Affirmative section consultation and cooperation through dialogue networks



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USA HAS NOT FINISHED RATIFYING START-2 EITHER
Official Kremlin Int'l News Broadcast, MAY 12, 1998, HEADLINE: ROUND-TABLE DISCUSSION ON THE START II RATIFICATION PROCESS // acs-VT99

[Vasilyev Anton Vsevolodovich, first deputy director of the Foreign Ministry Department on Security and Disarmament ] You know, I do not agree that the United States has ratified the treaty. The United States Senate has given its consent to the ratification of the treaty and the three supplements to it, without the protocol that was signed already later. This means that the American side will still have to bring the ratification process to the end. Without the final ratification by the United States, without Russia's ratification of the treaty we cannot begin full-scale talks on START-3.


START-2 IMPROVES RUSSIA’S SECURITY
RATIFICATION OF START-2 WILL BENEFIT RUSSIA AT MANY LEVELS
Official Kremlin Int'l News Broadcast, MAY 12, 1998, HEADLINE: ROUND-TABLE DISCUSSION ON THE START II RATIFICATION PROCESS // acs-VT99

Leonov [Nikolai Sergeyevich Leonov Professor of MGIMO and a constant participant on Channel 3 program "Russky Dom"]: We will benefit politically too. We will stop being a laughing stock that signed the treaty six years ago but has not ratified it yet, justifying it by disagreements in our views. That is, there is some sort of a petrified conflict in our society. But there are no serious arguments for not ratifying the treaty. The principle of reasonable sufficiency indicates that the warheads to be left after the ratification of the treaty will be enough to ensure Russia's military security. I am sure that it will be economically beneficial. I am sure that it will bring calm to our society and to the world public opinion which still entertains fears that Russia is going to make an about-face turn which is why it does not ratify the treaty. All these problems would have been solved at one stroke. I am a strong supporter of ratification of the treaty, an early ratification and I think that the obstacles should be removed from that path.


START-2 IMPROVES RUSSIAN SECURITY
Official Kremlin Int'l News Broadcast, MAY 12, 1998, HEADLINE: ROUND-TABLE DISCUSSION ON THE START II RATIFICATION PROCESS // acs-VT99

Vasilyev [Vasilyev Anton Vsevolodovich, first deputy director of the Foreign Ministry Department on Security and Disarmament]: The Ministry of Foreign Affairs that I represent fully believes in the expediency of the speediest ratification of the START- 2 Treaty. The treaty has been discussed for already five years and the main arguments of its supporters and opponents are well known. I would like to say just a few words about what in my opinion is of the greatest importance. Firstly, mention here has already been made of the concept of the security of the Russian Federation. This is the basis of our philosophy in the sphere of security. We are building the edifice of our security on this concept. Well, I would like to say that as it is indicated in the concept, that has been approved by the President of the Russian Federation, it is the main task of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation to ensure nuclear deterrence with the aim of averting both a nuclear war and a conventional large-scale or regional war and also of fulfilling allied obligations. In order to fulfill this task the Russian Federation must have a nuclear potential capable of guaranteeing the infliction of damage to any aggressor state or a coalition of states. The START-2 Treaty ensures the fulfillment of this task. The treaty makes it possible to reduce our strategic nuclear force parallel to a simultaneous reduction of the nuclear force of the United States, in other words it gives us a possibility to ensure a rough balance of strategic nuclear forces, to ensure the prevention of a substantial preponderance of the level of strategic nuclear forces of one side over the other. And in this respect, I agree with those who say that the treaty facilitates the optimization of our country's spending on the maintenance and modernization of its strategic nuclear force.


START-3 IS COMING ANYWAY
THE US IS WILLING TO START NEGOTIATING START III IN THE STATUS QUO
Andrei Varlamov, March 13, 1998 [TASS. HEADLINE: US proposes to Russia to consider START3 framework\\jan]VT99

The United State has proposed to Russia to start expert consultations on the framework of the START-3, which may be aimed to cut the number of warheads instead of nuclear arms carriers, Russian Defense Minister Igor Sergeyev said in an interview with the Podrobnosti program of the Russian RTR television channel on Friday.

"Our colleagues at the negotiations are ready to discuss the START-3 framework at an expert level," the minister said. Sergeyev was informed about that in a letter of U. S. Defense Secretary William Cohen. Diplomatic efforts to the effect are being taken at the summit level and the level of foreign ministries.

"We hope, and the U. S. side shows understanding, that it will be a matter of nuclear warheads. We became keen on carriers at the previous stages," he said.


START-3 WILL CUT NUCLEAR WEARHEADS TO A MUCH LOWER LEVEL, AND RUSSIA IS COMMITTED TO IT
Paul Bedard; The Washington Times, May 18, 1998, Pg. A14, HEADLINE: Clinton, Yeltsin eye further cuts in arms // acs-VT99

Mr. Clinton and Mr. Yeltsin want to begin work on a START III treaty that will cut warheads to between 2,000 and 2,500 each.

"President Yeltsin reaffirmed in the clearest and most unambiguous terms his own personal commitment and that of his government to continue working with the United States to address these problems and to do so very promptly," Deputy Secretary of State Strobe Talbott said.
INDIA NUCLEAR TEST HAS ACCELERATED PROGRESS ON START-3 AGREEMENT
Paul Bedard; The Washington Times, May 18, 1998, Pg. A14, HEADLINE: Clinton, Yeltsin eye further cuts in arms // acs-VT99

President Clinton and Russian President Boris Yeltsin yesterday used nuclear tensions in South Asia to push for a START III treaty slashing nuclear warheads.

"I think all of us, because of the India nuclear tests [last week], feel an even greater sense of urgency to change the debate again over nuclear issues toward less, not more - to change the whole direction here," Mr. Clinton said after meeting with a healthy looking Mr. Yeltsin for 45 minutes.

The two leaders said the tests should push the Russian legislature's lower house, the State Duma, to approve START II, the strategic arms reduction treaty reducing nuclear warheads in each country to 3,500. The U.S. Senate already has approved the treaty.


THE US HAS AGREED TO CONSIDER START III BEFORE THE DUMA RATIFIES START 2
Agence France Presse, March 13, 1998 [HEADLINE: Russian official: US proposes consultation stage of START III negotiations\\jan]VT99

The United States has proposed to Russia that the two countries begin the expert consultations stage of the START III negotiations on nuclear arms reductions, Russian Defence Minister Igor Sergeyev said on Russian television on Friday.

"Our colleagues at the negotiations are ready to discuss the START III framework at the expert level," Sergeyev said.

The Russian defence minister said he learned of the US decision in a letter from US Defence Secretary William Cohen.


RUSSIA’S NUCLEAR WEAPONS ARE SECURE AND SAFE FROM ACCIDENTS
RUSSIAN CONTROLS OVER ITS NUCLEAR WEAPONS ARE MORE STRINGENT THAN THE CONTROLS THE US HAS
Air Force Magazine, February, 1998 [SECTION: Pg. 74. HEADLINE: Security of the Russian Nukes\\j an]VT99

"For example, in the United States we have a two-person policy involving nuclear weapons. In other words, you have to have a minimum of two people in order to get close to a nuclear weapon. In Russia it's the three-person policy.... I'm talking about access to a nuclear weapon itself. The launching of a nuclear weapon is very complicated. It is very -- the controls are very robust. There are a lot of safeguards built in. Trust me....

"At our [weapon storage] sites, you need two people to go do that, who understand what they are doing, whatever tasks they are going to do. In Russia you need three people. And, oh, by the way, in Russia, when you open up that igloo, you have to have a written order signed by the full colonel, who is the special technical unit commander, whereas we don't have those specific kinds of requirements."
RUSSIAN NUCLEAR WEAPONS ARE SAFE AND SECURE
Air Force Magazine, February, 1998 [SECTION: Pg. 74. HEADLINE: Security of the Russian Nukes\\j an]VT99

"I saw one site, and I was assured by General Yakovlev and General Kirillov, who is the commander of the 27th Rocket Army [and] who accompanied me on this leg of the trip, that what I saw was representative. And if what I saw was representative, yes, I have confidence in the safety and security of their nuclear weapons stockpile.

"They are deadly serious about this. This is a very valuable resource. It is something that in the wrong hands would be a very dangerous resource, and they go to great lengths. The security personnel, I was told, and just from what I saw, I would tend to believe, that they are elite. They call themselves the 10-Alpha Force. They are regularly tested by an anti-terrorist group that comes around to these kinds of facilities and attempts penetration."
RUSSIAN NUCLEAR WEAPONS ARE SAFE. THEIR COMMAND AND CONTROL STRUCTURE IS STRICTER THAN THE UNITED STATES
Mikhail Shevtsov, February 19, 1998 [TASS. HEADLINE: Safety control in Russian missile forces excels - US commander\\jan]VT99

Russia's nuclear weapons safety control is much more rigid than that of the United States, a topranking military official said on Thursday.

"In the past 38 years, nuclear safety control system made it possible to avoid malfunctions in nuclear ammunition in the Russian strategic missile forces," Vladimir Yakovlev, the commander-inchief of the Russian strategic missile forces, told a news conference disclosing a number of the system's technical aspects.

According to Yakovlev, any launcher or missile with nuclear warheads is permanently controlled by 10 to 24 parameters. Every six hours, 3-4 days or six months, the number of these parameters grows to 280-3,000, ultimately reaching 10,000 every three years.

"In case at least one of these parameters is outside the norm, the missile is never put on combat duty" until all deviations from the norm are removed, Yakovlev said.

In his words, on top of the regular routine, around 1,500 nuclear safety checks are held annually in the country's strategic missile forces.


RUSSIA IS COMPLYING WITH START H AND THEIR NUCLEAR WARHEADS ARE SAFE FROM ACCIDENTAL LAUNCH
Andrei Varlamov, March 13, 1998 [TASS. HEADLINE: US proposes to Russia to consider START-3 framework\\ jan]VT99

In the opinion of Sergeyev, "the START-2 will cost less than the START-1 and there is hope the START-3 will be cheaper than the START-2. . . At the Helsinki meeting the Russian president achieved a considerable progress: the fulfillment of the first phase of the START-2 was postponed till 2004, and the fulfillment of the final phase was postponed till 2007. "

That will enable the country "to exhaust the service life of Russian strategic armaments currently on combat duty... We have not removed a single missile or destroyed a single silo that have not exhausted their warranty and service lives," Sergeyev noted.

"The strategic missile forces are ready for combat, controllable and reliably protected from any unauthorized actions or attempts of such," he said.


RUSSIA IS DRASTICALLY CUTTING BACK ITS NUCLEAR WEAPONS CAPABILITIES
RUSSIA WILL FOLLOW CHINA’S NUCLEAR EXAMPLE -- A FEW HUNDRED WARHEADS ARE ALL THAT IS NEEDED
Official Kremlin Int'l News Broadcast, MAY 12, 1998, HEADLINE: ROUND-TABLE DISCUSSION ON THE START II RATIFICATION PROCESS // acs-VT99

Leonov [Nikolai Sergeyevich Leonov Professor of MGIMO and a constant participant on Channel 3 program "Russky Dom",]: We have always used China's experience. China did not multiply nuclear weapons. Having produced several hundred warheads, China stopped building up its military potential.


RUSSIA IS CUTTING ITS NUCLEAR WEAPONS PRODUCTION FACILITIES
The Des Moines Register, February 19, 1998 [SECTION: Main News Pg.006. HEADLINE: Russia cuts its nuclear program.The country doesn't have enough money to finance the plants.\\jan]VT99

Moscow, Russia Russia will shut down three of eight plants involved in nuclear weapons production amid severe money shortages, a top government official said Wednesday.

Nuclear Energy Minister Viktor Mikhailov said Russia's military nuclear program has been cut by half over the past six years and now accounts for only 10 percent of the nuclear industry output. He did not specify the names of the plants.

The past year has been the worst year for the military nuclear program in terms of financing. The government provided only 30 percent of budget funds earmarked for the purpose, the ITAR-Tass news agency quoted Mikhailov as saying.


RUSSIA’S NUCLEAR FORCES WILL DECLINE QUICKLY AS THEY ARE SCRAPPED FOR LACK OF FUNDS
Pavel Felgenhauer, Segodnya's defense and national security affairs editor, The Moscow Times, December 4, 1997, HEADLINE: DEFENSE DOSSIER: Yeltsin Rhetoric Old Tactic acs-VT99

Today, Russia's nuclear deterrent is slowly disintegrating for lack of funds. Russian and Western defense experts alike agree that in the coming years an increasing number of warheads will be decomissioned because the aging ballistic missiles that carry them will be scrapped. The only thing experts disagree on is the exact timetable and final scope of this inevitable Russian unilateral "disarmament."


RUSSIA OPPOSES NEW NUCLEAR TESTING
MICHAEL R. GORDON, The New York Times, May 14, 1998, Section A; Page 13; HEADLINE: NUCLEAR ANXIETY: IN RUSSIA; Kremlin Soft-Pedals Its Rebuke to India, and Opposes Sanctions // acs-VT99

Having decided to stop nuclear testing, the Russian military is not happy to see other nations flout the call for a worldwide ban on nuclear explosions.

"We deeply regret this action," Vladimir Rakhmanin, the chief spokesman for the Russian Foreign Ministry, said. "We believe we may influence India through political and diplomatic means."
RUSSIA WILL CEASE ALL PLUTONIUM PRODUCTION BY 2000
Newsday (New York, NY), September 24, 1997, Page A17, HEADLINE: RUSSIA, U.S. OK PLUTONIUM HALT acs-VT99

Russia will halt all production of weapons-grade plutonium by the year 2000 and has assured U.S. Vice President Al Gore that it has strict control over its existing nuclear weapons, officials announced yesterday after high-level negotiations between the former Cold War adversaries.

The subject of nuclear security dominated talks between Gore and Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin, reflecting nagging concerns in the West that weapons of mass destruction could fall into the wrong hands and that some may have gone astray in the chaos of Russia's post-Soviet transition.
NUCLEAR WEAPONS ARE GOOD -- THEY GUARANTEE SECURITY AND PREVENT ATTACKS, ESPECIALLY AS USED BY THE RUSSIANS
RUSSIANS VIEW NUCLEAR WEAPONS AS GIVING THEM SECURITY, BUT NOT AS METHODS OF INFLUENCE OR EXPANSION
Nikolai N. Sokov, Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Monterey Institute of International Studies, The Washington Quarterly, 1997 Summer; Pg. 107, HEADLINE: Russia's Approach to Nuclear Weapons, acs-VT99

Second, nuclear weapons, being the ultimate means of ensuring security, do not have a direct relationship to the political situation in the world. For most Russian strategic planners, it does not really matter whether other nuclear-weapon states are seen as enemies, opponents, or even partners; nuclear weapons are insurance against the worst possible development. At the same time, the utility of nuclear weapons in daily policy is limited; they cannot help attain Russia's foreign policy goals in the Balkans or prevent NATO expansion, but at the same time they do not preclude cooperation.

In this view, the security role of nuclear weapons is primarily symbolic -- their actual use is not seriously contemplated. This was underscored by the 1994 agreement on the "detargeting" of nuclear weapons and reduction of their alert status. n4 In 1992 Russia made a proposal to store ballistic missile warheads separately from missiles. This proposal was subsequently rejected by the Russian military, but only because of the lack of storage facilities; an analogous measure was implemented for heavy bombers pursuant to the Bush-Gorbachev initiatives in the fall of 1991. n5
RUSSIANS RELY ON NUCLEAR WEAPONS TO PRESERVE THEIR SECURITY THROIUGH DETERRENCE
Nikolai N. Sokov, Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Monterey Institute of International Studies, The Washington Quarterly, 1997 Summer; Pg. 107, HEADLINE: Russia's Approach to Nuclear Weapons, acs-VT99

First, in the view of most Russian military planners, strategic nuclear weapons are the foundation of international security because they are believed to prevent a war among the major powers and possibly regional wars as well. Nuclear weapons also are seen to guarantee Russia the status of a great power and provide it a last line of defense, meaning that potential foes will hesitate even to test where the last line lies. Theater and tactical nuclear weapons are viewed as providing defense against potential local threats, which are usually associated with Russia's "southern flank" (the border of the Commonwealth of Independent States [CIS] with Islamic countries and China). Nuclear weapons, both strategic and tactical, also are seen as fulfilling an additional deterrent role -- that of providing security for other newly independent states. Russia's military doctrine mentions that nuclear weapons could be used in response to an attack against Russia's allies. The Tashkent Treaty on Collective Security (May 1992), as well as bilateral agreements with some of the states not party to the Tashkent Treaty (including Belarus), indirectly provide for a Russian "nuclear umbrella" by employing language that closely parallels relevant provisions of the North Atlantic Treaty.


NUCLEAR WEAPONS ARE AN EXCELLENT DETERRENT TO WAR AND ATTACK
JOHN J. MEARSHEIMER; professor of political science at the University of Chicago, The Houston Chronicle, May 20, 1998, Pg. 29, HEADLINE: Just have to live with spread of nuclear weapons // acs-VT99

In fact, nuclear weapons are a superb deterrent for states that feel threatened by rival powers. Simply put, no state is likely to attack the homeland or vital interests of a nuclear-armed state for fear that such a move might trigger a horrific nuclear response.

Not surprisingly, therefore, states are often tempted to acquire nuclear weapons to enhance their security.
NUCLEAR WEAPONS ARE THE ULTIMATE IN DETERRENCE AND THE NUCLEAR POWERS KNOW IT
Fred Weir, The Moscow Times, May 20, 1998, HEADLINE: A 2-Faced India Policy// acs-VT99

The point is, nuclear weapons are the last word in deterrence. Many of the Western hawks who are today slamming India are the same people who will proudly maintain that NATO's nuclear resolve kept the peace through 50 dangerous years of Cold War, or that Ronald Reagan's precipitous arms buildup in the 1980s played a positive role in bringing communism to its knees. If the West is telling India to forego the same methods, what does it offer in return?


RUSSIA IS NOT ASSISTING OTHER NATIONS IN ACQUIRING WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION
RUSSIA HAS NOT COOPERATED WITH NATIONS TRYING TO BUILD WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION
ITAR-TASS news agency (World Service), Moscow, in English 1951 gmt 9 July 1997, BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, July 11, 1997, HEADLINE: Russia denies helping others develop weapons of mass destruction acs-VT99

Foreign Ministry spokesman Gennadiy Tarasov brushed off accusations that Russia has allegedly helped some countries implement programmes to create weapons of mass destruction and means of their delivery.

Speaking at a briefing on Wednesday [9th July], Tarasov said that such accusations are contained in a special CIA report prepared for the US Congress and presented recently in Washington.

" Russia has strictly fulfilled, and continues to fulfil, its international obligations on the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and missiles for their delivery. It cooperates with foreign countries in strict compliance with Russian legislation based on the recommendations of international export control regimes," he said. Russia's export control system meets international standards, which has been repeatedly stated by high-ranking officials, including from the United States, the spokesman said.


RUSSIA FOLLOWS INTERNATIONAL ANTI-PROLIFERATION REGULATIONS
Asia Times, July 14, 1997: Pg. 8 HEADLINE: Moscow dismisses proliferation charges acs-VT99

" Russia has strictly fulfilled, and continues to fulfill, its international obligations on the nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction and missiles for their delivery," Tarasov said. "It cooperates with foreign countries in strict compliance with Russian legislation based on the recommendations of international export-control regimes." He added that Russia's export-control system meets international standards, and that this has been repeatedly stated by high-ranking officials, including those from the US.


RUSSIAN NUCLEAR COOPERATION WITH IRAQ AND INDIA IS MONITORED BY THE INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY
Asia Times, July 14, 1997: Pg. 8 HEADLINE: Moscow dismisses proliferation charges acs-VT99

On the substance of the accusations made against Moscow, Tarasov reiterated that cooperation with Iran and India is aimed exclusively at the development in these countries of nuclear power engineering and of scientific and technological potential. He said that all supplies to these countries are closely monitored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and added that Russia does not export nuclear materials or technologies to Pakistan.


CHARGES THAT NUCLEAR MATERIALS ARE NOT ACCOUNTED FOR ARE DENIED BY THE RUSSIAN DEFENSE MINISTRY
Newsday (New York, NY), September 24, 1997, Page A17, HEADLINE: RUSSIA, U.S. OK PLUTONIUM HALT acs-VT99

This week's U.S.-Russian meetings coincided with fresh concerns about the Kremlin's ability to keep tabs on nuclear weapons. Alexei Yablokov, a prominent scientist and former adviser to Boris Yeltsin on environmental matters, said in a letter in the current issue of the weekly Novaya Gazeta that he considered it plausible that the Russian leadership lacks a full accounting of its nuclear arsenal.

Defense Minister Igor Sergeyev insisted after Yablokov's concern was published Monday that the Kremlin's nuclear arsenal is under control.
WHILE MOST CHARGES OF DIVERSION OF RUSSIAN NUCLEAR CAPABILITIES HAVE BEEN DISPROVEN, THE RISK STILL REMAINS REAL
John M. Deutch, former director of the CIA, Foreign Policy, September 22, 1997; Pg. 10; HEADLINE: Terrorism; the possibility of the use of more sophisticated weapons acs-VT99

The second "new" aspect of terrorism is the growing possibility that terrorists will seek more bang for the buck and make use of weapons of mass destruction - nuclear, chemical, or biological. The intelligence community has received more than 100 reports alleging the diversion of nuclear components from the former Soviet Union over the last few years. Fortunately, to date most of this reporting has proved untrue. Nevertheless, the collapse of the Soviet Union and the opening of Russian society and its economic difficulties have subjected the nuclear security system of the former Soviet Union to stresses and risks that it was not designed to withstand. Thousands of individuals employed within the Russian nuclear complex - many of whom have knowledge and access to nuclear materials - receive salaries that are barely at subsistence level, raising the possibility that they might be susceptible to offers from anyone in the market to buy nuclear components.

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