Affirmative section consultation and cooperation through dialogue networks



Download 1.5 Mb.
Page17/34
Date conversion16.02.2016
Size1.5 Mb.
1   ...   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   ...   34

If Yeltsin's regime in Russia suits someone in the West, that, of course, is a different story. But in such a case, they should know: For most of the Russian population, it is unacceptable.


YELTSIN'S HEALTH MAKES IT IMPOSSIBLE FOR RUSSIA TO REACH A NATIONAL CONSENSUS ON IMPORTANT ISSUES
F. Stephen Larrabee & Theodore Karasik, National Defense Research Institute, 1997; FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICY DECISIONMAKING UNDER YELTSIN, p. X , acs-VT99

The uncertain state of Yeltsin's health also means that it may be difficult for Russia to achieve consensus on important issues such as the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START), the Conference on Forces in Europe (CFE), and NATO's offer of a partnership or charter with Russia. The burden of creative thinking therefore will fall on the United States. If there are new initiatives designed to break the current deadlocks, they will have to come from Washington not Moscow.


RUSSIAN CHANGE IN 1991 LEAD TO A NEW, UNTRAINED GROUP OF PEOPLE GAINING POWER AND INFLUENCE
NIKOLAI BIRYUKOV & VICTOR SERGEYEV, Moscow State Institute of International Relations, 1997; RUSSIAN POLITICS IN TRANSITION: Institutional conflict in a nascent democracy, p.53 , acsVT99

In 1991 Russia underwent a radical change in the type and style of social development: tentative institutional innovations introduced and monitored by the establishment culminated in the collapse of old institutions and the ascent of a counter-elite. If the vocabulary of political science is to consist of words with reasonably fixed meanings, the event can only be termed a revolution. The spectacular change in the conditions and span of vertical social mobility characteristic of a revolution paved the way to positions of power for people with the mentality of marginal outsiders, politicians who not only lacked a definite and stable social basis but demonstrated a tendency to break away from whatever links that connected them to their society.


CURRENT RUSSIAN REFORMS ARE MERELY A HIDDEN COUNTER REVOLUTION
Gennady Zyuganov, chairman Communist Party of Russia, member of parliament, 1997 MY RUSSIA: a political autobiography, p. 61 acs-VT99

Russia is experiencing a truly unique period in its history. A historical rollback is taking place disguised as "democracy" and "a return to the world community." In practice, a political shift is occurring behind the scenes that fits the concept of a counterrevolution. It began approximately in 1989, reached its peak in August 1991, and at the moment is metastasizing throughout all the strata of our society and all the spheres of the economy, in the process changing the fundamental principles of human relations.


DON’T SEND MONEY TO RUSSIA!
THE MONEY FLOWS OUT OF RUSSIA IN CAPITAL FLIGHT FASTER THAN IT FLOWS IN
Katrina vanden Heuvel, The Nation, August 11, 1997; Pg. 24; HEADLINE: The other Russia: Moscow glitters, the economy collapses, the army rumbles. acs-VT99

Suffice it to say that annual capital flight, estimated even by the government that abets it to be more than $ 2 billion a month, continues to exceed all foreign investment, aid, credits and loans, including those from the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.


NEW RUSSIAN RULING ELITE HAS GREED AS THEIR ONLY IDEOLOGY
Grigory Yavlinsky; Russian economist and the leader of Yabloko, a democratic, reformist political party, Foreign Affairs, May, 1998 / June, 1998; Pg. 67, HEADLINE: Russia's Phony Capitalism acs-VT99

The new ruling elite is neither democratic nor communist, neither conservative nor liberal -- merely rapaciously greedy. In an interview published in the Financial Times in November 1996, one Russian tycoon claimed that the country's seven largest bankers, who became the core of Yeltsin's reelection campaign, controlled more than half the Russian economy. No one doubts that these nomenklatura capitalists have had a profound impact on the Russian economy, but their market of insider deals and political connections stands in the way of an open economy that would benefit all Russian citizens. The robber-baron market cannot tackle important social and economic questions. It is primarily concerned with issues that affect its masters' short-term power and prosperity.


RUSSIA IS ADDICTED TO IMF FUNDS, BUT ADDITIONAL HELP ONLY MAKES THINGS WORSE
Sergei Rogov, US and Canada Studies Institute Director, Official Kremlin Int'l News Broadcast, DECEMBER 9, 1997, HEADLINE: INTERVIEW REGARDING RUSSIAN-AMERICAN RELATIONS acs-VT99

The U.S. played a rather more important role by extending economic cooperation through the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund in which it has the final say. That would seem to be a welcome sign, but Russian economy is increasingly behaving like a drug-addict. The requirements set to us by the international financial institutions regarding the strategy and tactics of reform tend to aggravate the economic crisis in Russia. Of course it would be wrong to blame the Americans and the World Bank for crude miscalculations in the conduct of economic reform in Russia. Our blunders are our own. But the drugs that they have prescribed have merely worsened the malaise. The sharp drop of government spending caused an even deeper slump of production. The Americans played the key role in getting us into the London and Paris Clubs, and in advancing negotiations on Russia's accession to the World Trade Organization. On the one hand, this is a plus for us, but in the short term the conditions on which Russia is joining the international trade organizations are very unfavorable for us.


RUSSIA HAS ABSOLUTELY NO CASH TO SPEND ON ANYTHING
ARMED FORCES NEWSWIRE SERVICE, May 15, 1998, HEADLINE: Brookings Scholars Warn World Must Guarantee Russia's Security// acs-VT99

John Steinbruner, Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution, and Clifford G. Gaddy, Fellow in the Foreign Policy Studies program, calculate that the total cash revenue available to the Russian government last year was barely $36 billion. Given such a small revenue base, the authors conclude it is "extremely difficult to direct the fortunes of 150 million people with a sustainable resource base of $36 billion."


IMPLEMENTATION OF CAPITALISM IN RUSSIA IS NOT POSSIBLE
PROBLEMS IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CAPITALISM HAVE CREATED ECONOMIC HARDSHIP, BLOCKING FUTURE REFORMS
Bertram Silverman & Murray Yanowitch, Profs. of Economics Hofstra Univ., 1997; NEW RICH, NEW POOR, NEW RUSSIA: Winners and losers on the Russian road to capitalism, p. xiii , acs-VT99

This study reveals that Russia has chosen a different road to capitalism. Guided by free market ideology, market reforms have resulted in dramatic declines in living standards that limit the forward movement of liberalization. As another participant in our symposia, labor economist Richard Freeman, warned, the ability to promote market reforms will ultimately depend on convincing the Russian people "to accept transitional costs while protecting them against the excesses of incipient capitalism."


CAPITALISM IS INCONSISTENT WITH RUSSIA SOCIAL VALUES AND HISTORY AND WILL NOT TAKE ROOT
Gennady Zyuganov, chairman Communist Party of Russia, member of parliament, 1997; MY RUSSIA: a political autobiography, p. 137 , acs-VT99

The main reason for our sociopolitical ailment is the attempt at capitalist restoration, which has undermined the material and spiritual foundations of our society and state and is making the vast differences between Western civilization and Russian civilization ever more apparent. Capitalism is inconsistent with the flesh and blood, with the being, with the habits, and with the psychological makeup of our society. Capitalism once led our society to a civil war, and now it will not take root in Russian soil.


THE AMOUNT OF THE RUSSIAN ECONOMY CONTROLLED BY BARTER TRADING MAKES A FREE MARKET IMPOSSIBLE
Grigory Alexeyevich Yavlinsky, leader of the Yabloko faction in the State Duma, Official Kremlin Int'l News Broadcast, OCTOBER 6, 1997, HEADLINE: PRESS CONFERENCE WITH THE LEADER OF THE YABLOKO FACTION acs-VT99

But I will explain to you that barter accounts for 75 percent of the Russian economy. Who can tell me what sort of market economy it is if cash flows constitute just 25 percent of the total? Let anyone explain how the market can operate in the economy where barter constitutes 75 percent -- well, barter constitutes 46 percent and bills of exchange another 30 percent. This is the key question.


THE FOCUS ON PRESERVING JOBS HAS STABILIZED RUSSIA BUT CRIPPLED THE PROGRESS OF REFORM
JOHN STEINBRUNER and CLIFFORD GADDY, Brookings Institution's foreign policy studies program, Los Angeles Times, May 3, 1998, Part M; Page 5; HEADLINE: THE BEAR HAS LOST ITS ROAR // acs-VT99

Because one of this system's main objectives is to preserve jobs, it has had a major positive effect in maintaining a remarkable degree of social and political stability in Russia. But that stability comes at a huge cost. The key is the shrinking federal budget.


CAPITALISM WILL ONLY MAKE RUSSIANS SLAVES TO THE WEST INSTEAD OF SLAVES TO THE COMMUNIST PARTY
NATO EXPANSION, MILITARY CONVERSION, AND FINANCIAL LINKS WILL MAKE FORMER SOVIET SLAVES NOW THE SLAVES OF WALL STREET
BOB DJURDJEVIC, The Washington Times, May 17, 1998, Pg. B5, HEADLINE: Rekindling NATO to fuel Cold War II . . . // acs-VT99

Of course, not. But as Col. Hackworth notes: "No sweat. The arms gang has set up a U.S.-backed loan program with their porker pals in Congress. Of course, American taxpayers will guarantee it."

And, of course, Wall Street will fund it. Once that happens, the formerly free and sovereign Eastern European nations will become the financial slaves of the New World Order, just as surely as the Southeast Asian countries did, when they took Wall Street's money. So the former Soviet-East Side Gang's dominions will have become Wall Street's minions. New masters, new chains, same old slavery.
CURRENT REFORMS OPERATE TO KEEP RUSSIA IN ECONOMIC ENSLAVEMENT AS A SOURCE OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Gennady Zyuganov, chairman Communist Party of Russia, member of parliament, 1997; MY RUSSIA: a political autobiography, p. 83 acs-VT99

In politics, the ancient principle "divide and conquer" is being practiced in its modem version. In economics, the goal is to integrate our national economy into the global economic system as a peripheral structure incapable of independent existence by breaking up the unified national economic complex, denationalizing property, concentrating on the priority development of rawmaterials and extraction branches, and suffocating high-technology industries and fundamental sciences.


USA FOREIGN AID DOESN’T WORK IN RUSSIA
RUSSIAN AID FROM THE USA FOR REFORMS HAS BEEN WASTED
Paula J. Dobriansky; Council on Foreign Relations, Heritage Foundation Reports, April 6, 1998; Pg. 6, HEADLINE: AMERICAN-RUSSIAN RELATIONS: AN ASSESSMENT acs-VT99

Meanwhile, U.S. assistance programs to Russia, including those that have been properly targeted to assist in democratization and economic reform efforts, have been plagued by international bureaucratic warfare, poor coordination, and mismanagement. While some of the horror stories about the misuse of American aid and resources being wasted may be exaggerated, it is nevertheless highly significant that almost all of the Russian political leaders, across the entire political spectrum, are highly critical about the way in which American aid is being delivered. This stands in notable contrast with the way in which the Marshall Plan was perceived by its recipients.


RUSSIA’S PROBLEMS ARE NOT DUE TO THE LACK OF ADEQUATE ASSISTANCE FROM OTHER COUNTRIES -- THERE HAS BEEN QUITE A LOT
Mark Gage, Professional Staff Member for East Europe and the New Independent States, Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives, Heritage Foundation Reports, April 6, 1998; Pg. 30, HEADLINE: THE FUTURE OF UNITED STATES -- RUSSIAN RELATIONS acs-VT99

Let me say, in anticipation of the question, that the relationship has not deteriorated because the West has not done enough to aid Russia since 1991. If you consider U.S. aid provided to Russia in all its forms through the Agency for International Development, the Department of Agriculture, the Department of Defense, and other U.S. government agencies, and then add in other forms of assistance -- the assistance provided by the European Union; the bilateral aid provided by other countries, such as Japan; the contracts provided to the Russian Space Agency for participation in NASA's Space Station program; the investment guarantees, loans, and feasibility studies done to encourage investment and joint ventures in Russia; the generous debt rescheduling provided to the Russian government by the Paris Club of official creditors and the London Club of commercial creditors, which will save the Russian government several hundreds of millions of dollars in annual budget expenditures for several years; and the low-cost loans provided by the International Monetary Fund and those approved and made available to Russia by the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development -- you realize that a sizable amount of aid has been provided over the past five to six years.


FOREIGN AID IN 1999 IS LIKELY TO BE CUT
FRANK A. AUKOFER, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, May 26, 1998, Pg. 3, HEADLINE: Foreign aid steps to center of debate Congress to begin discussing Clinton request to increase spending acs-VT99

But in an era of balanced budgets and priorities that are primarily domestic, the pressures will be in the other direction, and the 1999 foreign operations appropriation is likely to end up below the administration's $14 billion request.


CANNOT FORCE DEMOCRACY ON RUSSIA
THE USA NEEDS TO STOP TRYING TO FORCE DEMOCRACY ON NATIONS WHO ARE NOT READY FOR IT
Matthew Miller; U.S. News & World Report, The San Diego Union-Tribune, December 30, 1997, Pg. B-7, HEADLINE: Is democracy right for every nation? acs-VT99

Those looking for a bold political New Year's resolution should try the following: The United States resolves not to keep forcing democracy on countries that aren't ready for it. That's the provocative yet persuasive thesis of Robert Kaplan's cover story in December's Atlantic Monthly. Kaplan is the talented reporter and analyst who has spent years in war-torn Africa and the Balkans.


DEMOCRACY CANNOT BUILD A NATION, ONLY RULE A NATION WHICH HAS ALREADY FORMED -- IT TAKES TIME
Matthew Miller; U.S. News & World Report, The San Diego Union-Tribune, December 30, 1997, Pg. B-7, HEADLINE: Is democracy right for every nation? acs-VT99

Democracy doesn't form states successfully," Kaplan writes, "only as a capstone to other social and economic achievements." It doesn't come via "moral fiat," a U.S. diplomatic specialty. Our own founding fathers, Kaplan believes, were clear-eyed about such truths. So was Alexis de Tocqueville, everyone's favorite student of democratic institutions.

These men knew from history that democracy doesn't form states or strengthen them, at least initially. "Multiparty systems are best suited to nations that already have efficient bureaucracies and a middle class that pays income tax," Kaplan argues.

Democracy works, he says, where the big issues, like borders and power-sharing, have already been resolved, "leaving politicians free to bicker about budgets and other secondary matters."


WHEN DEMOCRACIES DEVELOP TOO EARLY THROUGH PRESSURE, THEY BECOME “ILLIBERAL DEMOCRACIES”
Barbara Slavin, USA TODAY, December 30, 1997, Pg. 8A, HEADLINE: Ballots don't always stop the world's bullets Democracy as strategy is hit or miss acs-VT99

In the journal Foreign Affairs, managing editor Fareed Zakaria argues that while more countries are holding elections, the number of what he calls "illiberal democracies" is on the rise.

"The whole emphasis of American foreign policy should be much more on political liberalization than elections," Zakaria says. "That means impartial court systems, clean bureaucracies, freedom of assembly and the press."
DEMOCRACY ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ARE NOT EFFECTIVE
USA DEMOCRACY ASSISTSANCE PROGRAMS ARE HYPOCRITICAL BECAUSE THEY TELL PEOPLE WHAT TO DO
Wendy Koch, Hearst Newspapers, The Stuart News/Port St. Lucie News (Stuart,FL), October 26, 1997, Pg. A18, HEADLINE: U.S. MASTER AT PUTTING ITS NOSE IN FOREIGN ELECTIONS acs-VT99

Barbara Conry, a foreign policy analyst at the libertarian Cato Institute, said the U.S. work with foreign political parties carries "at least a little hypocrisy and misplaced self-righteousness."

Conry said it's often hard for Americans working in emerging democracies to decide what's a real democrat and what isn't. "It's really just not clear; there's a lot of fragmentation," she said.
USA DEMOCRACY PROMOTION PROGRAMS HAVE FAVORED YELTSIN
Wendy Koch, Hearst Newspapers, The Stuart News/Port St. Lucie News (Stuart,FL), October 26, 1997, Pg. A18, HEADLINE: U.S. MASTER AT PUTTING ITS NOSE IN FOREIGN ELECTIONS acs-VT99

*In Russia, U.S.-funded workers trained political activists in 1995 and 1996, a move that helped dozens of reform democrats win local, regional and national elections. The activists campaigned last year for President Boris Yeltsin's re-election.


USA DEMOCRACY ASSISTANCE HELPS ENTRENCHED POLITICAL PARTIES
Wendy Koch, Hearst Newspapers, The Stuart News/Port St. Lucie News (Stuart,FL), October 26, 1997, Pg. A18, HEADLINE: U.S. MASTER AT PUTTING ITS NOSE IN FOREIGN ELECTIONS acs-VT99

Supporters argue that if the United States does not help new parties gain a foothold in authoritarian countries, it is actually helping well-entrenched ruling parties.


CORRUPTION AND ORGANIZED CRIME STOPS REFORMS
CRIME AND CORRUPTION IN RUSSIA EVEN STOP CRITICAL REFORMS FROM TAKING PLACE
Ariel Cohen; Senior Policy Analyst at The Heritage Foundation, Heritage Foundation Reports, April 6, 1998; Pg. 28, HEADLINE: WHAT KIND OF RELATIONSHIP? WHAT KIND OF RUSSIA? acs-VT99

Crime and corruption in Russia surpass anything we have seen in Sicily and are approaching some Latin American models. They cause Russia to lose up to $ 40 billion a year to capital flight, and scare away foreign investors. Crime is making the policy process, as well as business activities, in Russia murky and dangerous. In addition to having corrupt officials on the highest level in the Kremlin, we now read reports of price lists for individual Duma votes which circulate in Moscow. Key bills, such as the Land Code, the tax reform bill, and production-sharing agreements for oil exploration were stalled in the Duma.


ECONOMICALLY, CRIMINAL CORPORATE OLIGARCHIES ARE TAKING CONTROL
Grigory Yavlinsky; Russian economist and the leader of Yabloko, a democratic, reformist political party, Foreign Affairs, May, 1998 / June, 1998; Pg. 67, HEADLINE: Russia's Phony Capitalism acs-VT99

But while Russia has its economic success stories, many aspects of the economy suggest that it is moving toward a corporatist market in which corruption is rampant. The most important of these trends is the rise of the Russian oligarchs, who have created a form of robber-baron capitalism. Far from creating an open market, Russia has consolidated a semi-criminal oligarchy that was already largely in place under the old Soviet system. After communism's collapse, it merely changed its appearance, just as a snake sheds its skin.


CORRUPTION PROBLEM IN RUSSIA PREVENTS IMPROVEMENT IN LIVING STANDARDS
Grigory Yavlinsky; Russian economist and the leader of Yabloko, a democratic, reformist political party, Foreign Affairs, May, 1998 / June, 1998; Pg. 67, HEADLINE: Russia's Phony Capitalism acs-VT99

Furthermore, Russia is bedeviled by a corruption problem reminiscent of Latin America's in the 1970s and 1980s. The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development ranks Russia as the most corrupt major economy in the world. Graft permeates the country, from street crime to mafia hits to illegal book deals in Kremlin corridors to rigged bids for stakes of privatized companies. Recent polls by the Public Opinion Foundation show that Russians believe the best way to get ahead is through contacts and corruption. When asked to select criteria needed to become wealthy in today's Russia, 88 percent picked connections and 76 percent chose dishonesty. Only 39 percent said hard work. Anyone who attempts to start a small business in Russia will encounter extortion demands from the mafia, so there is no incentive for entrepreneurship. Better to stay home and grow potatoes at your dacha. A crime-ridden market cannot be effective. With no certainty about the future, with or without inflation, nobody will invest. Such a market can support the current level of consumption -- which for the majority of the population means semi-pauperhood -- for some time, but it does not and cannot provide any progress.


ATTEMPTS TO CONTROL CRIME AND CORRUPTION CANNOT SUCCEED
LAW ENFORCEMENT IS DEEPLY CORRUPT IN RUSSIA
Thomas Remington, Prof. Political Science at Emory, 1997; DEMOCRATIC CHANGES AND AUTHORITARIAN REACTIONS IN RUSSIA, UKRAINE, BELARUS, AND MOLDOVA, p. 112, acs-VT99

Government corruption. One reason government laws and decrees have done so little to reduce organized crime is that the law enforcement organs themselves are deeply corrupted. A widely-cited anecdotal indication of the severity of police corruption was the story by the Interior Minister, Anatolii Kulikov, that upon his appointment to the position in summer 1995, he had sent a truck carrying a cargo of vodka on a 700-kilometer trip across southern Russia. Out of the twenty-four times that police stopped the truck, they had demanded bribes twenty-two times." As a result of his investigations, General Kulikov declared that he had fired a number of senior police officials, including four generals. One official fired was the deputy chief of police Of MOSCOW.


CORRUPTION IN RUSSIA IS DIFFERENT, NOT JUST BRIBERY', AND CANNOT BE PROVEN
Victor Sergeyev, Moscow State Institute for International Relations, 1998; THE WILD EAST: Crime and lawlessness in post-communist Russia, p. 112 // acs-VT99

The main reason why corruption goes unpunished is that it is by no means necessary to give money from hand to hand to influence the decision made by a bureaucrat. There are plenty of relatively clean ways to reward the one who has facilitated the necessary decision, because many people in Russia combine their work in governmental bodies with commercial or consulting activities, travel abroad at the expense of various sponsors, and so forth. To control every tie of this kind and prove that the decision was made in payment for a certain "compensation" is virtually impossible.


FOREIGN POLICY WITH THE GOVERNMENT IS INSUFFICIENT, AND MUST INCLUDE LARGE COMMERCIAL INTERESTS
IN RUSSIA FOREIGN POLICY IS MADE AND CARRIED OUT BY CORPORATIONS AS WELL AS THE GOVERNMENT
Rustam Narzikulov, Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press, November 19, 1997; Pg. 27 SOURCE: Nezavisimaya gazeta, Oct. 17, 1997, pp. 1-2. acs-VT99

And so Rem Vyakhirev faced the powerful US foreign-policy machine one-on-one. This situation is typical of Russian foreign policy for the past several years. Instead of the Russian government defending the interests of our country's companies in foreign markets, we have the reverse: Our major firms make life easier for Moscow's diplomats. . . .

[For example,] every new Polish and Bulgarian government starts out by initiating negotiations with Gazprom and notifying the company's executives of changes in their countries' foreign and domestic policies. It has reached the point where future [Russian]VT99 gas deliveries to Israel are regarded in Tel Aviv as a crucial factor in Middle East politics. . . .
YELTSIN ADMINISTRATION DEPENDS ON THE COOPERATION OF VARIOUS ECONOMIC GROUPS
Chikahito Harada, Intl. Institute for Strategic Studies,july, 1997; RUSSIA AND NORTH-EAST ASIA, Adelphi Paper 310, p. 31 , acs-VT99

1   ...   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   ...   34


The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016
send message

    Main page