Affirmative action



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affirmative action






Civil Rights Act of 1964






Brown v. Board of Education






Civil disobedience




The 1954 supreme court case in which the Warren court ruled that segregation of African-American students in schools violated the 14th Amendment and must end “with all deliberate speed.” This ruling led to the end of segregation in other aspects of southern life and is widely seen as the first major event in the Civil Rights Movement.

Brown v. Board

of Education

What was it?

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Why Important?





Actively and intentionally refusing to obey unjust laws or policies as a means of protesting those policies. Civil disobedience was widely used during the Civil Rights Movement in order to protest segregation laws.

civil disobedience

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Policies that take factors including "race, color, religion, sex, or national origin" into consideration in order to benefit an underrepresented group "in areas of employment, education, and business".

affirmative action

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A law passed as part of Johnson’s Great Society agenda. It made it a federal crime for government and businesses to discriminate on the basis of race, ethnicity, religion, or sex. It essentially outlawed Jim Crow laws and other forms of discrimination.

Civil Rights Act

of 1964

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Birmingham Protests






Little Rock Crisis






Martin Luther King Jr.





Malcolm X



A Civil Rights leader who used his philosophies of civil disobedience and non-violent resistance to protest racial discrimination during the Montgomery Bus Boycott, the Birmingham protests, the March on Washington and many other protests. He was a founding member of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC).

Martin Luther King Jr.

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A black nationalist leader who encouraged blacks to act non-violently if possible, but to defend themselves if necessary. Malcolm X encouraged black pride while arguing that full racial and economic equality would never happen in the American socio-economic system. He was a member of the “Black Muslims” and was assassinated in 1965 by followers of a rival leader.

Malcolm X

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Civil Rights protests against discrimination by businesses in Birmingham, Alabama in 1963. MLK and other leaders gained national media attention and white sympathy by using non-violent resistance and civil disobedience in the face of violent repression by local police, the KKK, and white rioters.

Birmingham Protests

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An incident in which whites in Little Rock Arkansas attempted to block the integration of Central High School by 9 African-American students. President Eisenhower responded by sending in the army to protect black students and ensure the integration of the school. This was a major victory for the civil rights movement.

Little Rock Crisis

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March on Washington






Voting Rights Act of 1965






Non-violent resistance






Cesar Chavez




The practice of achieving goals through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, and other methods, without using violence. Originally popularized by Mohandas Gandhi, it was used effectively by Martin Luther King Jr. and other civil rights protestors.

non-violent resistance

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A Mexican-American farm worker, labor leader and civil rights activist, who co-founded the National Farm Workers Association. He pushed for better wages and working conditions for poor migrant farmers, and generally pushed to end discrimination against Hispanics.

Cesar Chavez

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Draw a Picture





A massive civil rights rally in which over 200,000 protestors converged on Washington D.C. in order to demand the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Martin Luther King Jr., Malcolm X and just about every other notable civil rights leader of the time spoke in front of the Lincoln Memorial. It contributed to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

March on Washington

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A civil rights law that outlawed racial discrimination in the conduct of elections. It contains provisions by which federal government can supervise elections in localities with a history of racial discrimination in voting. It led to a dramatic increase in the number of African-Americans who voted in the South.

Voting Rights Act of 1965


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Lyndon B. Johnson


War on Poverty





The Great Society






Domino Theory




A set of domestic programs promoted by President Lyndon B. Johnson and other Democrats in the 1960s. Two main goals of the Great Society social reforms were the elimination of poverty and racial injustice. It involved major new federal spending programs that addressed education, medical care, urban problems, and transportation.

The Great Society

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Part of the foreign policy of containment, this was the idea that if one country in Southeast Asia fell to communism, then it would set off a chain reaction in which many others would also fall. This theory was one of the major reasons why the U.S. became involved in the Vietnam War.

Domino Theory


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President of the U.S. from 1963-1969, (and formerly Senate Majority Leader & Vice President). Johnson launched the Great Society domestic program, but is also known for escalating the war in Vietnam to the point where over 500,000 U.S. troops were deployed there.

Lyndon B. Johnson

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Part of L.B. Johnson’s Great Society agenda, the this phrase refers to the passage of programs such as the Headstart, Upward Bound, VISTA, and Job Corps. These programs were designed to help eliminate poverty in the United States.

War on Poverty

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Kent State Incident






New York Times v. United States





War Powers Act






Medicare




A law passed in 1973 that requires the President to get Congressional approval within 90 days of starting an armed conflict. Passed in response to the fact that Congress had not declared wars in either Korea or Vietnam, this law was vetoed by President Nixon but overridden by Congress. It may be an unconstitutional limit on the President’s powers, but the Supreme Court has not yet ruled on it.

War Powers Act

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A Great Society program that provides government-funded medical insurance for the elderly. The cost of this program has sky-rocketed now that the “baby boomer” generation is reaching retirement age.

Medicare

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An incident in which the Ohio National Guard shot into a crowd at Kent State University, killing 4 and wounding 9. The soldiers had been called out in response to riots in which anti-Vietnam War protesters threw rocks and burned down a building. It led to further loss of support for the Vietnam War.

Kent State Incident

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A case in which the Supreme Court ruled that the Nixon administration could not prohibit the publication of the “Pentagon Papers” (a leaked defense department memo that showed that the government had lied to the American people about progress in the Vietnam War. This is a rare case in which a civil liberty (freedom of the press) won out over national security during wartime.

New York Times v. United States

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The Feminine Mystique





Title IX





Roe v. Wade






National Organization for Women (NOW)




A 1973 decision in which the Supreme Court ruled that states could not outlaw abortion during the first trimester of pregnancy (3 months), but that they could regulate it in the second trimester, and essentially outlaw it in the third. Seen as a victory for feminism, “pro-life” groups have sought to overturn this ruling.

Roe v. Wade

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A women’s rights group founded by Betty Friedan and others in 1966. The group has fought for many feminist issues including an end to employment discrimination and the passage of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA).

National Organization for Women (NOW)

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A book written by Betty Friedan in 1963 that challenged the assumption that all women were happy as stay-at-home mothers. Many credit the book with jumpstarting the feminist movement.

The Feminine Mystique

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A 1972 amendment to the Equal Opportunity in Education Act. It states that no person can be denied, on the basis of sex, the benefits of any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance. Among other things, this law requires schools and colleges to offer an equal number of male and female sports programs.

Title IX

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