutch, former director of the CIA, Foreign Policy, September 22, 1997; Pg. 10; HEADLINE: Terrorism; the possibility of the use of more sophisticated weapons acs-VT99

For years, the conventional wisdom stated that weapons of mass destruction did not serve the goals of terrorists. Mass murder, it was argued, would only prompt a global backlash against the cause that the terrorists claimed to serve. It has been noted that "terrorists want a lot of people watching, not a lot of people dead." Regrettably, Aura Shinrikyo proved to be the exception to that rule. In fact, we see a disturbing new trend occurring across the globe. More and more terrorists are using powerful explosives to attack mass-civilian targets. So despite last year's decline in terrorist incidents, there was a drastic increase in casualties (311 people killed and 2,652 wounded).


ROGUE STATES WILL NOT USE NUCLEAR WEAPONS, BUT THE RUSSIAN MAFIA WILL
Jonathan Power, The Baltimore Sun, October 14, 1997, Pg. 11A, HEADLINE: Threat of the Russian nuclear mafia acs-VT99

Iran, even if it is trying to develop a nuclear bomb, North Korea, if it has ever been, are both unlikely ever to use them. "Rogues" they may be. Suicidal they are not.

Both live in neighborhoods where a move to deploy such weapons would be met with a debilitating blitzkrieg. As Pakistan does, these countries would keep their nukes in the background, partly deterrent, partly prestige item.

The Russian mafia -- and the people it does business with -- is another matter.


RUSSIAN ORGANIZED CRIME IS A DIRECT THREAT TO THE USA
RUSSIAN ORGANIZED CRIME PRESENTS A SERIOUS SECURITY RISK TO THE US
John Lloyd, January 31, 1998 [The Times. HEADLINE Red alert\\jan]VT99

We in the West have good reason to fear a criminalised Russia. A two-year study on Russian organised crime by the US Centre for Strategic and International Studies, a body close to the CIA, claims that the situation "constitutes a direct threat to the national security interest of the United States by fostering instability in a nuclear-armed power" . William Webster, the former CIA director who chaired the CSIS study, wrote: "If the forces of organised crime are not stymied, Russia will complete its evolution into a criminal-syndicalist state."

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