Affirmative section consultation and cooperation through dialogue networks



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In many ways, Soros is more ambitious than earlier philanthropists, such as Carnegie. His interests are both more international (he operates in more than 30 countries) and broader in scope.

He has tried to do foreign-policy jobs that governments used to regard as theirs. In 1996, he spent almost $200 million promoting democracy in Eastern Europe, outspending the American government on providing aid to Hungary, the former Yugoslavia and Belarus.


B. SOROS RUSSIAN GRANTS ARE MUCH LARGER THAN AMERICAN EFFORTS
Newsday (New York, NY), October 23, 1997, Page A46, HEADLINE: SOROS GIVES RUSSIA $500 MILLION: U.S. PLEASE COPY acs-VT99

The question, then, is: If Soros' donation makes so much sense, why is the U.S. government contributing less to Russia's transition - only $95 million a year - than a single businessman, even an extremely wealthy businessman? There is no excuse for this. In fact, the folly of expanding NATO and spending tens or hundreds of millions of dollars to modernize the armed forces of Eastern Europe makes even less sense in this context. Better to spend the money to promote democracy and avoid costly new arms races in Europe.


C. SOROS-STYLE GRANTS ARE ABLE TO HELP DO WHAT GOVERNMENTS ARE NOT
The Nation, October 13, 1997; Pg. 4; HEADLINE: As the world Turners acs-VT99

Turner's flamboyant gift is a reminder, like George Soros's worldwide Open Society ventures, that wealth has grown so concentrated that a handful of billionaires have the economic power of governments--and like governments, their foreign policies matter. (Let it be noted that unlike the United States, Soros and Turner at least incorporate in their foreign policies some recognition that capitalism doesn't solve most social problems.)


SOROS GRANTS ARE FLEXIBLE AND EFFECTIVE MEANS TO ASSIST RUSSIA
SOROS RUSSIAN GIFT WILL BE NEGOTIATED AS IT GOES ALONG
Daniela Deane, USA TODAY, October 21, 1997, Pg. 9A, HEADLINE: Soros to give Russia up to $500M U.S. financier targets health, military reform acs-VT99

The new gift, of between $ 300 million and $ 500 million over the next three years, makes Soros a bigger donor than the United States, which last year gave Russia $ 95 million in foreign aid. Soros said details and the exact amount of the gift haven't been worked out. He has already donated $ 350 million to Russian causes over the past 10 years.


DONORS LIKE SOROS CAN DO WHAT NATIONS CAN’T, ESPECIALLY IN MILITARY AREAS
Matthew Miller, U.S. News & World Report, THE DALLAS MORNING NEWS, November 2, 1997; Pg. 5J, HEADLINE: Mega-Philanthropists; If challenge is too big for a government, call George Soros or Ted Turner acs-VT99

That is good news, because today's mega-philanthropists can do things that governments can't. Mr. Soros and Mr. Turner don't need to get 51 percent of the public to sign on to their plans; they consult their consciences (and maybe Jane Fonda) and act. They can stick with ambitious visions for the long term.

In some cases, they also are freer to act where it matters most. Mr. Soros, for example, can retrain disgruntled Russian soldiers, helping defuse a potential powder keg, while U.S. agencies face restrictions on aid to foreign militaries. Indeed, Mr. Soros' announcement a week ago _ the foreign policy of a single individual _ now makes it politically easier for Boris Yeltsin to proceed with his planned layoff of thousands of unneeded officers.
SOROS GRANTS TO RUSSIA TARGET THEIR MOST IMPORTANT PROBLEMS
Newsday (New York, NY), October 23, 1997, Page A46, HEADLINE: SOROS GIVES RUSSIA $500 MILLION: U.S. PLEASE COPY acs-VT99

But the road to democracy has been difficult in Russia. Corruption, inefficiency, disappointment, nationalism, inflation - those are just a few of the problems that the Russian people have had to endure. Yet democracy has survived and has even begun to thrive, although in small ways. Soros' contribution is important because it is targeted at some of the most difficult problems that Russia faces. Life expectancy has actually declined in Russia in the last 10 years and infant mortality has grown to resemble that of some Third World nations. Large infusions of money into its health-care system could make a difference. Being able to provide jobs for military officers who no longer have a place in the armed forces is also essential.


RUSSIA IS A SEETHING CAULDRON OF DANGER WAITING TO BOIL OVER, AND SOROS FUNDS ARE THE ANSWER
EDITORIAL, News & Record (Greensboro, NC), October 22, 1997, Pg. A14, HEADLINE: BOUQUETS FOR SOROS; BOOS FOR AMERICA acs-VT99

Six years later, Russia remains a desperate place. Ultra-nationalists and former communists enjoy wide appeal among demoralized people, many of whom have not received pensions or paychecks from government jobs. Corruption, mismanagement and crime are rampant. True, some Russians have become prosperous capitalists, but most eke out a marginal life.

Which is why George Soros, the Hungarian-born American financier, stepped in. Soros said the democratically-elected government of President Yeltsin remains ''precarious'' but deserves Western aid and confidence. He also said Russia ''must deliver (to its people) if it wants reform to continue.''
SOROS TARGETS AREAS IN RUSSIA WHICH DESPERATELY NEED HELP
Daniela Deane, USA TODAY, October 21, 1997, Pg. 9A, HEADLINE: Soros to give Russia up to $500M U.S. financier targets health, military reform acs-VT99

American financier George Soros, who admits he has "Messianic fantasies," announced Monday he would pour up to half a billion dollars in aid into Russia over the next three years, making him a bigger donor there than the United States government.

Speaking at a news conference in Moscow, the Hungarian-born multi-billionaire said the money would go to health care and military reform, areas where he said the country desperately needs help.
SOROS RUSSIAN PROGRAMS PROMOTE DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS AND AN OPEN SOCIETY
EDITORIAL, News & Record (Greensboro, NC), October 22, 1997, Pg. A14, HEADLINE: BOUQUETS FOR SOROS; BOOS FOR AMERICA acs-VT99

Soros's $ 500 million gift makes him a bigger donor to Russia than the United States. In addition, he has already given Russia $ 260 million to promote democratic institutions, or an ''open society'' as he calls it. To Soros goes three cheers for his generosity and foresight.


SOROS WILLING TO ACT IN RUSSIA TO MEET BASIC HUMAN NEEDS
Daniela Deane, USA TODAY, October 21, 1997, Pg. 9A, HEADLINE: Soros to give Russia up to $500M U.S. financier targets health, military reform acs-VT99

"Under the Soviet system, the state played an all-pervading paternalistic role," said Soros, 67. "After the collapse of the Soviet Union, conditions have swung to the other extreme. The state is unable to meet its social obligations and many vital needs remain unfulfilled."

Among the programs that will receive funding are an effort to fight tuberculosis and improve medical care for mothers and children, subsidies for books in schools and libraries, developing the Internet and retraining soldiers leaving the military.

Through his Open Society Institute, Soros is the highest-profile philanthropist promoting the spread of democracy in Eastern Europe since the Soviet Union's fall in 1991.


SOROS FUNDS TO RUSSIA ARE TARGETED NOW FOR HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND MILITARY RETRAINING
Newsday (New York, NY), October 23, 1997, Page A46, HEADLINE: SOROS GIVES RUSSIA $500 MILLION: U.S. PLEASE COPY acs-VT99

The gift that billionaire financier George Soros will be contributing to Russia - up to $500 million to help improve health care and education and to retrain the military for civilian jobs - is an important statement about how a great fortune can be used to help the world. It also illustrates by comparison how inadequate are the efforts of the United States to help Russia make it as a democracy.


SOROS GRANTS TO RUSSIA WILL ASSIST WITH HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND MILITARY RETRAINING
EDITORIAL, News & Record (Greensboro, NC), October 22, 1997, Pg. A14, HEADLINE: BOUQUETS FOR SOROS; BOOS FOR AMERICA acs-VT99

George Soros, the billionaire philanthropist, is a walking Marshall Plan. Soros is giving $ 500 million during the next three years to a struggling Russia. His money will help improve Russia's appalling health care, retrain its poverty-stricken soldiers for civilian jobs and expand its education system.


SOROS HAS ENOUGH MONEY TO FINMANCE THE COUNTERPLAN
SOROS CAN AFFORD TO GIVE MORE THAN AMERICA CAN
Matthew Miller, U.S. News & World Report, THE DALLAS MORNING NEWS, November 2, 1997; Pg. 5J, HEADLINE: Mega-Philanthropists; If challenge is too big for a government, call George Soros or Ted Turner acs-VT99

The very rich are different from you and me: Their charitable giving matches that of entire countries.

Take George Soros, the multibillionaire currency speculator and philanthropist. The other day, Mr. Soros announced a stunning new gift: In addition to the $ 1.5 billion he already has donated abroad, he will send a fresh $ 300 million to $ 500 million to struggling Russia over the next three years to improve health care, boost education and train downsized military officers for civilian jobs.
SOROS IS WILLING TO GIVE WHATEVER IT IS REALLY NEEDED
EDITORIAL, THE ARIZONA REPUBLIC, October 30, 1997; Pg. B7, HEADLINE: 'SAINT GEORGE' SOROS PUTS POWER OF GIVING TO WORK acs-VT99

President Clinton's friends call him "a national treasure." And for Time magazine, he is simply "Saint George."

What has transformed a speculator into a saint is his habit of giving money away. Soros is America's most ambitious philanthropist since Andrew Carnegie. He spends two-thirds of his time and half his income on good works.
SOROS WANTS TO GIVE AWAY AT LEAST $5 BILLION, AND LOVES TO GIVE TO RUSSIA
EDITORIAL, THE ARIZONA REPUBLIC, October 30, 1997; Pg. B7, HEADLINE: 'SAINT GEORGE' SOROS PUTS POWER OF GIVING TO WORK acs-VT99

At 67, Soros has already given away $1.5 billion and is parting with hundreds of millions of dollars a year.

He hopes eventually to give away the bulk of his fortune, which is now about $5 billion but may grow bigger on the back of his Quantum hedge fund. This month, he said he would give up to $500 million to Russia in the next five years, for health, education and helping to turn soldiers into civilians.
SOROS IS WILLING TO FUND CONTROVERSIAL PROJECTS WITH HUNDREDS OF MILLIONS OF DOLLARS
Robert Fresco. STAFF WRITER, Newsday (New York, NY), September 26, 1997, Page A67, HEADLINE: SOROS GIFTS BRING ACCLAIM, CRITICISM acs-VT99

Soros, 67, has been a key player on the world scene since 1984, giving away $1.5 billion. In addition to his international efforts, he also has supported some high-profile and often controversial domestic causes, including liberalization of drug laws and aid to legal aliens. Fortune magazine recently listed him as the top giver in this country, with a total of $350 million going to various causes last year.


GIFTS BY ONE WEALTHY DONOR INSPIRE GIFTS BY OTHERS
Robert Fresco. STAFF WRITER, Newsday (New York, NY), September 26, 1997, Page A67, HEADLINE: SOROS GIFTS BRING ACCLAIM, CRITICISM acs-VT99

Speaking in Bucharest, Soros called Turner's gift "a wonderful gesture. There are many causes that need support now, including land-mine removal, women's empowerment, population control and the building of open societies. I hope other very wealthy people will be inspired to emulate Mr. Turner."


SOROS VOWS TO GIVE AWAY OVER $3.5 BILLION BEFORE HE DIES
Daniela Deane, USA TODAY, October 21, 1997, Pg. 9A, HEADLINE: Soros to give Russia up to $500M U.S. financier targets health, military reform acs-VT99

Soros vows to give away all his assets, now valued at $ 3.5 billion, before he dies.


SOROS ALSO INVESTS BILLIONS IN RUSSIAN BUSINESS VENTURES WHICH NEED ASSISTANCE
Daniela Deane, USA TODAY, October 21, 1997, Pg. 9A, HEADLINE: Soros to give Russia up to $500M U.S. financier targets health, military reform acs-VT99

Soros has invested about $ 2 billion in business ventures in Russia. He said he has not profited from any of his philanthropic contributions.


SUCCESS OF THE MARSHALL PLAN SHOWS SOROS CAN SOLVE PROBLEMS
GEORGE SOROS IS A ONE-MAN MARSHALL PLAN IN THE FORMER COMMUNIST WORLD
EDITORIAL, THE ARIZONA REPUBLIC, October 30, 1997; Pg. B7, HEADLINE: 'SAINT GEORGE' SOROS PUTS POWER OF GIVING TO WORK acs-VT99

However, in the ex-communist world Soros is hailed as a one-man Marshall Plan.


A RUSSIAN MARSHALL PLAN IS THE BEST WAY TO AVOID FUTURE DICTATORSHIPS
EDITORIAL, News & Record (Greensboro, NC), October 22, 1997, Pg. A14, HEADLINE: BOUQUETS FOR SOROS; BOOS FOR AMERICA acs-VT99

After the collapse of communism, many foreign policy experts advised Washington and its Allies to do themselves a favor and start a Marshall Plan for Russia.

The benefits for the Western alliance would be manifold. An economically strong Russia whose people are well-fed, clothed, given proper health care and education would not succumb to demagogues and dictators who prey on human misery.
MARSHALL PLAN SAVED EUROPE WHEN IT WAS DOWN AND OUT AFTER WORLD WAR TWO
EDITORIAL, News & Record (Greensboro, NC), October 22, 1997, Pg. A14, HEADLINE: BOUQUETS FOR SOROS; BOOS FOR AMERICA acs-VT99

The Marshall Plan for war-devastated Europe had rested on that cornerstone. And it worked. The United States sent $ 13 billion worth of assistance to Europe, including aid to former arch-enemy Germany. The money rebuilt ravaged societies and staved off the rising threat of communism in countries ripe for the picking.


MARSHALL PLAN OPTION FOR RUSSIA WAS REJECTED
EDITORIAL, News & Record (Greensboro, NC), October 22, 1997, Pg. A14, HEADLINE: BOUQUETS FOR SOROS; BOOS FOR AMERICA acs-VT99

Lessons from the Marshall Plan were regrettably ignored when communism collapsed in the former Soviet Union. Tight-fisted and self-absorbed, America and its Allies blew the chance for stabilizing Russia.


CRITICS OF SOROS ARE WAY OFF BASE
CRITICS OF SOROS MISS HIS REAL IMPACT -- HELPING PEOPLE, NOT FOREIGN POLICIES
Daniela Deane, USA TODAY, October 21, 1997, Pg. 9A, HEADLINE: Soros to give Russia up to $500M U.S. financier targets health, military reform acs-VT99

"They're missing the spirit of what's being done," says Michael Vachon, a spokesman for the Open Society Fund, which directs much of Soros' charitable work. "George Soros is not a country. He's helping hospitals, promoting health care, assisting libraries."


MALAYSIAN CRITICISM OF SOROS ARE BIGOTED SCAPEGOATING
Robert Fresco. STAFF WRITER, Newsday (New York, NY), September 26, 1997, Page A67, HEADLINE: SOROS GIFTS BRING ACCLAIM, CRITICISM acs-VT99

Earlier this month, Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad, in statements focusing on Soros' "Jewish origin," accused him of causing the devaluation of the country's currency through his companies' foreign exchange operations.

"Mahathir is using Soros as a scapegoat for problems he has created in his own country," commented Michael Vachon, a spokesman for the Open Society Fund, which directs much of Soros' charitable work.
PERMUTATION: GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS CAN BE EXPANDED BY SOROS
Matthew Miller, U.S. News & World Report, THE DALLAS MORNING NEWS, November 2, 1997; Pg. 5J, HEADLINE: Mega-Philanthropists; If challenge is too big for a government, call George Soros or Ted Turner acs-VT99

Today, it is U.S. government officials who view their work as seed capital, hoping in Russia, for example, to hand their ideas off to deep-pocketed philanthropists who can ramp demonstration projects (computers in courthouses and incubators in hospitals) up to the needed scale. "It's just too big for us," as one U.S. official told me. Not for George Soros, though. There is something funny about that.


RELYING ON DONORS LIKE SOROS PROMOTES ANTI-DEMOCRATIC ABSOLUTISM
GIVING POWER TO SOROS PROMOTES A DANGEROUS FORM OF ANTI-DEMOCRATIC ABSOLUTISM
David Pryce-Jones, The American Spectator, December, 1997, HEADLINE: Corruption Rules the World // acs-ln

George Soros and other foundations, are a kind of top-down amalgam of activity, where citizens have no say, and cannot throw the rascals out. Marginalizing or bypassing parliamentary representation, this evolving form of globalizing absolutism breeds impotence and yet more cynicism. Finally, the effort to introduce democracy into the developing world has come to nothing.


GIVING RICH INDIVIDUALS LIKE SOROS NEW POWER IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS IS DANGEROUS
DeWayne Wickham, USA TODAY, October 30, 1997, SECTION: NEWS; Pg. 15A, HEADLINE: Soros' giving a blessing -- and also a concern // acs-ln

Soros has set up foundations in 40 countries through which he funnels his charitable giving. Most of it is used to promote the spread of democracy and capitalism. That's a commendable goal but not the end game for Soros.

But there's a danger in allowing members of the Fifth Estate -- people who are ultimately motivated by profit, not the personal freedom of others -- to supplant the role of governments in international relations.
RELIANCE ON RICH INTERNATIONAL DONORS [LIKE SOROS] GIVES DANGEROUS POWER TO AN UNCONTROLLABLE ELEMENT
DeWayne Wickham, USA TODAY, October 30, 1997, SECTION: NEWS; Pg. 15A, HEADLINE: Soros' giving a blessing -- and also a concern // acs-ln

Members of the Fifth Estate, such as Soros, media mogul Rupert Murdoch and Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates, operate across these borders. They have money enough to fill the foreign-aid void created by the death of the Soviet Union and by U.S. budget cutbacks. How they and others use their wealth to affect the affairs of other nations ought to be a matter of great concern.

While they have the ability to do so, they lack the portfolio of a government minister. They are neither elected to public office nor the designated representatives of someone who is. To the extent that they influence the actions of governments around the world -- and they do -- they are a new force to be reckoned with.
SOROS SHOULD NOT BE ALLOWED TO PLAY GOD
David Warsh, Globe Staff, The Boston Globe, January 13, 1998, Pg. D1, HEADLINE: The greatest villain // acs-ln

Peter Brooke, a Boston venture capitalist who founded Advent International:

"And who is Soros anyway to play God with these emerging countries? Who is he to say that Malaysia is unworthy, that South Korea was no good yesterday but OK today, that Russia is a good bet? Somehow these emerging economies need to be developed before they come prey to the economic forces that are part of the developed world.
SOROS CURRENCY SPECULATION DESTROYED THE SOUTHEAST ASIAN ECONOMIES
GEORGE SOROS IS A MENACE TO SOUTHEAST ASIA
David Warsh, Globe Staff, The Boston Globe, January 13, 1998, Pg. D1, HEADLINE: The greatest villain // acs-ln

Peter Brooke, a Boston venture capitalist who founded Advent International:

"So Mr. Soros has done us no favors. He has played God. He has re-ordered who should get what, how and when. He has been lionized for his generosity to Russia after raping Southeast Asia.

"He is a menace and in time will be recognized as such."

Strong words. But sophisticated, measured, and ultimately correct.

But Brooke's is the voice of international responsibility. Look for it to become the dominant interpretation of events in the coming days and years.


SOROS HAS BEEN THE CAUSE OF MUCH HUMAN SUFFERING IN SOUTHEAST ASIA
David Warsh, Globe Staff, The Boston Globe, January 13, 1998, Pg. D1, HEADLINE: The greatest villain // acs-ln

Peter Brooke, a Boston venture capitalist who founded Advent International:

"But the assault on the Malaysian ringgit, the Thai baht, and the Indonesian rupiah by Soros and his ilk has gone too far. Twenty years of uninterrupted growth and social progress have been imperiled. Political and human suffering will be the result."
GEORGE SOROS IS THE BIGGEST VILLAIN IN THE SOUTHEAST ASIA ECONOMIC COLLAPSE
David Warsh, Globe Staff, The Boston Globe, January 13, 1998, Pg. D1, HEADLINE: The greatest villain // acs-ln

Peter Brooke, a Boston venture capitalist who founded Advent International, "There are plenty of villains in the Southeast Asia story. Starting with the ruling political families (the Suhartos and the Mahathirs), progressing through the business leadership (which over-leveraged industry), to the central banks and the International Monetary Fund, and ending with George Soros, there is plenty of blame to pass around.

"However, in the end, I have the feeling that Soros will come away as the greatest villain of all," said Brooke of the billionaire financier whose successful foreign currency speculations have driven several Asia currencies to fire sale levels.
SOUTHEAST ASIA WOULD BE A LOT BETTER OFF IF SOROS HAD LEFT IT ALONE
David Warsh, Globe Staff, The Boston Globe, January 13, 1998, Pg. D1, HEADLINE: The greatest villain // acs-ln

Peter Brooke, a Boston venture capitalist who founded Advent International:

"The hard lesson is that these economies are not developed. They are fragile, need protection, and will take generations to develop. What mistakes their leaders have made would have been corrected in time without the shock treatment provided by Mr. Soros and his friends. They would have found solutions on their own in a way that would have allowed them to maintain their dignity."
MANY ASIANS BLAME SOROS FOR THEIR ECONOMIC DOWNFALL
Roy Culpeper, president of the North-South Institute, The Financial Post, November 18, 1997 ; Pg. 29, HEADLINE: DOWNSIDE OF OPEN FINANCIAL MARKETS: There is a price to be paid for G7 policies of liberalization // acs-ln

Many Asians believe financial speculators such as George Soros are responsible for the possible demise of their 'economic miracle,' with its stunning double-digit growth rates and historically unprecedented pace of development.


SOROS IS THOUGHT OF AS A VILLAIN IN SOUTHEAST ASIA
John Ridding and James Kynge, Financial Times (London), January 13, 1998, Pg. 08, HEADLINE: Complacency gives way to contagion // acs-ln

Dr Mahathir, for example, conducted a highly visible campaign to blame others for Malaysia's problems.

At the 30th anniversary celebrations of the Association of South East Asian Nations (Asean) in July, he delivered a vintage performance. George Soros, the US financier, he declared, was the arch-villain in a conspiracy to impoverish south-east Asian nations by attacking their currencies.

Mr Soros denied any involvement in attacking the ringgit, Malaysia's currency, and Dr Mahathir did not supply evidence to back his claim. But for weeks in August Mr Soros became a national bete noire; everyone from bankers to taxi drivers lambasted him.


REGIONAL COUNTERPLAN
THESIS: The Russian central government is characterized by inefficient gridlock. This counterplan does the affirmative plan towards the regional governments, which are strong and healthy, instead. This better gains the affirmative advantage and avoids nationalism and other disadvantages linked to the Russian central government.
We advocate the following counterplan:
The United States shall adopt the affirmative plan but its efforts and assistance will be channeled towards the Russian regional governments, not towards the central government in Moscow.
ONE: NOT TOPICAL

A. The counterplan is not topical because it takes action towards specific regions in Russia, no to Russia as a whole..

B. Topical counterplans are justified. Once the affirmative chooses its plan all other policy options become negative ground to test the desirability of the affirmative plan. The affirmative does not have to defend the entire resolution so there is no reason why rejected affirmative ground should not become ground for the negative. The burden of competition remains and checks abuse.

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